List of Greek-speaking historians of the ancient world

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Klio , the muse of heroic poetry and historiography, with its attributes (book / papyrus scroll, trumpet / stylus, laurel wreath); Painting by Pierre Mignard , oil on canvas, 1689

Ancient Greek historiography developed from the genres of mythography and genealogy . The beginning of the “actual” Greek or Greek-language historiography in the sense of a collection and processing of information that deals with actually happened events in human life, historiography traditionally starts with Herodotus , that of Cicero ( De legibus 1.5) at the same time as “father of historiography ”(Latin pater historiae ) and the narrator of“ countless stories ”(Latin innumerabiles fabulae ). A precursor of scientific history in the narrow sense of a sober factual report will also see many contemporary historians in Thucydides .

Preliminary remarks

In the following, caution is advised with “job titles” or classifications such as “strategos” (general), “politician”, “author”, “geographer”, “local historian” or others that are given to the relevant people from today's perspective and are intended for this purpose are to enable a quicker overview. The majority of the authors would have seen themselves first and foremost as members of the leading class (if they came from this) of their respective regions, cities or countries of origin, who had greater abilities in certain areas than others. But they would have rejected the view that they were merely “historians”, “soldiers” or “politicians”. In this respect, the fact that the aim of an ancient scholar (especially when one considers Plato's philosophy ) tended to be to achieve achievements not just in one area, but on the contrary in as many areas as possible, has a great influence . Also in the political, military or cultural (music, poetry, architecture) field, several of the persons listed in this list of “historians” can demonstrate in some cases more significant achievements than in the field of historiography. The ancient historiography itself represented an extremely diverse literary genre (universal history, contemporary historical works, special monographs on individual topics, biographical representations, etc.), which was often of high prosaic quality despite all the demands on the description of the events described.

The assignments to the individual sections usually follow the periods given in the headings, sorted according to dates of birth. Particularly when assigning to the larger sections "Forerunners: Logographers" and "Hellenism", however, stylistic features are also decisive in individual cases. The works of some historians are stylistically ("Logograph" and "Hellenism" are also sometimes problematic stylistic assignments, see article Logograph and Hellenism ) assigned to a different epoch , despite life data deviating from the title . For example, in the case of Philons of Alexandria , who would actually fall under the section "Roman Empire (30 BC - 300 AD)" but is one of the most famous representatives of Hellenistic Jewish philosophy and theology.

In particular for historians whose exact life dates are unknown, the sometimes long periods of time (denoted by "assumptions:" or the like) that have to be estimated for the assignment of their life and work should also be taken into account. Due to these uncertainties, they could also fall under another of the headings used here, which is why they are usually ranked after the start of the maximum period. If this extends far into another section, they should be moved to the end of the respective list, e.g. B. happened in the case of Zenodotos von Troizen .

Most of the Greek historical works have only survived in fragments. These are collected in The Fragments of the Greek Historians and the more recent sequels, The Fragments of the Greek Historians. Continued and Brill's New Jacoby .

Forerunner: "logograph"

image Surname born died Brief description (see preliminary remarks)
Cadmos of Miletus 6th century BC Chr.

(600–500 BC)

according to some texts first logographer , life and work unclear, perhaps ahistorical
Hecataios of Miletus.JPG Hecataeus of Miletus approx.
560 BC Chr.
480 BC Chr.
numerous journeys, including the first known Periegesis , attempt at rationally thinned out mythography and genealogy in one of the first prose history works: genealogiai (4 books, preserved in fragments)
Akusilaos of Argos 2nd half of the 6th century BC Chr.
(550–500 BC)
1st half of the 5th century BC Chr.
(500-450 BC)
Mythographer; divine, heroic, human genealogy in strictly hierarchical genealogiai (3 books, preserved in fragments)
Dionysius of Miletus 2nd half of the 6th century BC Chr.
(550-400 BC)
1st half of the 5th century BC Chr.
(500-450 BC)
Life details unknown; Story after Dareios (5 books), About the Trojan War (3 books), Persika , all works original title and exact structure unknown, very few fragments survived
Pherecydes of Athens 2nd half of the 6th century BC Chr.
(550–500 BC)
1st half of the 5th century BC Chr.
(500-450 BC)
Mythographer; Attic genealogy (created 508 BC, 10 volumes, preserved in fragments)
Antiochus of Syracuse 5th century BC Chr.
(500–400 BC)
Local historian; Sikeliká (history of the settlement of Sicily up to 424/425 BC, 9 volumes, fragments preserved), About Italy (history of southern Italy, 1 volume, fragments preserved), seems to have processed oral tradition
Xanthos the Lydian
(Xanthos of Sardis)
5th century BC Chr.
(500–400 BC)
Local historian; Lydiaká (local history, also with natural history and linguistic studies, 4 volumes, preserved in fragments)
Stesimbrotos of Thasos 5th century BC Chr.
(500–400 BC)
Sophist and writer; Writing about famous Attic personalities (original title unknown, published around 430, preserved in fragments)

Greek Classical (500–336 BC)

image Surname born died Brief description (see preliminary remarks)
Herodotus detail.JPG Herodotus Os of Halicarnassus approx.
484 BC Chr.
425 BC Chr.
Geographer and ethnologist; Pupil of Hecataeus of Miletus; Called by Cicero pater historiae (father of historiography), Attic audience reads closed sections (λόγοι) , written (prose -!) summary v. a. in ἱστορίαι (reported period 700–479 BC, 9 volumes, especially the history of the Persian Wars, completely preserved)
Hellanikos of Lesbos approx.
490 / v 480 for sale. Chr.
400 BC Chr.
first known "atthidograph"; Atthis (local history of Athens) establishes tradition, mythographies arranged according to landscapes, regional histories (Egypt, Persia etc.), chronological lists, over 20 works, all only preserved in fragments
Ion from Chios 490 BC Chr. approx.
422 BC Chr.
Poet and playwright; valuable biographical information due to training in Athens and many personal contacts in works a. in Hypomnemata (received fragments via quotations from Plutarch), all works only received in fragments
Damask by Sigeion 5th century BC Chr.
(500–400 BC)
Pupil of Hellanikos of Lesbos; u. a. History of Greece (Perì tôn en Helládi genoménon), all works are relatively unknown in terms of scope and content, few fragments have survived
Charon of Lampsakos approx.
480 - 477 BC Chr.
2nd half of 5th century BC Chr.
(450–400 BC)
Prolific writers, but only a few fragments survive: Chronicle of Lampsakos (4 books), About Lampsakos (O-title unknown, 2 books, perhaps epitome of the chronicle, not preserved), country studies: Aithiopika , Persika (2 books), Libyka , Cretan History (3 books, contain “Laws of Minos”); Periplus journey behind the pillars of Heracles , Hellenica (4 books), Prytanen of the Lacedaemonians (4 books, chronicle, perhaps already annalistic, only title known), city ​​foundations (2 books)
Thucydides-bust-cutout ROM.jpg Thucydides of Athens approx.
460 BC Chr.
399 - v 396th Chr.
strategos and author; produces a (prose) report on the Peloponnesian War as a contemporary and participant ( original title not handed down, reported period 431–411 BC, 8 volumes, contain, among other things, Melierdialog , preserved), deliberately differentiated from Herodotus Mythical occurrences, attempt of a sober, pure factual report .
Kratippos of Athens unknown
(Assumptions: in the period 450-350 BC)
Greek historian (?); Attributed historical work (original title unknown, continuation of the work of Thucydides from his end in 411 BC, in a few fragments), life dates controversial in older research. Described by several modern researchers as the author ("P.") of the Helleniká Oxyrhynchia .
( unknown author of the Helleniká Oxyrhynchia )
(Assumptions: in the period 450-350 BC)
Helleniká Oxyrhynchia laid out as a continuation of the work of Thucydides, important source; Author (often with the abbreviation "P." for "Papyrus") unknown. a. Ephorus , Theopompus , Androtion , Daimachos and Kratippos .
Ktesias of Knidos
441 BC Chr. (?)
393 / v 392nd Chr.
Greek doctor at the Persian court; Persika (reported period Assyria / Bab. -398 BC, 23 volumes, preserved in fragments), next to it smaller Indicá (preserved in fragments) and other geographical writings (not preserved); Credibility already controversial in ancient times, nevertheless an important source for Assyria / Babylon
Philistus of Syracuse around
432 BC Chr.
356 BC Chr. Sicilian-Greek Politician and local historian; History of Sicily (O-title unknown, reported period prehistory up to 363 BC, 11 volumes, partially preserved)
Xenophon.jpg Xenophon of Athens approx.
426 BC Chr.
355 BC Chr.
strategos and politicians; Anabasis on "Train of the Ten Thousand" by the younger Cyrus against Artaxerxes II. (Eyewitness account of the period 401 - approx. 400 BC; 7 volumes, completely preserved), hellenika (History of Greece 411–362 BC; 7 volumes, preserved), Agesilaos (enkomion in 1 volume, preserved), dialogical Socratic writings , education of Cyrus (novel-like representation of an ideal state [“Persia”] with an ideal ruler [“Cyrus”], 8 volumes, preserved), various other didactic treatises
Androtion of Athens approx.
410 BC Chr.
343 BC Chr.
Athenian politician and officer, rhetor and atthidographer; Atthis (History of Athens, 8 books, not preserved), speeches (not preserved); Atthis influential: source u. a. for the state of the Athenians ( Athenaion politeia ) of Aristotle and for the later important atthidographer Philochoros . Called the author ("P.") of the Helleniká Oxyrhynchia by some researchers .
Daimachus of Plataiai (4th century BC) 4th century BC Chr.
(400-300 BC)
Greek historian, in earlier research sometimes referred to as the author ("P.") of the Helleniká Oxyrhynchia ; Historical work (universal or local history, not preserved), namesake in the 3rd century BC Chr.
Herakleides of Kyme 4th century BC Chr.
(400-300 BC)
Greek historian; Persika (description [books 1–2] and history [books 3–5] Persia, a total of 5 books, in fragments)
Timonides of Leukas 4th century BC Chr.
(400-300 BC)
Greek officer and historian; historíai (eyewitness accounts of the deeds of the tyrant Dion , not preserved), correspondence with Speusippus (same content, in fragments)
Athanis of Syracuse 1st half of 4th century BC Chr.
(400–350 BC)
2nd half of 4th century BC Chr.
(350-300 BC)
Sicilian-Greek Politician and local historian; History of Sicily (original title unknown, continuation of the work of the Philistos of Syracuse, reported period approx. 363 to at least 337 BC, 13 volumes, in fragments)
Ephorus of Kyme approx.
400 BC Chr.
330 BC Chr. first known attempt at a universal history (reported period "Doric migration" up to 340 BC, 29 volumes [+ 1 volume by Sohn], fragments preserved). Called the author ("P.") of the Helleniká Oxyrhynchia by some researchers .
Dinon of Colophon approx.
360 BC Chr.
330 BC Chr.
Father of Kleitarchos; Persika (reported period of the legendary early period up to Artaxerxes III., Only fragments preserved; based on Persika of Ktesias v. Knidos)

Hellenism (336-30 BC)

"Alexanderzeit" (born before 300 BC)

image Surname born died Brief description (see preliminary remarks)
Anaximenes by Lampsakos 4th century BC Chr.
(400-300 BC)
Alexander historian, rhetorician, participant in Alexander's Persian campaign; Alexander history (original title and number of books unknown), Hellenica (history of Greece, 12 books, reported period prehistoric times up to 362 BC), Philippica (history of Philip II. Number of books unknown), all works in a few fragments
Chares from Mytilene 4th century BC Chr.
(400-300 BC)
Alexander historian ; Participation in the Alexander campaign, history of the Alexander campaign (O title unknown, 10 [11?] Volumes, including a report on Susa's mass wedding, fragments preserved), source value unclear
Ephippus from Olynthus 4th century BC Chr.
(400–300 BC; * before 348 BC; † after 323 BC)
Alexander historian ; About the death of Hephaistion and Alexander (original title unknown, apparently a diatribe on Alexander [characterization about “drunkard and madman”], few fragments preserved), source value unclear
Onesikritos of Astypalia 4th century BC Chr.
(400-300 BC)
Alexander historian, Alexander's scribe, philosopher; Alexander biography (original title unknown, in fragments) with descriptions of the countries visited; already criticized by contemporaries because of many inaccuracies and exaggerations
Phainias of Eresus 4th century BC Chr.
(400-300 BC)
Greek philosopher; as a historian, contemporary authority through various historical writings: u. a. Chronicle Prytaneis Eresioi (local history [?]), Several works about tyrants (including about the tyrants in Sicily ), none of the works have survived , only known from mentions
Marsyas of Pella Middle (?) 4th century BC Chr.
(400-300 BC)
306 BC Chr.
Macedonian military and historian; syntrophos (youth companion) of Alexander d. Gr., Later nauarchos ; u. a. Attiká (history of Attica, 12 books), Makedoniká (history of Macedonia from the beginnings to 331 BC, 10 books), all works in fragments
Aristobulus of Kassandreia 1st half of 4th century BC Chr.
(400–350 BC)
301 BC Chr. Alexander historian ; Hetairos and technician (restoration of the tomb of Cyrus II ) of Alexander the Great; Acts of Alexander (original title not preserved, own notes plus other sources, fragments preserved)
Theopompus of Chios approx.
378 / v 377th Chr.
in the period
323 - v 300th Chr.
Alexander historian ; Hellenika (History of Greece 411–394 BC, 12 volumes), History of Philip (reported period 360–336 BC, 58 volumes) as well as various praises and admonishing texts and treatises, including above all the letter to Alexander , all Works only survived in fragments. Called the author ("P.") of the Helleniká Oxyrhynchia by some researchers .
Callisthenes of Olynthos approx.
370 BC Chr.
327 BC Chr.
Alexander historian ; official historiographer of the Asian campaign of Alexander d. Gr .; Deeds of Alexander (reported period 356 / 336–323 BC, only a few fragments survived), objectivity already disputed in antiquity, the characterization of Alexander (such as “legendary god-king”) had a great influence on the image of Alexander of the time
Callias of Syracuse
4th century BC Chr.
(400-300 BC)
3rd century BC Chr.
(300–200 BC)
Favorite of the Sicilian tyrant Agathocles of Syracuse ; Deeds of Agathocles (original title unknown, 22 books, panegyric description of the rule [316-305 / 304 BC] and the person of Agathocles, few fragments survived)
Demon of Athens
4th century BC Chr.
(400-300 BC)
3rd century BC Chr.
(300–200 BC)
Local historian and mythographer; Atthis ( original title unknown, in fragments) and other works (in fragments) already critically assessed by contemporaries, to be described as low source value
Eudemos of Rhodes.jpg Eudemos of Rhodes approx.
370 BC Chr.
300 BC Chr.
is considered the founder of the history of science, an important student of Aristotle ; u. a. Works on the history of geometry, arithmetic and astronomy, all in a few fragments
Ptolemy I Soter Louvre Ma849.jpg Ptolemy I Soter approx.
367 BC Chr.
283 BC Chr.
Hetairos and General Alexander the Elder Gr., Later one of the diadochi and founder of the Hellenistic Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt, builder of the lighthouse of Pharos and the library of Alexandria; in old age wrote memoirs with an eyewitness account of Alexander the Elder. Size (O title unknown, preserved in fragments), which u. a. Arrian served as a source
Jerome of Cardia approx.
360 BC Chr.
272 BC Chr.
Alexander historian ; strategos in Diadoch wars; as an eyewitness probably objective history of the Diadoch wars (reported period approx. 323-297 BC, only fragments preserved), Alexander characterization: for example "prudent genius general"
Clitarchus of Colophon 2nd half of 4th century BC Chr.
(350-300 BC)
1st half of 3rd century BC Chr.
(300–250 BC)
Alexander historian ; Son of Dinon v. K., History of the Deeds of Alexander the Elder Großen (O-title unknown; written approx. 323–283 BC, fragments preserved; probably novel-like representations, reception history nevertheless enormous: inter alia Diodor's world history [17th book])
Hecataeus of Abdera 2nd half of 4th century BC Chr.
(350-300 BC)
1st half of 3rd century BC Chr.
(300–250 BC)
versatile writer; u. a. History of Egypt (lives as an official under Ptolemaios I Soter in Egypt) and writing about Homer and Hesiod, only a few fragments survive
Megasthenes approx.
350 BC Chr.
290 BC Chr.
Seleucid diplomat in the kingdom of Chandragupta Maurya ; Indica (history and comprehensive representation of India, 4 volumes, many fragments preserved)
Philochorus of Athens 2nd half of 4th century BC Chr.
(350-300 BC)
261 BC Chr.
Athenian mythographer, influential politician and atthidographer; Atthis (History of Athens, 17 books, over the period of mythical beginnings up to 262 BC, many fragments preserved), also other works (including on the mythology and religious festivals of the Tetrapolis of Attica, chronological lists, collection of Attic inscriptions, etc.) many fragments preserved
Diocles of Peparethus unknown
(Assumptions: 350–200 BC)
Greek historian, probably worked shortly before Fabius Pictor ; probably the first author of the Roman founding saga about Romulus and Remus, historical work (title and scope unknown, mythologically influenced [?], in fragments)
Timaeus of Tauromenion.jpg Timaeus of Tauromenion approx.
345 BC Chr.
250 BC Chr.
Major work Histories (original title unknown, including history of Italy / Sicily / Greece up to 264 BC, lists of cities and kings, biographical information, 38 volumes, fragments preserved), Die Sieger von Olympia (list, possibly appendix to other work , Fragments obtained); used as the first historian chronology after the Olympics (later in common use)
Berossos in the period
340 - v 323rd Chr.
278 BC Chr.
Babylonian priest of the god Bēl-Marduk; Major work Babylonian history (probably O-title Babyloniaká ; universal history, reported period of mythical prehistoric times until Alexander's death, 3 books, in fragments), other works in a few fragments. Important source on Mesopotamian history and culture because it is regarded as reliable; is also considered the founder of Greek astrology
Antique dress from Athens unknown
(Assumptions: 323–200 BC)
Athenian historian; Peri Noston ("About the homecoming"), Deliaka (information about Delos ), Exegeticus (dictionary?), Alexander story , all in fragments
Duris of Samos approx.
330 BC Chr.
281 BC Chr.
at times tyrant of Samos, historian and writer; Historical work in at least 23 books (O-title Ίστορίαι, Ἑλληνικά or Μακεδονικά, reported period from Philip II to Demetrios Poliorketes; main work), work on Samos (O-title unknown) and biography of Agathocles of Syracuse in four books; all works only survived in fragments

"Diadochin Empire" (born 300–200 BC)

image Surname born died Brief description (see preliminary remarks)
Agathocles of Cyzicus unknown
(Assumption: 3rd century BC)
Greek local historian (Babylonian descent?); Historical work about Kyzikos (περὶ Κυζίκου, Peri Kyzikos; scope and content unknown, not preserved, but mentioned by many ancient authors)
Daimachos of Plataiai (3rd century BC) 3rd century BC Chr.
(300–200 BC)
Greek historian and diplomat; Indica (description and history of India, in fragments), source value already disputed in antiquity; Namesake in the 4th century BC Chr.
Dionysius 3rd century BC Chr.
(300–200 BC)
Greek historian and diplomat; Indica (description and history of India, next to Testamonium only an uncertain fragment)
Deinias of Argos 3rd century BC Chr.
(300–200 BC)
Local historian; Argolika (story of Argos, reported period of myth. Prehistory to 235 BC, 9 volumes, in fragments)
Demetrios of Byzantium 3rd century BC Chr.
(300–200 BC)
Greek historian; Name only known by mentioning it to Diogenes Laertius , also works (not preserved): About the expedition of the Galatians (reported period 276-274 BC, 13 books) and work about a conflict in Cyrenaica (8 books)
Callixeinos of Rhodes 3rd century BC Chr.
(300–200 BC)
Hellenistic writer and local historian, lived in Alexandria; various writings on current affairs and the history of Alexandria, all in fragments
Manetho (from Sebennytos?) 3rd century BC Chr.
(300–200 BC)
(probably) Epytic priest from Sebennytus among the first Ptolemies; Main work (usual Latin title) Aegyptiaca (Greek Αἰγυπτιακά, O-title unknown; history of Egypt in the dynasty division used until today, reported period myth. Prehistory to the end of the 31st dynasty or beginning of the Macedonian-Ptolemaic rule [32nd dynasty] 332 BC, 3 books, in fragments), other works in a few fragments
Philinos of Akragas 3rd century BC Chr.
(300–200 BC)
Sicilian-Greek historian; Historical work (original title unknown) with a strong pro-Carthaginian tendency, only a few fragments survived
Nymphis of Herakleia 1st half
3rd century BC Chr.
(300–250 BC)
246 BC Chr.
Patrician of Herakleia Pontike and historian; Universal history (original title unknown, 24 books, reported period from Alexander to 246 BC, not preserved), local history of Herakleias (original title unknown, 13 books, in fragments)
Demetrios of Kallatis 2nd half (?)
3rd century BC Chr.
(300–200 BC)
214 BC Chr.
Geographer(?); About Asia and Europe (apparently historical and geographical content, 20 books, reported period from prehistory to 214 BC, very few [six] fragments)
Chaireas 3rd / 2nd century BC Chr.
(300-100 BC)
apparently Hannibal historian ; Details the life and work unknown is only by Polybius mentions
Silenus from Kaleakte 3rd / 2nd century BC Chr.
(300-100 BC)
Sicilian historian, companion of Hannibal; Sikelika (O-title unknown, history of Sicily, at least 4 books [exact number unknown], in fragments), contemporary history work (O-title unknown, possibly "official Hannibal story ", very few fragments)
Macedonian crater 3rd / 2nd century BC Chr.
(300-100 BC)
Life details unknown, perhaps identical to the Macedonian military Krateros ; u. a. ψηφισμάτων συναγωγή ("Collection of popular resolutions", chronological collection of Athenian documents with explanations, 9 books, in fragments, widely used in antiquity)
Sosylus of Sparta 3rd / 2nd century BC Chr.
(300-100 BC)
Spartan historian, companion (Greek teacher) Hannibal; Historical work about the 2nd Punic War (original title unknown, 7 books in fragments) with a pro-Carthaginian tendency
Eumachus of Naples 3rd / 2nd century BC Chr.
(300-100 BC)
Greek Hannibal historian from Neapolis (Naples); Historical work about Hannibal in at least two books, possibly another geographical work (only two preserved fragments)
Eratosthene.01.png Eratosthenes of Cyrene in the period
276 - v 273rd Chr.
194 BC Chr.
3. Head of the Museion 245–204 BC. Chr., Versatile scholar (including mathematician, geographer [likely founder of the word G.], astronomer, philologist, philosopher, poet), is considered the founder of scientific chronography; historical works: history of the Galatians ( Galatiká , authorship often doubted, in fragments), works on systematic chronology, etc. a. About chronographs (epoch breakdowns from the conquest of Troy to Alexander, in fragments), Olympic champions ( Olympioníkai , history of sports and Olympians with chronology, in fragments)
Quintus Fabius Pictor approx.
254 BC Chr.
201 BC Chr.
Greek writing Roman patrician, annalist; Annals (original title unknown, reported period of the founding of Rome up to approx. 2nd Punic War ) with a strong pro-Roman tendency, only a few fragments survived
Antisthenes of Rhodes 2nd half of 3rd century BC Chr.
(250–200 BC)
1st half of 2nd century BC Chr.
(200–150 BC)
Greek historian; Universal history (O-title unknown, content unknown, in fragments), perhaps philosophical-historical successions (Διαδοχὴ)
Phylarchus (from Athens?) 2nd half of the 3rd century BC Chr.
(250–200 BC)
possibly also came from Naukratis or Sikyon; Major work Histories (reported period 272 BC – 220/219 BC, 28 volumes), smaller writings, all in fragments
Agatharchides of Knidos approx.
208 BC Chr.
132 BC Chr.
Greek historian with a tendency to be socially critical; Asian , Europika , via the Red Sea in fragments of other works only title known
Polybios head.JPG Polybius of Megalopolis approx.
201 BC Chr.
120 BC Chr.
Greek politician; from 167–151 BC As a hostage in Rome with the younger Scipio , participates in the 3rd Punic War , later voluntary return and Rome- friendly historiai (universal history and geography, reported period 264–146 BC, 40 volumes, the development of Rome is presented in retrospect, idealized as the reason Constitution and army are given for advancement, theory of the cycle of constitutions )
Zenodotos of Troizen unknown
(Assumptions: approx. 300 BC-late 1st century BC)
Greek historian; Life details unknown, Roman history (O-title and extent unknown, early history of Italy and Rome, in fragments)

"Late Period" (born after 200 BC)

image Surname born died Brief description (see preliminary remarks)
Eupolemus 2nd century BC Chr.
(200-100 BC)
Greek-speaking, (first?) Jewish-Hellenistic historian; Life details unknown, historical work About the kings in Judea (history of Judea based on descriptions of kings with the construction of the Solomonic 2nd Jerusalem temple as the thematic focus, in fragments)
Agatharchides of Knidos 2nd century BC Chr.
(200-100 BC)
(Hellenized?) Jewish-Egyptian historian; Life details unknown, historical work about the Jews (original title unknown, history of Judaism with a focus on Egypt, in fragments)
Abydenos unknown
(Assumptions: 200–100 BC)
Greek historian; Life details unknown, history of the Chaldeans and Assyrians (περὶ Ἀσσυρίων, extent unknown, in fragments) is later a much-used work
Lysimachus unknown
(Assumptions: 200 BC - 100 AD)
Historical work (title and contents unknown, in fragments), life and work only mention in Josephus known
Sosicrates of Rhodes approx.
200 BC Chr.
128 BC Chr.
Greek historian; History of Crete (O-title unknown), History of Philosophy (O-title unknown), both in fragments
Poseidonios from Apamea 135 BC Chr. 51 BC Chr. Greek polymath (including philosopher, geographer); About the Oceanus and his problems (ethnographic writing), historical work (O-title unknown, reported period 146 to approx. 79 BC, designed as a continuation of the historical work of Polybius), various other writings, all only in fragments
Apollodorus by Artemita 1st century BC Chr.
(100–0 BC)
Greek historian; History of the Parthians (original title unknown, 4 books in fragments)
Diodorbibl frontispiz.jpg Diodorus Siculus 1st century BC Chr.
(100–0 BC)
Greek historian; library (universal history from the legendary Troy period to Julius Caesar, 40 volumes, 1–5, 11–16, 18–20 preserved, 17 preserved with a large gap, 6–10, 21–40 fragments preserved, mainly from quotations Byz. authors; many older sources processed which are otherwise lost) important as a source for Philip II , Diadoch period, 5th century BC BC, Sicily in general
Castor of Rhodes 1st century BC Chr.
(100–0 BC)
Greek rhetorician; Chronicle (universal history with mythological elements up to 61/60 BC, 6 books in fragments)
Timagenes of Alexandria 1st century BC Chr.
(100–0 BC)
Greek historian; Peri Basileon ( About the kings , a very influential universal story up to the time of Caesar, 15 preserved fragments)
Time position unknown
Greek historian; Historical work (original title unknown, in [at least] 5 books, Persian Wars: over the period from the rule of Xerxes to the beginning of the Peloponnesian War, in fragments)
Alexander Polyhistor approx.
100 BC Chr.
40 BC Chr.
Greek scholar; Universal history (O-title unknown, contains among others sections About Rome [5 books], Aigyptiaca [at least 3 books], About Bithynia , About Illyria , Indica and Chaldean history , a total of 43 books in fragments), About the Jews ( Peri Ioudaiôn , excerpt collection of texts by Jewish writers, in fragments)
Memnon of Herakleia unknown
(Assumptions: 100 BC - 150 AD)
Local historian; Περὶ Ἡρακλείας ( Perì ʰērakleias "About Herakleia", at least 17 books [exact number unknown], clear, sober style, in fragments)
PhiloThevet.jpg Philo of Alexandria approx.
15 / 10 °. Chr.
40 AD
important philosopher of Hellenistic Judaism; very many works preserved, historical works etc. a. Εἰς Φλάκκον

(lat. In Flaccum , history of the persecution of the Jews in Alexandria under Flaccus 38 AD, preserved); important source on Hellenistic Egypt

Roman Empire (30 BC-300 AD)

image Surname born died Brief description (see preliminary remarks)
Domitios Kallistratos unknown
(Assumptions: 100 BC - 284 AD)
Local historian; About Herakleia Pontike (original title unknown, at least 7 books [exact number unknown], in fragments)
Nikolaos of Damascus approx.
64 BC Chr.
4 v. Chr.
Greek (Hellenized?) diplomat and court historian under Herod the Great; Hauptwerk Weltgeschichte (original title unknown, 144 volumes, in fragments), biography of Augustus (almost completely preserved), various other writings in fragments; influential source u. a. for Josephus
Strabon.jpg Strabo from Amaseia approx.
63 BC Chr.
23 AD
Greek author; after stays in Rome, Egypt etc .: historiai (history, 43 volumes, not available), in addition geôgraphiká (geography, 17 volumes, except for parts of volume VII completely preserved), early work historical commentaries in fragments; through a critical attitude, knowledge of legal history and the good state of preservation of the geôgraphiká important source, for example, on the Romanization of Gaul and Hispania
Dionysius of Halicarnassus.JPG Dionysius of Halicarnassus approx.
54 BC Chr.
Greek rhetorician; historical main work Roman antiquities (up to the beginning of the 1st Punic War, 20 volumes, 1–10 extant, 11–20 fragments, history of Rome [presented as ideal polis] is interpreted teleologically, ie in the Augustan sense reasons for the [idealized] As a result of the lack of other sources important for the period from the Gallic invasion up to the 1st Punic War , various rhetorical writings in fragments
Luke 1st century
Author of the Gospels of Luke , probably not identical with the companion of Paul; Luke Gospels are also referred to as the “first Christian. Historical work with clear Hellenistic-historiographical influences "(cf. Introduction:" Many have already undertaken to write a report on everything that happened and fulfilled among us ", Lk 1)
Pamphila 1st century
Greek historian under Emperor Nero , authored Historical Memorabilia in 33 books, an epitome of Ktesias ' Persika in 3 books, and treatises on differences of opinion and joys in love
Josephusbust.jpg Flavius ​​Josephus approx.
37 / 38
Roman-Jewish historian; Works initially in Aramaic mother tongue, later in Greek; Jewish antiquities (lat. Antiquitates Judaicae, 20 books, reported period from creation to the outbreak of the Jewish uprising in AD 66, completely preserved), history of the Jewish war (O-title Ἱστορία Ἰουδαϊκοῦ πολέμου πρὸς Ῥωμic lat .αίους, Bell Juda Judaico, 7 books, reported period from the occupation of Jerusalem in 174 BC to the great uprising in 66-70, completely preserved), smaller texts. Important source for Judea and Galilee in the 1st century, aftermath in late antiquity and the Middle Ages (including Eusebius of Caesarea)
Plutarch head only.jpg Plutarch os from Chaironeia approx.
Greek biographer; the most important representative of Atticism , Caesar vites (originally from Augustus to Vitellius, only Galba and Otho preserved), parallel biographies (23 double biographies each with a Roman and a Greek from Theseus to Marcus Antonius, 22 preserved), various other biographical works, received Aratos von Sikyon, Artaxerxes II., philosophical writings: The "Moralia" collection contains 78 treatises on various questions, a total of 260 writings handed down under his name, great aftereffect in European intellectual life
Herennios Philon
(Philon of Byblos)
70 (?)
Phoenician scholar; Phoenician history ( Phoinikikḗ historía , 9 books, in fragments; covers among other things the origins of mythology and religion of the Eastern Mediterranean, high source value), About cities and their famous citizens (knowledge collection, 30 books, probably in alphabetical order, in fragments)
Arrian7.jpg Arrian us from Nicomedeia approx.
85 - 90
145 / 146
Greek-born Roman politician (including governor of Cappadocia ); Xenophon as a model, simple Attic style; Alexander history (O-title anabasis alexandrou , 7 volumes, preserved, today the most important source for this period!), Indike (history and geography of India, preserved), Periplus ("Tour", description of the Black Sea region in the form of a travel report, preserved), " ektaxis kata alanoon "(" Order of battle against the Alans ", fragments preserved)," Tactics "(fragments preserved)," Kynegetikós "(treatise on hunting)
Radolt.JPG Appian os of Alexandria to
Greek-speaking Roman author; Roman history ( original title rhomaika , wars of Rome until the end of the republic, 23 volumes, Proömium, volumes 6–9 largely, 11–17 completely preserved, otherwise fragments); Assessment controversial, but most important extant source for the Roman civil wars
Phlegon of Tralleis 2nd century
Greek writer; Wonderful stories (also book of miracles , in fragments); Olympiades (historical-chronological compendium from the 1st to the 229th Olympiad = 776 BC to 137 AD, in fragments), other writings (only a few fragments survived)
Abydenos unknown
(Guesswork: 100-200)
Greek historian, details of life unknown; u. a. History of the Chaldeans and Assyrians (περὶ Ἀσσυρίων, extent unknown, in fragments, dated to the 2nd century due to linguistic criteria)
Amyntianos unknown
(Guesswork: 100-300)
Greek rhetorician and historian; u. a. Alexander biography (O-title and extent unknown), parallel biographies (unknown number, including about Dionysius of Syracuse and Domitian , 2 books), biography of Olympias (O-title and extent unknown), all in a few fragments
Pausanias approx.
Greek-born Roman geographer; Description of Greece ( original title Helládos Periégésis , 10 volumes, detailed descriptions of the landscape including soil conditions, works of art and buildings, lifestyle, religion and myth, 10 volumes completely preserved [possibly existing additional volumes lost]) important source for Greek art , History of myths and religions, archeology, social science
Cassius Dio Frontispiece.jpg Cassius Dio 155 to
Roman politician (including 205 [?], 229 consul), uses Greek; Roman history (reported period of the founding of Rome up to 229, 80 volumes, 1–34 fragmentary, 35–36 partly, 37–54 almost completely preserved, 55 partly, 56–60 completely preserved, 61–80 fragments), poorly imitated Thucydidean style, but source value v. a. very high for the outgoing republic and imperial era
Frontispiece: Herodian RoemGesch.gif Herodian os approx.
Roman lower official (?), uses Greek language; Roman history (reported period 180–238, 8 volumes, preserved); Quite influential, as a source of the later Historia Augusta, but to be assessed as questionable (factual errors, use of unchecked sources, fictional decorations). Nevertheless, it is important, since other sources are almost entirely lacking for some areas.
Asinius quadratus 3rd century
Greek writing Roman author; u. a. 1000 year history (history of the 1000 year celebration of Rome 248, in fragments)
Diogenes Laertios unknown
(Assumption: 3rd century)
Greek biographer and doxographer ; About the life and teachings of the philosophers (title varies depending on the manuscript, biographical and doxographical information, 10 books received), source value different
Ephorus the Younger 3rd century
Greek historian; History (original title unknown, description about Emperor Gallienus, 27 books, not preserved), other works (not preserved); possibly phantom author (mention of life and works only in Suda )
Kallinikos of Petra 3rd century
Greek rhetorician; History of Alexandria (original title unknown, 10 books in fragments), various other writings, all in a few fragments
Nikostratos of Trebizond 3rd century
Greek historian and sophist; Historical work (original title and content unknown, reported period 244–260s, not preserved) mentioned in Church History of Euagrios Scholastikos
Philostratus of Athens 3rd century
Greek historian; Historical work (original title unknown, reported period including the Persian Wars at Valerian's time, in a few fragments)
Publius Herennius Dexippus ( Dexippus ) approx.
Greco-Roman historian; History of the Diadoch period , chronicle (up to approx. 270, continued by Eunapios of Sardis ) and Scythica (history of the contemporary Gothic wars), all works only in fragments. Most important historian during the so-called imperial crisis of the 3rd century .


Articles on most of the authors discussed here can be found in Pauly-Wissowa RE and in Der Neue Pauly .


  1. Here not until 476, 641 or even 1453, because in this table with the headings only historians in the specified period and not the duration of the Roman Empire should be expressed and historians after 300 AD in Wikipedia under the heading Fall of late antiquity .
  2. For the historiography of this time see also Pawel Janiszewski: The Missing Link. Greek Pagan Historiography in the Second Half of the Third Century and in the Fourth Century AD. Warszawa 2006. For the following period, see for example Gabriele Marasco (Ed.): Greek and Roman Historiography in Late Antiquity. Fourth to Sixth Century AD Leiden u. a. 2003. See generally also Byzantine Historiography .