Angel Danish

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Landscapes of fishing and swans

The Angel Danish ( Danish : Angeldansk or Angel (bo) mål ) was a variety of South Jutland ( Sønderjysk ) that was widespread in fishing (Danish: Angel ) and Schwansen (Danish: Svans ).

historical development

With the change of language at the end of the 18th century, Angel Danish was increasingly replaced by High and Low German as the colloquial language . In Schwansen, Low German had spread alongside Danish since the end of the Middle Ages, but Angel Danish was still spoken in the Schleidörfern until the 19th century. According to the Karby pastor Leifhold, a "rotten Anglish Danish" was spoken there in 1798. The philologist Peter Treschow Hanson described the language change from Angling Danish to Low German in Schwansen in a travelogue from 1813. By the end of the 19th century, Angling Danish had already disappeared in Schwansen and in large parts of Angling. In the 1930s, records of the dialect were still being made in northern Angling, which were incorporated into the 1995 dictionary of Angel Danish ( Ordbog over den danske dialekt i Angel ).

In literary terms, the Angelic Danish has left only a few traces, as it was never used as an official school or church language. School language was mostly High German, in the middle of the 19th century also High Danish . However, there are individual traditions such as poems and rhymes such as a farmer's rhyme from Kleinwolstrup . Traces of the Angel Danish can still be found today as a substrate e.g. B. in the form of Danisms in Angeliter Low German .

It should be noted that Southern Schleswig-Danish , which is widespread in the region today, is a variant of High Danish and not a variant of the Southern Jutland dialect like Angel Danish.


Characteristic of the Angel Danish were, among other things, the musical tonal accent (as it can still be found today in the Danish dialects in Sundeved , Als and Langeland as well as in Swedish and Norwegian ) and the fricative for the hard G (/ g / zu / ch / , which can still be found today in Angeliter Low German ). There were also elevations from / o / to / u /. Instead of kone (dä. Wife ) or honning (dä. Honey ) it was called kuhn und hunne in Angeldänisch (cf. Isl. Hunang ). / ig / was pronounced / e /. Instead of farlig and cheap it means falling and bille . The word æ stood like the rest Sønderjysk today for the first personal pronoun I . There were also partly even older northern forms such hvénner (dt. When , Dan. Hvornår . See altn. Hvenær ) mjølk (dt. Milk , Dan. Mælk . See altn. Mjólk ) or good (dt. Young , Danish dreng , see norw. gutt ). But there were also linguistic adaptations from German, such as teller (Danish tallerken ) or hunger (Danish sult ).

Language examples

Numerals a two three four five six seven eight nine ten
Angel Danish jin / jit tòw tre lead fem sæjs syw oet ni ti
Standard Danish en / et to tre fire fem sec syv otte ni ti


  • Harald Wolbersen: The language change in fishing in the 19th century - A cultural-historical investigation into the loss of the Danish variety "Sønderjysk" in the transformation process to modernity , Hamburg 2016, ISBN 978-3-8300-9212-4
  • Harald Wolbersen: The Danish language in the fishing region , in: Nordeuropa-Forum, Berlin 2015
  • Georg Saß: Angeldänische Sprachdokumente , in: Jahrbuch des Heimatverein fishing, Kappeln 2005
  • Bent Jul Nielsen and Magda Nyberg: Ordbog over den danske dialekt i Angel , Copenhagen / København 1995
  • Johannes Kok: Det Danske Folkesprog i Sønderjylland , Copenhagen / København 1863–70 (1st volume 1863 ( GB ), 2nd volume 1867 ( GB ))
  • Eiler Henning Hagerup: Om det danske Sprog i Angel , Copenhagen / København 1854 ( GB )
    • Om det danske Sprog i Angel. Af E. Hagerup. Anden forgøgede Udgave, efter Forfatterens Død got af KJ Lyngby. Ordbog. Sproglære. Sprogprøver , Copenhagen / København 1867 ( GB )

Individual evidence

  1. cf. the statement of the judiciary of the estate Rundhof Jaspersen from the year 1811: "On the estate, as in all of Angling, the actual ancient vernacular is Danish. Adults always speak this language among themselves, if not a German who does not understand Danish, is among you. ", quoted from M. Mørk Hansen: Kirkelig Statistics over Slesvig pen: Med historiske og topografiske bemærkninger , Vol. 2, Copenhagen 1864, page 312
  2. So it says in Danckwerth's country description from 1652, quoted from: CF Allen: History of the Danish language and nationality in the Duchy of Schleswig or South Jutland. First part , Schleswig 1857, p. 128 ( GB ), and after: Hans Nicolai Andreas Jensen: Attempt at church statistics of the Duchy of Schleswig , 4th delivery Flensburg 1842, p. 1384 ( GB ): “The residents [Schwansen] use themselves Saxon and Danish language "
  3. “The landscape on the southern side of the Schley is called Schwansen [...] The inhabitants here are also genuine Danes, even if their dialect is not easily understood by a Copenhagener or Norwegian. [...] Now the Danish language also ceases with the rural people and the Low German takes its place exclusively. ”From: Peter Treschow Hanson: Journey through a part of Saxony and Denmark in the last few years , Altona 1813, p. 299 u . 300 ( GB )
  4. There are sources of information about Angel Danish, among other things, in a communication from 1880 from Taarstedt : "The ugly singing speech form from olden times has disappeared. You can only hear it in two old women in the local community", In: Georg Saß: Angeldänische Sprachdokumente , In: Yearbook of the Fishing Home Association , Kappeln 2005, page 72
  5. There is the following written tradition from Johann Christoph Ordoph, who was pastor in Grundhof between 1728 and 1757 : "Anglish can neither be written nor printed, so it cannot be used for public worship". In: Georg Saß: Angeldänische Sprachdokumente , In: Jahrbuch des Heimatverein fishing , Kappeln 2005, page 72
  6. A pastor from Germany who was employed in Hürup in fishing complained in 1730 about his parishioners with the following words: "Didn't I want to teach you devil congregations and hell fires to speak German? At home, among themselves, and everywhere. " In: Karl Nielsen Bock: Low German on Danish Substrate , Copenhagen 1933, page 262
  7. Eiler Henning Hagerup: Om det danske Sprog i Angel . Copenhagen 1867.