Barque (ship type)
The barque is a type of sailing ship with at least three masts, which carries square sails on the front masts , but only sling sails on the last mast . The barque was widely used as an ocean freight ship in the second half of the 19th century.
Compared to the full ships rigged with square sails on all masts, the barque has a significantly more favorable ratio between sail area and thus speed on the one hand and the size of the ship's crew necessary for safe operation on the other.
The term "barque" designates a three-master . A barque with a larger number of masts is called a four-masted barque or five-masted barque, depending on the number of masts . A two-masted variant, on the other hand, is called a schooner brig or brigantine . The barque should not be confused with the barque , especially since the plural of both words is identical.
In the three-masted barque, the masts from bow to stern are called : foremast , mainmast and finally mizzenmast . The four-masted barque has the cross mast in third position . There are different systems for the five-masted barque:
- Foremast , mainmast , central mast , mizzenmast , mizzenmast ; (e.g. common at København )
- Foremast , mainmast , central mast , aft mast , mizzenmast ; (e.g. common with Potosi ).
In the Potosi , a freight sailing ship of the F. Laeisz shipping company , the name Laeisz mast is also supposedly used for the fourth mast. There are no barges with more than five masts, but there are schooner barges .
Development of the four-masted barque
There were around 440 four-masted sailors in the world merchant fleet , of which around 130 were registered as full ships with Lloyds . A large part of it was run as a four-masted barque from the start, as Lloyds did not generally differentiate between the two four-masted sails until 1887. 40 to 50 four-masters drove until their end as four-masted full ships, the remaining 390 to 400 were four-masted barques, be it from the beginning or as converted full ships. Eight of them were made of wood and drove initially exclusively under American or British North American or Canadian flag .
The first ship with the rig of a four-masted barque was launched on 28 July 1824 at the shipyard of Charles Wood in Anse-du-Fort (Île d'Orléans) in the Canadian province of Quebec from the stack . The 3,690 gross registered tons (GRT) ship, baptized with the name Columbus , was a roughly timbered (log ship = "wooden ship" or "log ship"), not caulked wooden ship, which dismantled on arrival and like the cargo (6,300 tons) as Lumber should be sold. Contrary to original plans, it was ordered back to Canada and was lost.
In the meantime, the Baron of Renfrew was built another, significantly larger model (5,250 GRT) and sent to Europe in 1825. It ran aground in the English Channel and broke. The next example of a four-masted barque was the Great Republic , a clipper barque of 4,555 GRT, which had not been achieved before.
In addition to a small wooden four-masted barque from France , the only wooden ship of this type from Europe, some steamers were converted into four-masted barques up until the 1860s. It was not until 1874 that a new four-masted barque was rebuilt, the Ocean King . In the following years iron four-masted full ships were built , then in 1877 the first iron four-masted barque Tweedsdale . It was the smallest unit ever built with this rig (1,460 GRT). The first iron and steel ships initially came from British, mostly Scottish, shipyards without exception . The record holder is Russell & Co. in Port Glasgow and Greenock ( Scotland ).
In 1882 the first iron ships of this size were built in Germany . The ship size increased from initially under 2,000 GRT to over 3,000 GRT. All four-masted barques built for the F. Laeisz shipping company were over 3,000 GRT, with the exception of the first two of just under 3,000 GRT. The largest examples of the four-masted barque were Brilliant (3,765 GRT, 1901) and Daylight (3,756 GRT, 1902). The former also drove as Perkeo for F. Laeisz.
Well-known representatives of the ship type "Bark"
Gorch Fock (I), built in 1933, sailing training ship , with her sister ships
- Eagle , ex Horst Wessel , built in 1936, today the United States Coast Guard's training ship
- Sagres , ex Albert Leo Schlageter , built in 1937, today a sailing training ship of the Portuguese Navy
- Mircea , sail training ship of the Romanian Navy , built in 1938
- Gorch Fock (II), built in 1958, sailing training ship of the German Navy , home port : Kiel
- Statsraad Lehmkuhl , built in 1914 as a sailing training ship for Grand Duke Friedrich August , home port: Bergen , Norway
- Alexander von Humboldt , home port: Bremerhaven , Germany, rebuilt on the hull of the lightship Reserve Sonderburg (built in 1906)
- Rickmer Rickmers , built in 1896 as a full ship, re-rigged to a barque after the mast broke in 1904, was a Sagres Portuguese sailing training ship, today a museum ship in Hamburg , Germany
- Seute Deern , home port: Bremerhaven, Germany, former sailing training ship, today a museum ship.
- HMS Endeavor , built as a coal ship in 1764 (until 1768 Earl of Pembroke), served James Cook on his first voyage of discovery from 1768 to 1771 , she was rigged as a full ship
- Kruzenshtern , built in 1926 as a freighter training ship Padua , Flying P-Liner , from 1945 Soviet Union , from 1991 Russian Federation , home port: Kaliningrad
- Pamir , Flying P-Liner, capsized in a hurricane in the North Atlantic in 1957
- Passat , Flying P-Liner, home port: Travemünde , today: museum ship
- Beijing , Flying P-Liner, home port: Hamburg , today: museum ship
- Pomerania , Flying P-Liner, museum ship in Mariehamn
- Sedov , (Russian СЕДОВ), built in 1921 as Magdalene Vinnen II , from 1945 Soviet Union, from 1991 Russian Federation, home port: Murmansk
- Sea Cloud , built in 1931 at the Krupp Germania shipyard, Kiel, for Marjorie Merriweather Post as a private ocean yacht (wedding present) under the name Hussar II .
There were only six ships of this type:
- France , 3,784 GRT , 1890 in Glasgow for A.-D. Bordes & Fils built, first five-masted barque, sunk in 1901
- Maria Rickmers , 3,822 GRT, Auxiliarbark , in Glasgow, built, 1891/92 & Co. at Russell on the maiden journey home lost
- Potosi , 4,027 GRT, Flying P-Liner ( F. Laeisz ), built in 1895, sunk in 1925 after a fire
- RC Rickmers , 5,548 GRT, auxiliary barque, built in 1906, sunk under the British flag in 1917
- France , 5,633 GRT, built in 1911, stranded in 1922
- København , 3,901 GRT, built in 1921, Danish auxiliary sail training ship, lost after December 22, 1928
Name of the rigging of a barque
- Jens Kusk Jensen: Handbook of practical seamanship on traditional sailing ships. Licensed edition, reprint. Heel, Königswinter 1998, ISBN 3-89365-722-3 .