Find region Kalkriese

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Location of the find region and the museum; Kalkrieser Berg highlighted in yellow, Wiehengebirge highlighted in green.

The Kalkriese find region is an area in the Kalkrieser-Niewedder Senke in Bramsche in the Osnabrück region , in which large quantities of Roman finds were made. In addition to the Hedemünden Roman camp , the Bentumersiel site , the Wilkenburg Roman marching camp and the Harzhorn, it is one of the few larger Roman sites in the northern half of Germany. The finds are exhibited in the Museum and Park Kalkriese .

In the course of the Augustan Teutonic Wars in the decades around the beginning of the Christian era , several major battles took place in Germania on the right bank of the Rhine, the Germania magna . The Kalkriese find region is considered to be a possible site of the Varus Battle in 9 AD. Identification with the site of the Battle of Caecina or other battles during the Germanicus campaigns (14-16 AD) was also considered. The discovery of a second wall in summer 2016 and spectacular coin finds from 2016 and 2017 could shed new light on the battle situation. While the thesis that the fighting in the find region is related to the Varus War seems to be supported by the new finds, the immediate identification of the battlefield with the scene of the battle described by Cassius Dio is the Varus Battle - the attack on a marching column from several kilometers in length from the ambush - thus rather questionable.

Find region

Presumed location of the battle of Kalkriese

The discovery area is located about 16 km northeast of Osnabrück and 10 km east of Bramsche in the depression near Bramsche- Kalkriese. According to the archaeologist Wolfgang Schlüter , the depression is "an approximately 6 km long and at its narrowest point around 1 km wide bottleneck between the Great Moor in the north and the Kalkrieser Berg , which is in front of the Wiehengebirge in the south."

The history of finds in this region goes back to at least the 18th century. In the meantime, numerous finds have been discovered and the remains of several fortifications have been excavated. The finds were spread over an area of ​​more than 30 km².

Today's activities of archaeologists mainly focus on the area of ​​the parcels around the Oberesch . The name Esch indicates a method of soil improvement that has been used in northern Germany for centuries and from which plague ash floors have formed. Material was repeatedly brought in from the nearby moor areas and from our own stables in order to fertilize the soil depleted by the cultivation of grain (so-called pest management ). The quantities brought in were sufficient to cover the original culture layer with a meter-high layer of soil and to preserve it for over 2000 years .

The Roman general Publius Quinctilius Varus was betrayed by his Germanic ally Arminius in 9 AD and defeated in a battle. The battlefield has not yet been finally localized for this battle, the most significant in German consciousness, but Kalkriese has been the favorite among the numerous theories and speculations about the location of the Varus Battle since 1988 . In 2000, the district of Osnabrück and the Foundation of the Sparkassen im Osnabrücker Land jointly established the Varusschlacht Museum Park to provide information about the excavations at the Oberesch site , which was supplemented in 2001 by a museum for the Kalkriese Museum and Park .

Find history

Terrain model of the narrows at Kalkrieser Berg

Collection of the von Bar family

Several centuries ago, farmers found Roman coins when tilling the fields in the area . The first reports date from 1692.

The von Bar family, who had their headquarters at the Alt Barenaue moated castle and later at the Neu Barenaue castle , promised the finders a reward. In this way, a coin collection was created from the end of the 17th century that goes back to Count Heinrich Sigismund von Bar (1655–1721).

The Osnabrück rector Zacharias Goeze (1662–1722) reported on the collection in 1698: “Mr. Heinrich Sigismund von Bar… showed 127 coins from his possession, both gold and silver, found in the soil of Barenaue. He wrote a small script with his own hand so carefully that hardly anyone could have done it better. ”The collection led to interpretations early on: the lawyer and philosopher Carl Gerhard Wilhelm Lodtmann (1720–1755) assigned the finds to the campaigns of Germanicus and to a cavalry battle as part of the Battle of the Angrivarian Wall : “The place itself is a little away from the earth wall and the Dümmersee and does not fit the fight. Therefore it can be said that there was a fight between riders of both peoples. "

The lawyer and historian Justus Möser (1720–1794) also suspected a connection with the Battle of the Angrivarian Wall in 1780: “The victory that Germanicus achieved on the retreat at the Damme, which divided the Angrivarians and Cheruscans, should be close to Damme had occurred at this vörden; and various coins have been found in the areas there. A good part of it is with the Count von Bar zu Barenau. "

The Osnabrück syndic Johann Eberhard Stüve interpreted the findings as a legacy of the Varus Battle in 1789: “Many are of the opinion that this meeting took place in the Detmold area. But the river flowing through the Hochstift, called the Dute, the very mountainous area, the many Roman coins that show the Emperor Augustus' name, which are still found, and other circumstances make it very likely that the place of this defeat was in the Hochstift Osnabrück, namely where it borders with the county of Tecklenburg, is to be looked for. "

The historian Paul Höfer suspected the battle of the Angrivarian Wall not far from Kalkriese an der Hunte in 1884 . He cited the Barenau treasure as evidence, which he himself had carefully inspected. The gold coins that were once in the collection are said to have been lost during the French occupation. He wrote: "The coins are to be seen as the remnants of that battle on the Angrivarenwalle, which after Tacitus extended to the swamps (the great moor)."

The historian Theodor Mommsen had the collection examined by the Berlin numismatist Julius Menadier in December 1884 . At that time the collection consisted of an aureus , 179 denarii and two aces . In 1885 he interpreted Kalkriese as the scene of the Varus Battle based on the coin finds and the topography of their location. On January 15, 1885, Mommsen presented his conclusion to the Prussian Academy of Sciences : "In my opinion, the coins found in and near Barenau belong to the estate of the Varus army that perished in the Venner Moor in AD 9."

The historian Friedrich Tewes from Hanover contradicted Mommsen and assigned the finds on December 27, 1887 to the Germanicus campaigns of 15 AD: “The terrain between Barenau and Engter has no walls or other clues, and as is known, has Mommsen tries to justify his hypothesis only with the Roman coins allegedly found in the immediate vicinity of Barenau, which are now in the possession of the Erblanddrosten von Bar. The latter now gladly allowed the inspection of the collection, whose republican and Augustan denarii, according to tradition, are said to have been brought to light individually by the blow of the plague. However, this is countered by the oxidation of the coins, which, as I have been able to observe so far, only appeared in this way in larger finds and never in individual finds. This significantly weakens the evidential value. All of the hypotheses put forward with regard to the theaters of war in AD 9, 15 and 16 are still on very weak feet, after all, the assumption is that the fighting in AD 15 took place in the area between Barenau and Closer or in Dieven-Moor, which was justified, since the terrain there can be easily reconciled with that described by Tacitus and others and the direction of the Bohlweg discussed can also be related to it. "

One of the other finds in 1908 was a gold coin. The collection also contained coins from Meppen and possibly from Spain. Mommsen already suspected a mixture with non-local finds. The treasure was stolen during the occupation by British troops in 1945 and has largely been lost to this day. In 1963, the discovery of a silver coin received little attention.

Finds from Major Clunn

The discovery of the three slingshot leads in 1988 triggered the archaeological excavations in Kalkriese.

In 1987 the British officer and probe-man Major Tony Clunn discovered 160 silver coins and two game pieces ( latrunculi ) in a deposit on the Lutterkrug parcel with a modern, sensitive metal detector .

In the summer of 1988 he found three slingshot leads . It was the first military equipment from Roman times to be found in this area. They also suggest the presence of auxiliary troops , as soldiers recruited mainly in the Mediterranean region used such projectiles.

Finds from the organized excavation

Systematic investigations were carried out after Clunn's findings and are still ongoing.

Many finds have been made in the area such as coins, military equipment, bones and ramparts . With a few exceptions, these were small pieces and fragments that either escaped systematic looting of a battlefield or were not worth the fuss of the victors. The easternmost sites are five to six kilometers east of the Kalkrieser Berg in the Schwagstorf and Ostercappeln districts.


Model of the presumed German wall in the Kalkriese Museum

In 1990, an approximately 400-meter-long rampart running in an east-west direction was discovered on the central site in Oberesch . Built mainly from sod , it should have had a bottom width of four and a half to five meters. It did not have a fortification ditch in front, but was provided with a narrow ditch interpreted as drainage on the (then assumed) rear front. Their original height is estimated to be two meters. The rampart was initially referred to as the "Germanenwall" and interpreted as part of the ambush from which the Roman marching columns were attacked (so-called defile battle).

Reconstruction of the ramparts at the first site on the Oberesch site

Many small parts such as copper coins or fragments were found on the ramparts. According to Susanne Wilbers-Rost's interpretation , the wall was designed in such a way that it was particularly easy to attack from. The wall had post pits of a parapet , culverts and a ditch .

A larger, ornate silver sheet fragment, which was found in 2005 together with a bent bronze sheet in a partly hollow, partly V-shaped trench at the western end of the wall, indicates that the trench running at right angles to the wall was only filled after the fighting . Because of the amount of work with which the long trench on the south side was dug, the archaeologists considered the site to be of strategic importance. Assuming a defile battle at the time, it could have had the function of preventing opponents from advancing behind the wall. According to the Marschlager hypothesis discussed from 2016 onwards, the originally assumed “rear front” in the south would in reality have been the outside of the (in this case Roman) wall.

A dolabra , a Roman entrenchment tool, was also found on the suspected Germanic wall

During the excavation campaign in 2016, a metal ring with small signs of wear was found, which was identified as part of a sword hanger used by the Roman military. While maintaining the previous interpretation of the battle, it could be interpreted as an indication that parts of the fighting Roman troops escaped to the north.

In addition, in 2016 the archaeologists discovered a wall-ditch system on the site of today's archeology park. It is located around 125 meters north of the well-known Wall on Oberesch and extends - at least in the narrow part that was uncovered by the excavation cut - also in an east-west direction, i.e. parallel to the Wall on Oberesch. The upstream ditch runs along the north side of the wall. Late Augustan weapon parts were also found, including bolts that can be assigned to Roman catapult projectiles and that suggest fighting on the wall.

Due to the narrow extract from the find, it was not possible to make any definite statements as to whether and in what way the battle situation in Kalkriese should be reassessed. A scenario that seems plausible is that the newly excavated complex forms the northern wall of a Roman marshland . The bottleneck, previously interpreted as an ambush, would then have to be reinterpreted. The Wall am Oberesch would be the southern counterpart and not, as previously assumed, part of a Germanic ambush. Such a warehouse was proposed by Wolfgang Schlüter in 2011. Doubts about the establishment of the found wall-ditch system by Germanic peoples, which he published only in 2017, were raised by a student involved in the excavations in 2004 to the Museum and Park Kalkriese .

The excavations in 2017, which, as in 2016, were led by the archaeologist Salvatore Ortisi , found further evidence of a Roman marching camp in which the Romans may have holed up. The hoard with 220 Roman coins found in the spring of 2017 in an area between 50 and 150 meters north of the wall at Oberesch could be interpreted as the legionnaires' troop coffers, which would most likely have been kept within a camp. According to Ortisi, the irregular course of the ramparts found also suggests that the Romans built them in a great hurry. According to the latest interpretations, the now exposed sections of the wall, like the wall found years ago in the south, are parts of a Roman fortification, so that the theory of the Germanic wall can no longer be upheld.

Assuming the usual form of Roman camps, the presumed marching camp in Kalkriese would cover around six hectares and offer space for 3,000 to 4,000 soldiers. That would make it too small for the armies of Germanicus (16 AD, Battle of the Angrivarian Wall) or Caecina (15 AD, Battle of the pontes longi). However, it would go well with a late phase of the Varus Battle, which lasted several days, when most of the three legions of the Varus had already been wiped out. Therefore, even after his discoveries, Ortisi sticks to the assumption that the Kalkriese site is probably a testimony to the Varus event.


In 1987 discovered hoard of Roman silver coins

The most important finds and findings include several thousand Roman gold, silver and copper coins. The latter were legionnaires' money. Most of them date from the reign of Emperor Augustus, the others are older. Only the most recent coins are of interest in classifying the find. So far, no Roman coins have been found that were minted later than 9 AD. Copper coins with the counterstamp of the Varus ("VAR"), which were minted in the years 7 to 9 AD , were found among others . A total of seven hoard finds with coins have been discovered in the Kalkriese region so far (2017) .

An excavation site on the battlefield

The coin finds by Assen in the Kalkriese region consisted of smaller pieces of seals that were usually used to close the sachet of writing utensils. Their frequent occurrence in the Kalkriese area leads to the assumption that the burial of the personal belongings of the Roman soldiers before a battle was organized by the army in order to avoid property conflicts, depending on the outcome of the battle, and to be able to return their personal effects to the soldiers involved . Similar rules will have existed for the wounded and the dead.

The type, amount and distribution of coins found allow the hypothesis that Kalkriese is one of many battlefields of the fallen legions. The widespread distribution of all the finds, as well as the coin, individual and hoard finds, makes the interpretation as lost property unlikely. The fork in the find about 500 meters west of the excavation site , however, indicates an uncoordinated and haphazard approach by the Romans during a battle.

During the excavations in 2016, eight Roman gold coins from the period between 2 BC were found in a pit. BC and 5th AD, which were probably hidden there. The coins had a high value in ancient times. They are of the Gaius-Lucius type and show the head of Emperor Augustus on the obverse. On the back are the imperial princes Gaius and Lucius. The coins were exhibited in the Kalkriese Museum and Park just a few months after they were found.

In March 2017, archaeologists found around 220 Roman silver coins that were about 10 cm deep in the ground while exploring the ground with the metal detector. It is the largest hoard find so far east of the Rhine. Although the individual finds were distributed over around 150 m², the archaeologists assume that they were laid down together and later attribute the distribution to fallen trees. The site is located in a wooded area about 150 meters north of the previously known "battlefield" with the reconstructed "Germanenwall". The found coins are denarii from the late Roman Republic and the first decades of Augustus' reign . The oldest pieces date from 180 BC. BC, while the youngest are of the Gaius-Lucius type and around 2 to 1 BC. Were minted. Some of the coins are in good condition and their designs are easily recognizable. According to the scientists' suspicions, it could be money from a Roman troop coffers. The coins weigh almost a kilo and are roughly equivalent in value to the annual salary of a legionnaire.

Just like the eight gold coins found in the previous year, the latest hoard find supports the previous dating of the location, as the coins were minted before 7 AD. The location of the treasure find in the area north of the Wall at Oberesch, discovered in 1990, where the Germanic attackers must have been based according to the previous reconstructions, is also used as an indication to support the hypothesis of a Roman march strike. It is unlikely that it was a Germanic's booty, as there were no other pieces of metal or equipment between the coins. If it was a troop coffers, the most plausible repository would have been inside a camp.

Equipment parts

The iron face mask shows remnants of a coating made of sheet silver and was part of a mask helmet.

The finds also include an iron face mask , once covered with sheet silver, of the helmet of a Roman rider. It was found in 1990.

In 1992 the bronze lip of a sword scabbard came out of the ground. The results of the research were presented to the public in 2007. The mouth plate bears an owner incised inscription with the abbreviation LPA . The inscription can be read as L (egio) P (rima) A (ugusta).

The excavators found various parts of the equipment of riding and draft animals, such as a cowbell converted into a drawbar end or a bronze pendant on a horse harness that also served as an amulet.

There are also finds from various craft areas. A bronze bone lifter and a bronze scalpel handle indicate the presence of doctors and the lead plumb bobs found on surveyors.


From 1994 several pits filled with human and animal bones were found, and in the summer of 2000 the remains of a four-year-old harnessed mule with a broken neck, which was apparently buried by a rampart that collapsed during the fight. Until 2001 the remains of 8 horses and 30 mules were found.

The remnants of human bones from a total of 17 individuals were all from healthy men between the ages of 25 and 45 years. Some bones show signs of cutting, for example a human skull that was split open by a sword cut. The anthropological findings also indicate that the skeletons have been lying on the surface of the earth for several years, which is concluded due to the dry fractures of the bones and the disordered introduction of incomplete skeletons into the pits. The scientific studies of horse and mule bones show, among other things, that all animals died in late summer or autumn.


What if it was not Teutons but Romans who built this wall?
The Kalkrieser Museum tries to document the further development of the research discussions with pasted on additional texts.

The interpretations presented below would have to be modified by final findings from the Wall-Graben system discovered from 2016.

Interpretation as finds from the Varus Battle

Even if the discussion is not over, the vast majority of historians consider a connection between Kalkriese and the Varus Battle to be at least a plausible hypothesis based on a number of circumstantial evidence. After the spectacular discoveries in 2016 and 2017, Salvatore Ortisi also sticks to the assumption that the location is evidence of the "varus event". This designation preferred by him is intended to avoid the expression “Varus Battle”, which is felt to be too narrow for interpretation. Because the previous interpretation of the find area as the scene of a defile battle has become improbable due to the reinterpretation of the ramparts as parts of a marshland.

The most important witnesses and the only reliable basis for dating the events are the coins found, many of which have the counterstamp VAR (VARus) or VAL (VALa), i.e. Varus himself or his legate Vala. Coins after 10 to 15 AD have not yet been discovered, so this fact is used to interpret that a battle could not have taken place after 9 AD.

The dating of the coins and the discovery of the bone pits, the anthropological findings and the examinations of the animal bones also suggest that Kalkriese may be the site of the Varus Battle. The scattering of the finds fits in with the battle that took place over four days at different locations.

The special interest and the early decision, which some scientists criticized as premature, that the location of the Varus Battle was concerned, led to the fact that the excavations, which were still ongoing, were made available to the public at an early stage. In 1993, a relatively short time after the first archaeological finds, an information room was opened on a farm. In 2000 the approximately 20 hectare Varusschlacht Museum Park was created, which was supplemented in 2001 by a museum for the Kalkriese Museum and Park .

The critics of the early definition include the historian Rainer Wiegels , the archaeologist Stephan Berke , the historian Peter Kehne as well as the numismatist and ancient historian Reinhard Wolters , the ancient historian Dieter Timpe and the medievalist Herwig Wolfram .

According to Peter Kehne, the small number of human individuals, the mingling with animal bones and the lack of remains of women and children speak against burial by soldiers of the Germanicus. Kehne interprets the ramparts with their pointed ditch facing south as a Roman security. The length of the wall and the size of the area that until then had been regarded as the battlefield could not correspond to the expected dimensions of the Varus Battle.

Interpretation as finds from the battle of Caecina

In the year 15 AD Germanicus began further campaigns in Germania after the description of Tacitus ( Germanicus campaigns 14 to 16 AD). The legions also visited the battlefield of the Varus Defeat and buried the remains of the fallen. A little later, Germanicus had his troops march back in three detachments, one of which was led by the Roman general Caecina . Arminius attacked this contingent in the battle of the Pontes longi . The pontes longi were a causeway or boardwalk, the surroundings of which are said to have shown topographical similarities with the site of the Varus Battle. The battle, also known as the Battle of Caecina , is similar to the Varus Battle in its course and also has other similarities with it. According to most historians, Tacitus deliberately described this great battle as a positive counterpart to the Varus Battle for the Romans, despite all the losses.

Since the archaeologists found a plank path barely ten kilometers as the crow flies from Kalkriese, which can be dendrochronologically dated to the year 15 AD and the pieces of wood found are interpreted as Germanic weapons with battle marks, the finds from Kalkriese are considered by some scientists to be the location interpreted the Battle of the Pontes Longi. A mouth plate of a sword scabbard, which was found in Kalkriese and presented to the public in 2007, which bears an owner incised inscription with the abbreviation "LPA", fits this battle. The inscription is read as L (egio) P (rima) A (ugusta). The 1st Legion was involved in the battle of Caecina and, according to Tacitus, was involved in particularly heavy fighting.

The thesis about a connection to Caecina is represented independently by the historians Peter Kehne and Reinhard Wolters.

Interpretation as relics of the Battle of the Angrivarian Wall

The assumptions regarding a connection with the Germanicus campaigns go back to Lodtmann in 1753 and Möser in 1780. The Angrivarian Wall is said to have extended to the Steinhuder Meer .

See also


  • Frank Berger : Kalkriese. - 1. The Roman coins found . Von Zabern, Mainz 1996, ISBN 3-8053-1917-7 .
  • Frank Berger: Current Varus Battles. In: Numismatisches Nachrichtenblatt . 53, 2004, pp. 267-273. ( online at: ( Memento from March 2, 2013 in the Internet Archive ))
  • Wilm Brepohl: New considerations on the Varus Battle. Aschendorff, Münster 2004, ISBN 3-402-03502-2 .
  • Mamoun Fansa (ed.): Varus battle and Germanic myth. A series of lectures on the occasion of the special exhibition Kalkriese - Römer im Osnabrücker Land in Oldenburg 1993. (= Archaeological Communications from Northwest Germany, Supplement. 9). 3. Edition. Isensee, Oldenburg 2001, ISBN 3-89598-235-0 .
  • Norbert Hanel, Susanne Wilbers-Rost , Frank Willer: The Kalkriese helmet mask. In: Bonner Jahrbücher. 204, 2004, pp. 71-91.
  • Joachim Harnecker: Arminius, Varus and the battlefield of Kalkriese. An introduction to the archaeological work and its results. 2nd Edition. Rasch, Bramsche 2002, ISBN 3-934005-40-3 .
  • Dieter Kestermann: Collection of sources for the Varus defeat. All texts by the ancient authors, in Latin and Greek with German translation. Horn, 1992, ISBN 3-88080-063-4 .
  • Gustav Adolf Lehmann , Rainer Wiegels (ed.): Roman presence and rule in Germania during the Augustan period. The Kalkriese site in the context of recent research and excavation findings . Contributions of the conference of the subject Ancient History of the University of Osnabrück and the commission 'Imperium and Barbaricum' of the Göttingen Academy of Sciences in Osnabrück (= treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen. Philological-historical class. Third volume . Volume 279). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2007, ISBN 978-3-525-82551-8 . (Review) .
  • Stefan Mischer among others: The Hermannsschlacht. DVD, Hamburg 2005. - Feature film, documentary, interviews and Leporello.
  • Wolfgang Schlueter (Ed.): Romans in the Osnabrücker Land. The archaeological investigations in the Kalkrieser-Niewedder Senke. Rasch, Bramsche 1991, ISBN 3-922469-57-4 .
  • Wolfgang Schlueter: Archaeological evidence of the Varus Battle? The investigations in the Kalkrieser-Niewedder Senke near Osnabrück. In: Germania. 70, 1992, pp. 307-402.
  • Wolfgang Schlueter (Ed.): Rome, Germania and the excavations of Kalkriese. International congress of the University of Osnabrück and the Landschaftsverband Osnabrücker Land e. V. from September 2nd to 5th, 1996. In: Osnabrück research on antiquity and the reception of antiquity 1. Osnabrück 1999, ISBN 3-932147-25-1 .
  • Wolfgang Schlueter : Was the Oberesch in Kalkriese the location of the last Varus camp? In: Osnabrücker Mitteilungen, Volume 116, 2011, pp. 9–32.
  • Michael Sommer : The Arminius Battle. Search for traces in the Teutoburg Forest (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 506). Kröner, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-520-50601-6 .
  • Peter S. Wells: The battle in the Teutoburg Forest . Artemis & Winkler, Düsseldorf / Zurich 2005, ISBN 3-7608-2308-4 .
  • Rainer Wiegels (Ed.): The Varus Battle. Turning point in history? (= Archeology in Germany, special issue ). Theiss, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-1760-5 . (with contributions by Rainer Wiegels, Armin Becker , Johann-Sebastian Kühlborn, Günther Moosbauer and others).
  • Rainer Wiegels, Winfried Woesler (Hrsg.): Arminius and the Varus battle. History - Myth - Literature. Schöningh, Paderborn 1995, ISBN 3-506-79751-4 . (including: Heinrich Seeba: Hermanns Kampf für Deutschlands Not ; Renate Stauf: Germanic myths and Greek myths as national identity myths ; Wolfgang Wittkowski: Arminius current: Kleists Hermannsschlacht and Goethe's Hermann ).
  • Reinhard Wolters : Hermeneutics of Ambush. The ancient reports on the Varus catastrophe and the Kalkriese site. In: Klio. 85/2003, pp. 131-170. (Wolters is one of the most prominent critics of the assumption that the finds at Kalkriese are related to the Varus Battle).
  • Michel Reddé, Siegmar von Schnurbein (ed.): Alésia et la bataille du Teutoburg. Un parallèle critique des sources. (= Supplements of Francia, edited by the German Historical Institute, Paris. Volume 66). Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Ostfildern 2008, ISBN 978-3-7995-7461-7 .
  • Ernst Andreas Friedrich : The bottleneck on the Kalkrieser Berg. In: If stones could talk. Volume II, Landbuch-Verlag, Hannover 1992, ISBN 3-7842-0479-1 , pp. 30-32.

Web links

Commons : Kalkriese  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b c Wolfgang Schlueter: The Varus Battle. Archaeological research in Kalkriese near Osnabrück. In: Detlev Hopp, Charlotte Trümpler: The early Roman Empire in the Ruhr area. Colloquium of the Ruhrland Museum and the city archeology / monument authority in cooperation with the University of Essen. Klartext Verlag , Essen, 2001, ISBN 3-89861-069-1 .
  2. a b Frank Berger in: Monetary History vs. Numismatics: Theodor Mommsen and the ancient coin. Berlin 2004, pp. 209 ff. (Online) .
  3. Wolfgang Spickermann u. a .: Coin finds in Kalkriese .
  4. ^ Zacharias Goeze: De Numis Dissertationis XX. 1698, cited after 1698 - Zacharias Goeze ( Memento of April 13, 2013 in the Internet Archive ).
  5. ^ A b Carl Gerhard Wilhelm Lodtmann: Monumenta Osnabrugensia. 1753: “Locus ipfe remotior parumper ab aggere, et a palude Dümmer, pugnae non conuenit; unde ibi inter utriusque gentis equites pugnatum videri potest. " . Translation after 1753 - Carl Gerhard Wilhelm Lodtmann ( Memento from April 13, 2013 in the Internet Archive ).
  6. a b Justus Möser: Osnabrück History. 1780, pp. 181–182, Osnabrück stories and individual historical writings, first part, third section, § 15.
  7. ^ Johann Eberhard Stüve: Description and history of the bishopric and principality Osnabrück: with some documents. Schmidt, Osnabrück 1789. Quoted from archive link ( Memento from September 19, 2010 in the Internet Archive ).
  8. ^ Paul Höfer: The campaign of Germanicus in the year 16 AD, 2nd edition, Bernburg 1885, p. 86.
  9. Theodor Mommsen quoted from Numa GT .
  10. Theodor Mommsen: The locality of the Varus battle. Berlin 1885.
  11. quoted after Patriotic squabbles about the true place of the Varus Battle. In: University of Osnabrück newspaper. Issue No. 96/3 of June 1, 1996, Meetings / Dates, p. 9 (online) ( Memento of June 25, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
  12. ^ Friedrich Tewes, 1887, cited after 1887 - Friedrich Tewes ( Memento from April 12, 2013 in the Internet Archive ).
  13. Wolfgang Schlüter: Between Lutherdamm and Oberesch - The Beginnings of the Kalkriese Project. In: Varus-Gesellschaft (ed.): Varus-Kurier . Georgsmarienhütte, April 2002, p. 7 ff.
  14. ^ Günther Matthias Moosbauer: Kalkriese or the latest research results on the Varus Battle. State history in the state parliament. Held on, lecture on the series of events, May 15, 2006. (online) .
  15. Susanne Wilbers-Rost: Always good for a surprise: excavations on the Oberesch. In: Varus-Gesellschaft (ed.): Varus-Kurier . Georgsmarienhütte, December 2006, p. 6 ff.
  16. Varus Battle a little clearer again at from June 8, 2016.
  17. ^ Preliminary report in the Neue Osnabrücker Zeitung , November 4, 2016.
  18. New finds in Kalkriese support doubts about the Varus Battle theory. In: Westfälische Nachrichten . August 12, 2016.
  19. Wolfgang Schlüter: Was the Oberesch in Kalkriese the location of the last Varus camp? In: Osnabrücker Mitteilungen. Volume 116, 2011, pp. 9-32.
  20. ^ Christian Böhling: The earth wall of Kalkriese. Problems in the interpretation as Germanic section fortification . Kalkriese, 2004 at , October 2017.
  21. Harff-Peter Schönherr: Peeing on the victory column. In: The daily newspaper . October 21, 2017.
  22. a b c d Johannes Loy: Roman marching camp discovered in Kalkriese. Like: where the Romans dug their way. Both in: Westfälische Nachrichten September 21, 2017, accessed March 2019.
  23. Roman ramparts near Kalkriese found at on September 21, 2017.
  24. a b Utz leather sheet: Considerable coin find in Kalkriese. Press release of the University of Osnabrück from March 31, 2017, idw , accessed in March 2019.
  25. a b c d e f Berthold Seewald: Archeology sensation on the battlefield. In: Die Welt , March 20, 2019, accessed on the same day:
    "I assume that we are dealing with Varus and not Germanicus in Kalkriese," says Ortisi.
  26. New findings from the excavations in Kalkriese. Roman fortifications discovered at the site of the Varus Battle , press release of the Museum and Park Kalkriese from September 21, 2017.
  27. Peter Kehne : Germanicus and the Germania campaigns 10 to 16 AD. In: LWL-Römermuseum Haltern am See (ed.), Rudolf Aßkamp, ​​Kai Jansen (edit.): Triumph ohne Sieg. Rome's end in Germania. Von Zabern, Mainz 2017, ISBN 978-3-8053-5065-5 , pp. 93-100 (here: p. 99).
  28. Small coins with great importance ( Memento from June 28, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) at from June 27, 2016.
  29. Sensational find: "Gold aus Kalkriese" is shown ( memento from November 11, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) at from November 10, 2016.
  30. Does the new coin discovery bring clarity to the debate about the Varus Battle? In: New Osnabrück Newspaper. March 31, 2017, accessed March 2019.
  31. New traces of the Varus Battle? In: Westfälische Nachrichten . March 31, 2017, accessed March 2019.
  32. Treasure trove with 200 silver coins in Kalkriese. In: WAZ , April 1, 2017, accessed March 2019.
  33. ^ Norbert Hanel, Susanne Wilbers-Rost, Frank Willer: The helmet mask from Kalkriese. In: Bonner Jahrbücher. 204, 2004, pp. 71-91.
  34. a b Legio I in Kalkriese? To an incised inscription on the lip of a Kalkriese sword scabbard. In: GA Lehmann, Rainer Wiegels (Hrsg.): Roman presence and rule in Germania of the Augustan time. Göttingen 2007, p. 89 ff.
  35. Kehne: Localization of the Varus Battle? In: Lippe messages from history and regional studies. Publishing house for regional history, Bielefeld 2009, 78th volume, p. 162.
  36. Thomas Finke: Do the remains of human bones from Kalkriese provide information on the Varus Battle? In: Varus-Gesellschaft (ed.): Varus-Kurier . Georgsmarienhütte, November 1998, p. 9 f.
  37. ^ Kurt Langguth: Laboratory preparation of the bone finds from Oberesch. In: Varus-Gesellschaft (ed.): Varus-Kurier . Georgsmarienhütte, November 1998, p. 10 f.
  38. ^ Susanne Wilbers-Rost, Hans-Peter Uerpmann, Margarethe Uerpmann, Birgit Großkopf, Eva Tolksdorf-Lienemann: Kalkriese 3. Interdisciplinary investigations on the Oberesch in Kalkriese. Archaeological findings and accompanying scientific studies. (= Roman-Germanic research. Volume 65). Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz 2007.
  39. Susanne Wilbers-Rost, Günther Moosbauer: The Varus Battle: 15 years of research in the Kalkrieser-Niewedder Senke. In: Varus-Gesellschaft (ed.): Varus-Kurier . Georgsmarienhütte, April 2002, p. 15 ff.
  40. ^ Cassius Dio: Römische Geschichte 56, 21, 3. (English).
  41. Reinhard Wolters quoted from: Matthias Schulz: Che Guevara im Nebelland . In: Der Spiegel . No. 11 , 2004 ( online - Mar. 8, 2004 ).
  42. Peter Kehne: Localization of the Varus Battle? A lot speaks against Mommsen - everything against Kalkriese. In: Lippische Mitteilungen . 78/2009.
  43. Publius Cornelius Tacitus: Annalen 1, 63, 7. (Latin).
  44. AE 2007, 1031 ; EDH: HD065549 .
  45. Stories about history from the region. In: Westfälische Nachrichten . January 5, 2006  ( page no longer available , search in web archives ).@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /

Coordinates: 52 ° 24 ′ 29 ″  N , 8 ° 7 ′ 46 ″  E