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Iława coat of arms
Iława (Poland)
Basic data
State : Poland
Voivodeship : Warmia-Masuria
Powiat : Iława
Area : 21.88  km²
Geographic location : 53 ° 36 '  N , 19 ° 34'  E Coordinates: 53 ° 36 '0 "  N , 19 ° 34' 0"  E
Height : 100 m npm
Residents : 33,322
(Jun. 30, 2019)
Postal code : 14-200 to 14-210
Telephone code : (+48) 89
License plate : NILE
Economy and Transport
Street : DK 16 : Dolna Grupa - Grudziądz - Ełk - Ogrodniki / Lithuania
Ext. 521 : Iława– Kwidzyn
Ext. 536 : Iława – Sampława
Rail route : PKP line 9: Warsaw – Gdansk
PKP line 353: Toruń – Olsztyn
Next international airport : Danzig
Gminatype: Borough
Surface: 21.88 km²
Residents: 33,322
(Jun. 30, 2019)
Population density : 1523 inhabitants / km²
Community number  ( GUS ): 2807011
Administration (as of 2018)
Mayor : Dawid Kopaczewski
Address: ul. Niepodległości 13
14-200 Iława
Website : www.ilawa.pl

Listen to Iława ? / i (German German Eylau ) is the district town of the district of the same name in the Polish Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship . Audio file / audio sample

Geographical location

The city is located in the former West Prussia on the southern edge of the Geserichsee , about 45 kilometers southeast of Kwidzyn / Marienwerder and 61 kilometers southwest of Olsztyn / Allenstein.


German Eylau southeast of Marienwerder and northeast of Graudenz on a map from 1908.
town hall
Parish Church of St. Mary

The town's roots go back to the early Middle Ages, when a Prussian settlement was located in its place . In the course of the colonization of this area, the Teutonic Order built a farm and a mill on a peninsula on Geserichsee. The Christburger Komtur Sieghard von Schwartzburg founded a settlement here in 1305, which received town charter in 1317 with the handover of Commander Luther of Braunschweig . In later documents, for example the confirmation of the hand festivals of 1338, the name of the city is given in Latin as "Ylavia" and in German as "Ylaw" or "Ylau". From the Latin name "Ylow theutonicalis" used in the 15th century, "Deutsch Eylau" was finally created.

At the beginning of the 14th century, the order had built a presumably single-winged castle that lasted until the 18th century. Eylau was under the Christburg Commandery until 1340, after which it was assigned to the newly established Osterode Commandery . The Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, Heinrich von Plauen , had previously been the order nurse in Eylau for several years. The first economic successes came when the city imposed bridge and road tolls on the passing trade routes that had to pass an elongated bridge over the Geserichsee.

During the Prussian City War (1454–1466), Eylau joined the Prussian Federation , which had opposed the Teutonic Order with Poland. In 1457 Bohemian mercenaries sold the castle and town to Poland because of their outstanding wages. Polish troops occupied Eylau, but after a few months they were driven out by the inhabitants. In the course of the equestrian war , the city was occupied again by royal troops, but was recaptured by the order after a few days. Subsequently, Deutsch Eylau was pledged to various creditors. In the 16th century Eylau had 70 citizens; agriculture, fishing, shipping and the usual trades were practiced.

With the secularization of the Teutonic Order in 1525, Eylau belonged to the Duchy of Prussia . After the pledging in the 16th century, the Prussian chamberlain Ernst Graf Finck von Finckenstein acquired Deutsch-Eylau with all jurisdictions, with all farms and buildings, the fields, meadows and forests. In 1706 a major fire destroyed numerous buildings, including the town hall and the hospital. For the reconstruction, the city was dependent on outside help, but because of the subsequent plague years progress was slow at first. The city experienced a significant boom when a garrison was set up in Deutsch Eylau in 1719 . During the Seven Years' War Deutsch Eylau was occupied by Russian troops from 1758 to 1762 . At the end of the 18th century the city had 1045 inhabitants.

After the Prussian administrative reform of 1815, Deutsch Eylau was assigned to the newly formed Rosenberg district in West Prussia . Economic development advanced. In 1822 the city secured the income from the Geserichsee, which is rich in fish and finally became the property of the city in 1845, through long leases. In 1860 a connection to the Oberland Canal was created, with which Eylau received a ship connection to Elbing . In 1872 it was connected to the Thorn – Allenstein railway line , and in 1892 the road to Allenstein was completed. At the turn of the 20th century, numerous factories had settled, including an iron foundry, a machine factory and a cement factory. With the opening of further railway lines to Marienburg (1877) and Strasburg i. Wpr. (1902) Eylau developed into an important railway junction. At the beginning of the 20th century, Deutsch Eylau had a Protestant church, a Catholic church, a synagogue , a Progymnasium and a district court.

After the First World War, the Versailles Treaty stipulated that a referendum on membership of the German Reich or Poland would take place in areas of West Prussia. The vote took place on July 11, 1920, in Deutsch Eylau, 4,746 (95.3 percent) of the electorate voted for the Reich, Poland had 235 votes. In the meantime, tourism had also grown in importance for the city. Because of its attractive location on Geserichsee, it was called the pearl of the Oberland.

Before the outbreak of the Second World War, 12,772 inhabitants were counted in 1939, of which 81 percent were Protestant.

Towards the end of the Second World War , because of its strategic importance as a railway junction in January 1945, fierce fighting broke out between the German Wehrmacht and the Red Army . Severe destruction was the result. On January 23, the city was occupied by a Red Army tank brigade. On May 23, 1945 the city was placed under Polish administration. The Polish place name was Iława . At the end of 1945, 1,138 people were still living in the city. Unless the German population had fled, they were subsequently expelled .

The Geserichsee is a center of water sports tourism.


year Residents Remarks
1789 0 1,045 with the garrison (137 people, a squadron of Dragoons ), all Germans
1802 1,516
1810 1,374
1816 1,576 including 1,297 Protestants, 205 Catholics and 74 Jews
1821 1,492
1831 0 1,628
1871 03,472 including 2,800 Evangelicals and 400 Catholics (60 Poles )
1875 03,832
1880 04.126
1890 05,701 902 Catholics and 134 Jews
1900 08,074 with the garrison (staff of the 72nd Infantry Brigade , two infantry battalions No. 59, one infantry battalion No. 152, three squadrons of cuirassiers No. 5 and two divisions of field artillery No. 35), mostly Protestant
1910 10,087
1925 11,242 of which 9,377 Protestants, 1,581 Catholics, 26 other Christians and 110 Jews
1933 12,836 of which 10,731 Protestants, 1,947 Catholics, three other Christians and 84 Jews
1939 12,772 of which 10,347 Protestants, 1,911 Catholics and 320 other Christians (not Jews)
1943 13,691
1945 1,138
1960 12,029
2016 33,108


The city's Catholic parish church was built from 1317 to 1325 in the brick Gothic style and was consecrated to Mary. It replaced an older chapel of St. Nicholas. Between 1548 and 1550, expansions were made, such as the addition of the church tower, which was connected to the north side of the choir with its typical landscape gable . A northern extension was added in 1642 and the vestibule to the west in 1904. Johan Heinrich Selcke from Riesenburg created the main altar in rococo style in 1740 . The altar painting, inserted in 1790, comes from the Berlin painter Bernhard Rode . A wooden crucifix dates from the second half of the 14th century, the bronze altar candlestick from the 15th century. During construction work in 1975, wall paintings from the early days of the building were uncovered.

The town hall was built between 1910 and 1912 in neo-baroque style. It is a three-wing building with an open forecourt facing the street. The central wing has a square tower with a baroque hood. The three high windows of the conference room are located on the first floor between the two side projections . Arcades are built in front of each of the side wings.

Twin cities

sons and daughters of the town

Rural community

The city of Iława is the administrative seat of the rural municipality of Iława , but it does not belong to it as an independent municipality. The rural community has 11,703 inhabitants (2005) on an area of ​​423.55 km².


in order of appearance
  • Daniel Heinrich Arnoldt : Brief messages from all preachers who have admitted to the Lutheran churches in East Prussia since the Reformation . Königsberg 1777, pp. 495-497.
  • Johann Friedrich Goldbeck : Complete topography of the Kingdom of Prussia . Part II: Topography of West Prussia , Marienwerder 1789, pp. 9-10, no. 6.
  • August Eduard Preuss : Prussian country and folklore . Königsberg 1835, pp. 435–436, no. 42.
  • Georg Gerullis: The old Prussian place names. Treated historically and linguistically . De Gruyter, Berlin et al. 1922, p. 40.
  • Erich Weise (Hrsg.): Handbook of historical places . Volume: East and West Prussia (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 317). Unchanged reprint of the 1st edition 1966. Kröner, Stuttgart 1981, ISBN 3-520-31701-X .
  • Maria Biolik: tributaries to the Baltic Sea between the lower Vistula and Pregel . = Nazwy wodne dopływów Bałtyku między dolną Wisłą a Pregołą . Steiner-Verlag Wiesbaden, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-515-05521-5 , p. 12 ( Hydronymia Europaea ).
  • Georg Hermanowski , Heinz Georg Podehl: East Prussia Lexicon. Geography, history, culture. License issue. Bechtermünz, Augsburg 1996, ISBN 3-86047-186-4 .
  • Rozalia Przybytek: place names of Baltic origin in the southern part of East Prussia . = Nazwy miejscowe pochodzenia bałtyckiego w południowej części Prus Wschodnich . Steiner, Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-515-06449-4 , p. 86 ( Hydronymia Europaea special volume 1).

Web links

Commons : Iława  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
  2. a b Meyer's Large Conversation Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 4, Leipzig / Vienna 1906, p. 755.
  3. Herbert Marzian , Csaba Kenez : self-determination for East Germany. Documentation on the 50th anniversary of the East and West Prussian referendum on July 11, 1920. Editor: Göttinger Arbeitskreis , 1970, p. 120
  4. ^ Johann Friedrich Goldbeck : Complete topography of the Kingdom of Prussia . Part II: Topography of West Prussia , Marienwerder 1789, pp. 9-10, no. 6.
  5. a b c d Alexander August Mützell and Leopold Krug : New topographical-statistical-geographical dictionary of the Prussian state . Volume 5: T – Z , Halle 1823, pp. 274–275, item 143.
  6. ^ August Eduard Preuss : Prussian country and folklore . Königsberg 1835, p. 435, no. 42.
  7. ^ Gustav Neumann: Geography of the Prussian State . 2nd edition, Volume 2, Berlin 1874, pp. 49-50, item 3.
  8. a b c d e f Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. Province of West Prussia, district of Rosenberg. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
  9. ^ Ernst Bahr: German Eylau . In: Erich Weise (Hrsg.): Handbook of historical sites. Volume: East and West Prussia (= Kröner's pocket edition. Volume 317). Unchanged reprint of the 1st edition 1966. Kröner, Stuttgart 1981, ISBN 3-520-31701-X , pp. 37-38.
  10. ^ Andreas Mettenleiter : Personal reports, memories, diaries and letters from German-speaking doctors. Supplements and supplements II (A – H). In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 21, 2002, pp. 490-518, here p. 504 f.