A porn actor is a person who shows sexual practices for interested foreign viewers. These are mostly recorded for video and print media as well as for the Internet. Occasionally there are also live performances on a stage. Terms such as porn star or porn queen are used for particularly popular actors .
The history of the porn actor profession is closely linked to the history of porn film . One of the first verifiable films is the French production, The Golden Ecu or Die gute Herberge, from 1908. Since the 1920s, other silent films from this area have been added. In this phase of the porn film, however, the actors cannot be identified as actors in the sense of a profession.
The consequences of the social upheaval of 1968 slowly pave the way for acting in a particular genre. After the 1968 movement with its free love movement and reports like that of Alfred Charles Kinsey had created a public space for sexuality, the need for actors was created in Germany for the first time with the educational films Oswalt Kolles , the skin in connection with sexuality and show their practice. Due to the educational and scientific demands of his films and the lack of pornographic scenes, however, it is not pornography.
History since 1972
As the first publicly recognized actress to specialize in the porn film genre, Linda Lovelace appeared on stage in 1972 . The world success Deep Throat made her internationally known. After the attempt in America in the 1970s to define the activity of the porn actor as prostitution and thus criminalize it, the activity or profession of the porn actor emerged. The demarcation from the profession of regular actor was secondary through social sanctions.
In West Germany, pornography was legalized in 1975, creating a relatively small job market for porn actors compared to today. The showing of pornographic films was only allowed in sex cinemas specially designed for adults . This kept supply and demand small. The same goes for the USA . Porn actors themselves, i.e. people who work in the hardcore sector, were not noticed by public life and were pushed out of it until the end of the 1980s. Even if the activity was legal, it was suppressed and ostracized, similar to prostitution or pornography itself.
The triumphant advance of video technology in the 1980s brought with it a significant increase in production and thus in the labor market for porn actors. Celebrities from this time are u. a. Teresa Orlowski , Sibylle Rauch and Traci Lords .
The boom in the industry since the 1990s continuously broadened the job market. In addition, porn actors have received increasing general media attention since the establishment of private television . His open and voyeuristic handling of taboo topics now also brought the area of porn film and thus porn actors to the media public. Michaela Schaffrath or Dolly Buster have at least established themselves as late-night talk show guests and are accepted as such. Reports for broadcast times after 10 p.m. also like to deal with the topic.
The further development of the Internet since the end of the 1990s has brought about a further break in the job description. Webcam technology led webcam chats to hit the market. Here actors show erotic or pornographic content on their own or in interactivity with the customer.
Due to the phenomenon of generation porn , the consumption of porn films and thus the consumption or need of actors is increasing. In the course of time, increasingly extreme sexual practices have been shown in porn films - for example, anal intercourse is now standard. At the same time, the violence against the porn actors in these films is also increasing.
According to §180 StGB, an actor must be of legal age. However, this could not prevent the distribution of pornography produced abroad with underage or even apparently underage (so-called pseudo-youth) actors. Therefore, due to a framework directive of the EU of 2003, the Criminal Code was amended with effect from November 5, 2008 by an amendment to §184b and the addition of §184c to the effect that the distribution of such pornographic writings (and thus also films, images and such) is punishable if they reproduce or realistically depict sexual acts on children and adolescents. This means that porn actors not only have to actually be of legal age, but should also be clearly identifiable as such. Apart from this regulation for bogus youth, the mere possession of child and youth pornographic material is also punishable for distribution.
The transmission of diseases in Germany can have consequences under both criminal and civil law.
In the Mutzenbacher ruling of November 27, 1990, the Federal Constitutional Court determined that a clear separation between art and pornography is not possible. Regardless of this, the definition of the OLG Düsseldorf is still relevant. According to this, pornography is “rough representations of the sexual that degrade the human being to a mere, interchangeable object of sexual desire in a way that incites the sexual drive. These representations remain without any meaningful connection with other expressions of life and use traces of thought content only as a pretext for provocative sexuality ”.
Since pornography is not defined as art in Germany, porn actors are not accepted as members of the artists' welfare fund. This means that porn actors are treated under social security law or tax law like freelancers or self-employed .
In Switzerland it is allowed to appear as a porn actor at the age of 16. However, an employment contract is required (social benefits) that must be signed by the parents.
As a rule, actors in porn films cannot become members of the actors' union. Alternatively, they can use the Adult Industry Medical Health Care Foundation and Adult Industry Assistance Fund, established in 1998 .
As a result of their job-related sexual behavior, porn actors have an increased risk of becoming infected with sexually transmitted diseases . The fact that they frequently have unprotected sexual intercourse with many and constantly changing partners not only increases the risk of contracting HIV , but also hepatitis and other diseases, some of which represent a considerable health risk, can be easily transmitted and spread.
Furthermore, particularly risky sex practices contribute to an increase in the risk of infection. These include B. unprotected anal intercourse . Safer sex , i.e. the use of condoms , has decreased significantly since 2000. Since 2006, however, a counter-trend towards the promotion of safer sex productions has begun in France as a result of political pressure .
A more recent problem is the tendency to shoot more scenes that no longer end with the usual cumshot on the stomach, back or face, but with sperm being brought into the vagina or anus , which increases the risk of a possible transmission of HI viruses for the "recipient" of the seminal fluid potentiated many times over. But the mucous membranes in the eye also enable the HI viruses to penetrate the body. Infected sperm that gets into the mouth can also lead to HIV transmission, especially in the case of small wounds on the gums. The risk is higher when swallowing because the pharynx is much thinner and more sensitive than the relatively robust oral mucosa. The mucous membrane of the throat can absorb viruses more easily. Therefore, to reduce the risk of infection, sperm should not be swallowed, but immediately spit out again. With vaginal oral sex, the risk of infection depends on the amount of secretion; it is low to very low.
Since negative HIV tests do not offer absolute certainty either - they only reliably reflect the status of three months or three weeks ago - all those involved only have to commit themselves to strict compliance with the safer sex rules outside the shooting area.
A website listing the deaths of American pornographic actors records around 100 deaths from AIDS. Some of the suicides by HIV-infected actors are not counted. Most of the deaths occurred in the 1990s, but ten actors had died of AIDS in the 2000s, most of them gay men.
Scandals and infections
In 1986 the first AIDS cases occurred in the porn industry in the USA. The most famous victims were John Holmes and Al Parker . Particularly problematic was that they kept their infection a secret and continued to make films until they died, putting other actors at risk.
The San Fernando Valley in California was hit by an HIV scandal in 2004. Actor Darren James brought the AIDS virus to the heart of the American porn industry from a shoot in Brazil. During a shoot on March 24, 2004, James transmitted the virus to three colleagues: Jessica Dee , Miss Arroyo and the 19-year-old newcomer Lara Roxx . When the news of the infections spread on April 13th, production stood still for a month because now - following the domino principle - all actors who in turn had had sexual intercourse with the people who tested positive had to be quarantined. James alone had 14 women after the first production since his return. Two weeks later, however, the production stop turned out to be a farce, as many studios actually continued to produce in secret. The Adult Industry Assistance Fund , which was founded at the same time by porn star Jenna Jameson , was also unable to adequately provide for the performers, some of whom were living from check to check, without reserves, so that many studios continued to work past the media public with actors who were not on the quarantine lists.
At the beginning of 2008 it became known that several young gay actors from the Icreme label had contracted the virus while filming in the south of France. It was particularly worrying that the label had not requested any timely tests, simply to save money.
The suicide rate among porn actors is above the population average. The evaluation of deaths is made more difficult by a large number of narcotic drug overdoses , for which it is unclear whether there is suicide, and unclear deaths.
In Germany, the public health service has a duty to provide information about sexually transmitted diseases (Section 9 ÖGDG). In addition, he is mandated by the Infection Protection Act (§ 19 IfSG of January 1, 2001) to provide more advice and examination services to population groups who can be affected by sexually transmitted diseases. There is also an active duty to provide information (Section 3 IfSG). Porn actors also belong to the risk groups. In addition to free information material, advice and HIV tests , they also offer examinations for all other sexually transmitted diseases for a small fee.
In Germany, the HIV test must not be older than two to three weeks and the hepatitis test not older than two months. Thus, at least the risk of infection with the lethal sexually transmitted diseases is reduced, but not excluded.
In the United States, Sharon Mitchell founded the Adult Industry Medical Health Care Foundation in Los Angeles after leaving the porn industry and studying medicine . A clinic of its own was founded in San Fernando Valley, which specializes particularly in HIV diagnostics. Between 1998 and 2001 the clinic diagnosed eleven cases of new HIV infections among the patients. With a test volume of 400 to 500 tests per month and an extensive database, according to AIM, a relatively high level of security with regard to an HIV infection is guaranteed within the San Fernando Valley.
Initiatives by MPs such as Paul Koretz on the condom requirement as well as the considerations on corresponding legal regulations have so far remained without result.
After an accumulation of HIV cases, Steven Hirsch made a condom compulsory for the company Vivid he founded in 1998, but this was given up in early 2006. According to Hirsch, condoms did not fit into the fantasy world of eroticism. Instead, they see the HIV risk as averted. The extensive controls introduced in collaboration with the Adult Industry Medical Clinic should provide reasonable assurance. By contrast, the competing company Wicked Pictures has had a strict condom requirement since 2004.
The Beate Uhse AG reported that they had come to the realization that safe sex films would not in demand, and for that reason could not be offered because they wanted to produce any. Accordingly, most actors have no choice but to agree to bareback scenes.
For a long time, the French TV broadcaster Canal + , which can be received via satellite and cable, was the only European broadcaster that voluntarily opted for safer sex products when purchasing broadcasting rights for newly produced pornographic films. Since January 1, 2007, the French regulatory authority CSA (Conseil Supérieur de l'Audiovisuel) has mandated a condom for all French cable broadcasters.
Requirements for porn actors
The performer should have a telegenic and resilient body. Because the consumers are predominantly male, female performers are often required to be more attractive than male ones. Men must have well-functioning erective potency . The filming / photo shoots often take place in an atmosphere that is difficult for the actor (spotlights, camera, microphone, film team as audience, cool rooms) and the production of a sex scene can take over an hour. Therefore, male performers must be able to maintain their erections for a long time and in any environment, and eventually ejaculate. A pronounced self-confidence , exhibitionism and willingness to experiment can be helpful .
Depending on the genre of the porn film, it may be necessary to have acting skills. Features have a plot that characterizes people and tells a story. Opposite are the gonzos , which consist of pure sex scenes.
In Germany, the Venus Award is presented in numerous categories every year at the Venus Berlin trade fair . From 2005 to 2009 this was replaced by the Eoticline Award , which has been known as the Erotixxx Award since 2009 and has been presented at the eroFame fair in Hanover since 2011 .
In the USA , the AVN Award , the XRCO Award , the XBIZ Award , and the NightMoves Award are presented annually. The GayVN Award has not been held since 2011. The AVN Awards are considered the porn industry's Oscars and the most recognized international title.
- Extensive information about the industry (English)
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