Passat (ship, 1911)

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Four-masted bark Passat in Travemuende-1.jpg
Ship data
flag German EmpireThe German Imperium German Empire Finland Germany
Ship type Four-masted steel barque
class Freight sailor, sailing training ship (from 1925)
Callsign DKEG
home port Travemünde
Owner Hanseatic City of Lübeck
Shipyard Blohm & Voss , Hamburg
Build number 206
building-costs 680,000 marks
Keel laying March 2, 1911
Launch September 20, 1911
Commissioning December 24, 1911
Decommissioning 1957
Ship dimensions and crew
115 m ( Lüa )
96.1 m ( Lpp )
width 14.4 m
Side height 8.53 m
Draft Max. 7.24 m
displacement 6,280 t
measurement 3,091 GRT
crew 25–35 permanent crew (86 cadets)
Machine system
machine Auxiliary diesel Krupp 6-cyl. (from 1951)
900 hp (662 kW)
6.5 kn (12 km / h)
Rigging and rigging
Rigging Barque
Number of masts 4th
Number of sails 34
Sail area 4,100 m²
under sail
Max. 17.4 kn (32 km / h)
Transport capacities
Load capacity 4,700 dw
Permitted number of passengers 102

The Passat is a four-masted steel barque that was launched at Blohm & Voss in 1911 as one of the legendary Flying P-Liners of the F. Laeisz shipping company and is now in the port of Travemünde .

She was initially used under six Laeisz captains as a freighter between Europe and South America. Owned by Gustaf Erikson , it was mainly used for the transport of wheat between Australia and Europe (see wheat regatta ). The captain at the time was Otto Piper. In the 1950s she was used as a freight sailing training ship between Europe and South America's east coast. In total, she circled Cape Horn, which is notorious for its weather conditions (so-called Cape Hornier ) 39 times . When the sister ship Pamir sank in a hurricane in 1957 and the Passat itself narrowly escaped sinking in a hurricane shortly afterwards, the ship was decommissioned against the background of falling profitability .

Today the Passat serves as a museum, overnight stay and event location.

Use as a museum ship

In 1959 the Passat was bought by the city of Lübeck and has been a stationary museum ship , youth hostel and event location in Travemünde in the sailing ship port at the mouth of the Trave since 1960 . The Passat has been a listed building since 1978 and is now the landmark of Travemünde. The Passat is available as an event location, museum ship (60,000 visitors, as of 1996) and in summer for school classes as a youth hostel and offers 106 beds in 35 cabins , as well as three group rooms. Civil weddings can take place on the Passat . There is also the non-civil ceremonial captain's wedding.


Until World War II

Type plate with build number

In 1910 the five-masted full ship Prussia owned by the F. Laeisz shipping company was lost. Due to the decline in cargo sailing and the lack of cargo available for tall ships on their voyages to South America, F. Laeisz had already commissioned the two smaller four-masted barques Passat and Peking with the Hamburg shipyard Blohm & Voss in 1909 , the loading capacities of which were only about half as large. The Passat was laid down on March 2, 1911.

When it was launched on September 20, 1911, the ship was named after the trade winds . Godmother was Gertrud Grau; the baptismal motto of the Passat read:

The storm threatens the sailor in the North Sea.
Dense fog in the busy canal is dangerous.
The whole force of the ocean hits him in the Bay of Biscay.
Only when the turning circle is exceeded
With the sails swelled by the Passat, the ship pulls towards its destination at a fast pace.
May favorable winds you, you proud ship,
always escorted quickly and safely to the protective harbor.
Your name should express this wish.
I baptize you Passat .

For a price of 680,000  gold marks , the ship was ready for sea on November 25, 1911. On December 24, 1911, the Passat sailed under Captain J. Wendler on her maiden voyage from Hamburg around Cape Horn to Chile . As a result, the Passat was used between Europe and Latin America . She showed excellent sailing characteristics, reached a speed of up to 18  knots under 4,100 m² sail area and thus offered serious competition to the increasing steamship industry.

In 1914, as a result of the First World War , the ship stayed in the port of Iquique in Chile for seven years (five years according to other information) and only returned to Europe ( Marseille ) in May 1921 . There the Passat was assigned to France as war indemnity. Because the French state had no need for the ship, it was offered for sale. In December 1921, the Laeisz shipping company bought their ship back for 13,000 British pounds and started using it again in the saltpetre trade the following year .

In 1925 she was converted into a cargo-carrying training ship. Due to its speed, the Passat was more profitable than any steamship during this period . On August 25, 1928, under Captain Eilert Müller, she collided with the French steamship Daphne off Dungeness / Canal , which tried to cross the bow of the Passat and sank within ten minutes with her cargo of 2,000 tons of ore. Müller was the crew of the Daphne on the bowsprit to the Passat come, then let back bream (back) and drove the ship so free. The Passat had to go to the shipyard in Rotterdam for repair with minor damage (demolished stem and water ingress in the forepeak ), was towed back and was able to continue her voyage to Chile on September 2nd. Another accident occurred on June 10, 1929, when the Passat collided with the English steamship British Governor on port not far from the lightship Royal Sovereign . Again she was brought to the shipyard in Rotterdam , this time by the salvage tug Hermes , this time with more serious damage, so that she could not continue sailing until July 18.

When the saltpeter journeys became unprofitable due to the large-scale production ( Haber-Bosch process , Ostwald process ) of saltpeter (as nitrogen fertilizer and explosive instead of Chile's nitrate), F. Laeisz sold the Passat in 1932 to the Finnish shipowner Gustaf Erikson . Until the Second World War, the ship was used on seven trips to Australia. In 1934, 1937 and 1938 she won the Wheat Regatta , an unofficial but prestigious race of tall ships carrying cargo from Europe to Australia and, with a load of wheat, back to Europe via Cape Horn .

From the beginning of the Second World War until 1959

In 1939 the ship anchored in the roadstead of its home port and was towed to Stockholm in 1944, where it was used as a granary until 1946.

After the war, Erikson was left with only three tall ships, the Pomeranian , the Viking and the Passat . After Erikson died in 1947, his shipping company also received back in 1948 the Pamir and Archibald Russell , which had been confiscated during the war . The Passat then won the wheat regatta again in 1949. Erikson's son then tried to sell all tall ships and switch the shipping company to steamers. The Passat , like the Pamir, was initially chartered to the British government as storage space.

When the charter expired in 1951, the two ships were sold to Belgian scrappers. An interest group around Captain Helmut Grubbe and the Lübeck shipowner Heinz Schliewen saved the two ships and transferred them to Kiel, where they arrived on September 25, 1951. As a result, the ships at the Howaldtswerke in Kiel were converted into cargo-carrying sailing training ships. In order to save tug costs in the future, the Passat was given an auxiliary engine - an earlier submarine diesel engine of 1000 hp. Major changes were also necessary in order to meet the safety standards of the newly established working committee "Sailing School Ships" of the Federal Ministry of Transport.

The four-masted barges were put back into operation. On the voyages, professional skippers were also trained to be nautical. Under Captain Herrmann Heuer, the Passat set out on its first voyage as a German sailing training ship on February 12, 1952, and sailed from Brake to South America with 54 cadets on board. In December 1952, under Captain Günther, the ship sailed from the east coast of South America to Aarhus ( Denmark ). But there were financing difficulties. In February 1953 the Schliewen shipping company had to file for bankruptcy and the Passat was transferred to Travemünde.

In December 1954 the Passat was taken over by the “ Pamir and Passat Foundation ”, which had been established by a consortium of 40 German shipowners. Under the flag of office Zerssen & Co. has been Passat again between Europe and South America ( Argentina and Uruguay used).

A few weeks after the Pamir sank in 1957, the Passat only barely survived a severe storm on its way home from Buenos Aires (Argentina) at the beginning of November : It was caught in a hurricane southwest of the Bay of Biscay , which it had to ride for four days. In the process, her barley load slipped, and she received increasingly strong port sides up to 50–55 °. In contrast to the Pamir , however, the starboard deep tank on the Passat , among other things, could be flooded (November 5, 1957). The ship continued to incline dangerously and ran for the last one and a half days with the risk of capsizing. On November 8, 1957, the Passat entered Lisbon as an emergency port. After reloading the barley, the ship was able to sail on to Hamburg on its own. There it was taken out of service after the cargo was unloaded and put up. The Passat threatened to be scrapped again.

Since 1959: Owned by Lübeck

Priwall course 108 Starboard watch on the Passat - Nov 1961 to Feb 1962
The Passat in Travemünde 2006
The Passat at night (before 2017)

In 1959 the Passat was bought by the Hanseatic City of Lübeck for DM 315,000 , and it has remained in their ownership to this day. - In January 1960, the Passat was transferred from Hamburg to its current berth on the Priwallufer in Travemünde, near the mouth of the Trave , under the leadership of Captain Robert Clauß . The Passat was initially  put into operation as a school for the Schleswig-Holstein Seemannsschule and in 1966 as a museum and international meeting place - for example as part of the youth exchange organized by the Franco-German Youth Office .

In later years the ship served as a youth hostel. The Passat was equipped with toilets, washrooms and showers. Since the Passat was now fixed, fresh water (drinking water) from the land was used permanently. However, there is still a lot to remind us of former life on the ship, not just the confined space of the group accommodations. You can still see the pigsties on the foredeck , in which live cattle were kept to supplement the provisions when the ship was active.

In 1978 the ship was listed as an example of German maritime history. A year later, members of the Lübeck sports committee founded the association “Rettet die Passat eV”, which has been working to preserve the Passat ever since .

From 1997 to 1998 the Passat underwent a basic overhaul for 7.2 million DM at the Flender shipyard on behalf of the city of Lübeck. Among other things, 5,000 of the ship's 24,000 rivet heads were re-welded from the outside and around 1,000 holes in sheet metal on the ship were repaired. In addition, the ship's two anchors weighing around 4 t , which had been lying on the bottom of the Trave for years, were recovered.

The ship is still buoyant, but no longer navigable - the welded steel hull is no longer flexible enough to withstand the force of waves on the open sea. Many Lübeck residents and visitors have expressed the desire to restore the ship to a roadworthy condition and to use it as a sailing ship. An association was also founded for this purpose. The city of Lübeck has always rejected such plans, mainly because of the uncertain financing. The association Passatwind e. V. then set itself the goal of building a new three-masted barque under the name of the trade wind ; the construction plans are based on the Indonesian training ship Dewaruci, built in Hamburg in 1953 . At the moment, a wealthy shipowner is also planning to build a copy of the ship that is to go into service as an active sailing ship instead of the Passat .

In May 2011 the ship's 100th "birthday" was celebrated.

The maintenance costs of the Passat are around 350,000 euros per year, borne jointly by the city of Lübeck and through donations (as of 2016).

Sister ships: "The eight sisters"

The Kruzenshtern meets the Passat on the occasion of its hundredth birthday (2011)

Because of the similarity in design and size, the last eight four-masted barques by F. Laeisz were called “The Eight Sisters”: Pangani (1903), Petschili (1903), Pamir (1905), Peking (1911), Passat (1911), Pola (1918) ), Priwall (1920) and Padua (1926; today Krusenstern ), although strictly speaking not all of them were true sister ships . Real sister ships were Peking and Passat or Pola and Priwall , each of which was built according to the same construction plans. The Pamir had different main dimensions, which were also due to the attempt to optimize the hull shape of the sailor in relation to the load capacity.

After very different fates, the Passat (Travemünde), Peking ( Hamburg / Brunsbüttel ) and Krusenstern (ex Padua ) are still preserved today from the “eight sisters” . The Krusenstern is the only one of the ships that - as a training ship of the Russian Ministry of Fisheries with home port Kaliningrad  - still goes to sea today.

The steel four-masted barque Pangani was rammed by a French steamer in the English Channel in 1913 and sank after only ten years of operation; only four of the thirty-four crew members survived the accident. The four-masted steel barque Petschili was stranded by a Norder (northern storm on the southwest coast of South America) after the anchor chain broke on July 12, 1919 near Valparaíso . The Pola never got going for F. Laeisz, but went directly to France as a reparation payment and drove there as Richelieu ; it was scrapped after a fire in Baltimore in 1926 . The Priwall was given away in 1941 to the Chilean government, which used it as the Lautaro training ship ; In 1945 the ship was lost after a cargo fire ( guano ). The Pamir sank in a hurricane on September 21, 1957.

From the deck of the Passat

See also

Other four-masted barques that have survived are the Viking in Gothenburg harbor and the Pomeranian in Mariehamn, Finland, on the Åland Islands, and the Sedov (Murmansk), which is still in motion today and which served as the backdrop for the film The Fall of the Pamir and therefore the colors of the Pamir / shipping company F. Laeisz received.


Web links

Commons : Passat  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Travemünde I
  2. ^ Hans Georg Prager: Shipping company F. Laeisz . 4th edition. Koehler, Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-7822-0880-3 , pp. 207 .
  3. a b leaflet “Ships as places of knowledge. Meeting of the Flying P-Liner Kruzensthern (Padua) and Passat. Thursday, June 9th - Sunday, June 12th, 2016. (...) Concept and idea: Dr. Iris Klaßen and Susanne Kasimir "
  4. a b c Lübeck city newspaper (November 18, 1997). Masts leave the ship. Second phase of the renovation of the tall ship - Passat - begins. ( Memento from September 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  5. ↑ Instructions for use (JavaScript required)
  6. Overnight data for the Passat on ( memento from January 25, 2013 in the web archive ) (accessed on November 14, 2006)
  7. Yes word on board. In: Travemünde aktuell 07/2014, p. 8. Author abbreviation HN.
  8. Current usage .
  9. Berliner Börsenzeitung, 23-12-1909, p. 9: "Passat": ordered by Laeisz. In: . Dieter Merges, accessed December 7, 2018 .
  10. Neue Hamburger Zeitung, 20-09-1911, page 7: "Beijing" and "Passat". In: . Dieter Merges, accessed December 7, 2018 .
  11. a b c d website of Luebeck: Tourism (accessed on November 14, 2006; some passages on the page are identical to the website of the association Rettet die Passat eV )
  12. a b c d website of the association Rettet die Passat eV (accessed on November 14, 2006)
  13. Private website "European Sailing Information System" (accessed on November 14, 2006)
  14. a b Official website of Lübeck: History of the Passat (accessed on November 14, 2006)
  15. ^ Hans Georg Prager: Shipping company F. Laeisz . 4th edition. Koehler, Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-7822-0880-3 , pp. 207 .
  16. ^ Hans Georg Prager: Shipping company F. Laeisz . 4th edition. Koehler, Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-7822-0880-3 , pp. 207 .
  17. History of the four-masted barque "Passat" on the website of the Association Rettet die Passat eV (accessed October 3, 2012)
  18. Information from Klaus Arlt, then a young man on the Passat , in an interview with the magazine “perfect4all” ( memento of August 22, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (accessed on November 15, 2006)
  19. ( Memento from February 1, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  20. a b c d Official website of the city of Lübeck (Travemünde Tourism): The Passat: Square sailors in retirement. The last real Cape Horn sailor became a landmark in Travemünde ( Memento of November 10, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) (accessed on November 14, 2006)
  21. ^ Association Passatwind eV: The project. The ship (accessed December 17, 2010)
  22. May 9, 2011: The flying hamburger

Coordinates: 53 ° 57 ′ 28.8 "  N , 10 ° 52 ′ 51.1"  E