Closed construction (building law)
The construction method regulates the relationship between a building and the property's lateral boundaries. The legal basis is Building Use Ordinance (BauNVO). Then there are two basic variants: the open and the closed construction . In the open construction method, the buildings are erected with a lateral boundary spacing ( Bauwich ), in the closed construction method they are erected without a lateral boundary gap . The construction method is specified in the development plan. Section 22 (4) of the BauNVO also allows the municipality to specify a construction method that deviates from this.
With the closed construction method, the building plots are built over in full width between the lateral borders. A passage through the building to the rear part of the property is necessary if there are buildings or parking spaces. Development forms in closed construction are z. B. the block development along a street or along a street or terraced houses or apartment buildings .
If the building plots are not within a development plan, the buildability is regulated by BauGB . The buildings must then also blend in with the surrounding area in terms of the prevailing construction method.Paragraph 1 Clause 1
Advantages of the closed construction
- Due to the closed house front, disturbing influences such as noise, exhaust gases and wind remain on the street side in the public area.
- The public and private areas are clearly separated. This creates a private area in the gardens, which are secluded from the street.
- The elimination of the lateral green strips that exist in an open construction allows a more compact arrangement of the houses. This keeps the exploration costs lower.
- The closed construction enables a higher population density ; the space consumption and urban sprawl are ceteris paribus lower.
- Since walls that would otherwise take on the role of an exterior wall are used jointly with the closed construction method (see right of half of the courtyard ), insulation and cladding costs are saved.
Ideally, the street should run in an east-west direction, so that every house receives the same amount of sunlight and mutual shading is avoided.
Disadvantages of the closed construction
- Mutual interference from neighbors can be increased when the building is closed, for example in urban apartment buildings or in terraced houses with narrow lots.
- Connecting neighboring houses to one another reduces the possibilities for natural lighting and ventilation of the interior spaces (extreme example: row houses in back-to-back construction).
- With a closed construction, fires can spread faster, which is why additional safety measures such as fire protection walls are necessary.
- In the event of a demolition, consideration must also be given to the neighboring buildings.
- Building Directorate in the Office of the Lower Austrian State Government ( Memento of the original from March 12, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Martin Korda: Urban planning: technical basics. Wiesbaden 2005, p. 103.