Military base

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A military base (also: military base ) is a site or facility used by the military ; it is used to station troops and military equipment. According to the diverse tasks and manifestations of military units, their bases also appear in many forms. The following are to be mentioned in particular: Military headquarters , shipyards , military ports , authorities , barracks , depots , arsenals , military training areas , fortresses , military airfields and other air force bases, missile launching bases , radio transmitters , hospitals, etc.

Military bases can be temporary facilities that are only maintained for the duration of a specific operation, or permanent bases. A distinction must be made between bases that are located on the territory of the country whose troops are also stationed there and bases that a country maintains outside its territory , i.e. in foreign states, for example in allied nations or within the framework of the occupation of another country .

Military bases are usually secured and civilian access is restricted or prohibited. They are equipped with weapons and supplies and are used for military logistics. To supply the troops, many bases contain appropriate facilities such as officers' casinos , canteens , churches , schools, hospitals, shops and sports facilities. Military bases therefore often also serve a region as an employer , so that the dissolution or withdrawal of such an institution also leads to economic consequences.

Military bases abroad

At military bases abroad, the area is usually leased for many years by the host country or otherwise contractually taken into possession. A state that maintains such a military base abroad usually does so for geopolitical reasons. Be it for reasons of power projection , to keep military options open or to deter an opponent in the region concerned, usually within the framework of military alliances . The military infrastructure created by NATO in West Germany after the Second World War can serve as an example of this under the aegis of the USA . After the Cold War , the US began to close some bases in Europe and to station its soldiers on newly created bases in other latent trouble spots.

Another basis for the maintenance of military bases abroad are orders from international organizations such as the UN .

Military bases of foreign nations are often controversial objects in the population of the host country. In addition to the general confrontation between civil and military affairs, there is also a national or cultural component. On the other hand, because of their military character, such bases are often the target of demonstrations by peace activists ; For example, the US missile base Mutlanger Heide was at the center of the dispute over so-called retrofitting in the 1980s because of the US medium-range nuclear missiles stationed there . There are currently annual demonstrations against the US base at Ramstein Air Base .

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