Cross mast

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The cross mast is a sailing ship's mast that is positioned behind the main mast and is usually the rearmost on a ship. It owes its name to the management of its bream . The Kreuzunterrahbrasse run crosswise from the port wing wing to the starboard wing of the main mast in front and vice versa the starboard bream . They then run through several blocks on deck to the nail bank behind the mainmast, so that the starboard bream can be found on the port side and vice versa, which considerably reduces the mutual hindrance of the seamen working on the bream of the foremast and the seamen working on the bream of the mace.

Names and order

For an overview of the designations, see ship masts .

In Germany there has been a tendency since the end of the 19th century to call the last mast of a full ship cross mast and the corresponding one for a barque mizzen mast . It also happened that the third mast of a four-masted barque was referred to as a cross-mast, although its bream was driven aft to the mizzen mast. Before that time, the terms mizzen and cross were synonymous in use.

The cross mast is independent of the rigging

for three-masted ships
  • the last mast
for four-masted ships
  • the last mast
for five-masted ships
  • the last mast (German system)
  • the third mast (German to English system)
for six-masted ships
  • the third mast (German to English system)

In the English terminology of ship masts, the cross mast appears as "mizzen mast" and is the mast behind the "main mast" (lit .: main mast ("large mast" in the German system)).

The cross mast consists of:

  • Cross mast
  • Cross marshals
  • Kreuzbramstenge
  • Kreuzroyalstenge (if not part of the Kreuzbramstenge)
  • Kreuzskystenge (if not part of the Kreuzbram- or Kreuzroyalstenge)

The yards are called:

  • Cross (under) rah (Bagienrah)
  • Cross under marsrah (with undivided topsail: cross marsrah)
  • Cross upper marsrah
  • Cross bramrah (with undivided bramrah: cross bramrah)
  • Kreuzoberbramrah
  • Cross royalrah
  • Cross skyrah

The gaffs are called

  • Besan tree
  • Besangaffel
  • Oberbesangaffel

Accordingly, the sails are called:

  • Mizzen sail
  • Upper sails
  • Besanto sail
  • Bagien or cross sails
  • Cross under topsail (with undivided topsail: cross topsail)
  • Cross upper topsail
  • Cross bram sails (with undivided bram sails: cross bram sails)
  • Cross top sails
  • Cross royal sail
  • Cross skysail

Individual evidence

  1. Karl Heinz Marquardt: masting and rigging of ships of the 18th century . Delius Klasing, Bielefeld 1986, ISBN 3-7688-0526-3 , p. 120 .
  2. Friedrich Ludwig Middendorf: masting and rigging of ships . Horst Hamecher, Kassel 1977, ISBN 978-3-86195-561-0 , p. 20 (reprint of the original from 1903).
  3. ^ Johann Hinrich Röding: General dictionary of the navy . Licentiate Nemnich / Adam Friederich Böhme, Hamburg / Leipzig 1798.