Johannes Nider (* before 1385 in Isny im Allgäu ; † August 13, 1438 in Nuremberg ) was a German theologian and member of the Dominican order . As a church reformer, he is considered to be one of the pioneers of the "strict observance " movement, which was concerned with the strict observance of the rules of the order.
Niders father, a cobbler died very early. Johannes Nider, who was born around 1380, probably received his school education from the Benedictines in the monastery of St. Georg (Isny) in his hometown. In 1402 he entered the reformed Dominican convent in Colmar in Alsace. Soon afterwards his order sent him to Worms, then to Strasbourg, where he preached from 1404 together with his friar Johannes Mulberg . From 1414 Nider represented his order at the Council of Constance ; there he came into contact with the Hussites . He probably did not attend the execution of Jan Hus in 1415, but he did attend other executions. After the Council of Constance in 1418, Nider may have gone to Italy, where he also worked as a reformer, but his exact whereabouts at this time are unclear. From 1422 he studied in Cologne and Vienna and obtained his doctorate in 1426. In 1427 he was appointed prior of the Dominican monastery in Nuremberg , where he worked until 1429. In 1429 he was entrusted with reforming the Dominican monastery in Basel , which, thanks to the work of Nider, soon became a “model Dominican convent”. The Basel Dominican Convention thus became one of the negotiating venues for the Basel Council . Johannes Nider gave the sermon for its opening on July 27, 1431 in Basel Minster . He was one of the leading figures at this council. In 1434 he had to leave the conciliar negotiations after he had been transferred to the Vienna Dominican Convention as lecturer of the Sentences . In 1436 he became dean of the local theological faculty . Nider died in Nuremberg on August 13, 1438.
Work and meaning
In his writings, through his sermons and as the person responsible for several houses of his order, Nider endeavored to reform the church of his time, the secular clergy and the monasteries. He also required laypeople to live according to the monastic ideals.
From his extensive literature well into the 20th century, attention was paid almost exclusively to his work Formicarius (German: The Ant State ), published in Latin around 1435/1437 , which in the late 15th century and also afterwards often together with the witch's hammer by Heinrich Institoris was reprinted. The Formicarius is one of the sources of quotations most used by the Hexenhammer and an important testimony to the history of the witch hunts , as Nider comments on the superstitious ideas of the late Middle Ages about witchcraft, nigromance (necromancy) and obsession . In the form of a dialogue between a theologian and a "lazy" person, Nider drew a comparison between the various excesses of heresy and the species of ants . The book takes on the clergy of the times and reforms.
- De reformatione religiosorum seu status coenobitici
- Four and twenty guldin harps
- De saecularium religionibus
- De paupertate perfecta
- Praeceptorium divinae legis, sive Expositio decalogi . Michael Greyff, Reutlingen not after 1479 ( digitized version )
- Praeceptorium divinae legis, sive Expositio decalogi . Ulrich Zell, Cologne around 1475/80 ( digitized version )
- Tractatus de morali lepra
- De vigore consuetudinis et dispensatione canonica
- De abstinentia esus carnium
- Consolatorium timoratae conscientiae . - Cologne: Printer of the Pseudo - Augustinus, De fide (GW 2953), around 1473. Digitized edition of the University and State Library of Düsseldorf
- De morali lepra . Konrad Winters, Cologne around 1479. ( digitized version )
- De contractibus mercatorum . Konrad Winters, Cologne around 1479 ( digitized version )
- Dispositorium moriendi
- Tractatus de vera et falsa nobilitate
- Tractatus de contractibus mercatorum (for general pastoral care)
- Formicarius . Ulrich Zell, Cologne not after September 1473 ( digitized version )
- Contra heresim hussitarum (on the Hussite question)
- GGD Mansi, Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, 1757-98, Vol. 29, pp. 441-44. 613-17. 633-34. 643-44 (collection of letters)
- Sermones de tempore et de sanctis cum quadragesimali . Johann Koelhoff the Elder Ä., Cologne around 1482 ( digitized version )
- Sermones totius anni et de sanctis cum quadragesimali.
- Manuale confessorum. Johann von Paderborn, Löwen 1484 / 85-1487 ( digitized version )
- De morali lepra. Johann von Paderborn, Leuven around 1485 ( digitized version )
- A list of Nider's writings and an overview of the handwritten tradition and the prints in: Thomas Kaeppeli, Scriptores Ordinis Praedicatorum medii aevi, Vol. 2, 1975, pp. 500–15.
- Michael D. Bailey: Nider, Johannes , in: Richard M. Golden (ed.), Encyclopedia of Witchcraft, Santa Barbara, California 2006, pp. 826-828
- Paul Beck : Nider, Johannes . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 23, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1886, pp. 641-646.
- Marie-Luise Ehrenschwendtner: Johhannes Nider. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 3, Bautz, Herzberg 1992, ISBN 3-88309-035-2 , Sp. 502-505.
- Eugen Hillenbrand : Nider, Johannes OP In: Kurt Ruh (ed.), The German literature of the Middle Ages. Author's Lexicon, Volume 6, 2nd Edition Berlin 1987, Sp. 971-977
- Peter Segl: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 19, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-428-00200-8 , p. 211 f. ( ). In:
Essays and books
- Stefan Abel: Johannes Nider - Life, Thought and Effect . In: Stefan Abel: Johannes Nider: The twenty-four golden harps. Edition and commentary . Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2011. ISBN 978-3-16-150610-9 . Pp. 7-43.
- Michael D. Bailey: Battling Demons. Witchcraft, Heresy and Reform in the Late Middle Ages , Pennsylvania 2003 (Magic in History)
- Paul Beck : The Dominican Johannes Nider (approx. 1380 to 1438) from Isni . In: Diöcesan-Archiv von Schwaben , 12th year 1894, issue 15, pp. 57–60 ( digitized version )
- Andreas Blauert: Early witch hunt. Heretic, sorcery and witch trials of the 15th century , Hamburg 1989
- Gábor Klaniczay: Entre visions angéliques et transes chamaniques: le sabbat des sorcières dans le Formicarius de Nider , in: Médiévales 44/2003, pp. 47–72 ( available online )
- Gábor Klaniczay: The Process of Trance, Heavenly and Diabolic Apparitions in Johannes Nider's Formicarius , in: Discussion Paper Series 65/2003, pp. 2–81 ( available online ( Memento from May 25, 2005 in the Internet Archive ); PDF; 1, 3 MB)
- K. Schieler: Magister Johannes Nieder from the order of the Preacher Brothers. A contribution to ecclesiastical history in the fifteenth century . Verlag Franz Kirchheim, Mainz 1885. online
- Werner Tschacher: The Formicarius of Johannes Nider from 1437/38. Studies on the beginnings of the European witch hunts in the late Middle Ages , (= reports from historical science), (Zugl .: Aachen, Techn. Hochsch., Diss., 1998), Aachen 2000 ISBN 3-8265-8141-5
- Bettina Wagner: Nider, Johannes OP . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 6, Artemis & Winkler, Munich / Zurich 1993, ISBN 3-7608-8906-9 , Sp. 1136.
- Michael D. Bailey: Battling Demons. Witchcraft, Heresy and Reform in the Late Middle Ages , Pennsylvania 2003 (Magic in History), p. 14
- Stefan Abel: Introduction and overview of the Nider research . In: Stefan Abel: Johannes Nider: The twenty-four golden harps. Edition and commentary . Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2011, pp. 1-6.
- Sabine von Heusinger: Johannes Mulberg OP († 1414). A life in the field of tension between Dominican observance and the dispute between the Beguines . Akademie Verlag, Berlin 2000. ISBN 3-05-003543-9 .
- Michael D. Bailey: Battling Demons. Witchcraft, Heresy and Reform in the Late Middle Ages , Pennsylvania 2003 (Magic in History), p. 17
- Bettina Wagner : Nider, Johannes OP . In: Lexikon des Mittelalters , Stuttgart 1993, Vol. 6, Sp. 1136.
- Stefan Abel: Johannes Nider: The twenty-four golden harps. Edition and commentary . Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2011, p. 9.
- František Palacký (ed.): Monumenta conciliorum generalium seculi decimi quinti. Concilium Basileense scriptores . Vol. 1, Vienna 1857, p. 92.
- Stefan Abel: Johannes Nider: The twenty-four golden harps. Edition and commentary . Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2011, p. 11.
- Michael D. Bailey: Battling Demons. Witchcraft, Heresy and Reform in the Late Middle Ages , Pennsylvania 2003 (Magic in History), p. 3
- “Nider, Johannes”, from: Lexicon for the history of witch hunt, ed. v. Gudrun Gersmann, Katrin Moeller u. Jürgen-Michael Schmidt, in: historicum.net (page accessed on February 26, 2008)
- Stefan Abel: Johannes Nider, 'The twenty-four golden harps'. Edition and commentary. (= Late Middle Ages, Humanism, Reformation. 60), Tübingen 2011.
- Ingrid Heeg-Engelhart: The women's monasteries. In: Ulrich Wagner (Hrsg.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes, Volume I-III / 2 (I: From the beginnings to the outbreak of the Peasant War. 2001, ISBN 3-8062-1465-4 ; II: From the Peasant War 1525 to the transition to the Kingdom of Bavaria 1814. 2004, ISBN 3 -8062-1477-8 ; III / 1–2: From the transition to Bavaria to the 21st century. 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-1478-9 ), Theiss, Stuttgart 2001–2007, Volume 1 (2001), Pp. 272–294 and 625–634, here (on the incunable belonging to the former Würzburg monastery “Sanct Ulrich zu der genaden porten”): pp. 279 and 628.
- Works by and about Johannes Nider in the German Digital Library
- Article “ Nider, Johannes ” in the encyclopedia on the history of the witch hunt
- Johannes Nider in the repertory "Historical Sources of the German Middle Ages"
- Martina Wehrli-Johns: Nider, Johannes. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
- The book decoration of a manuscript dated 1437, which contains the Manuale confessorum and the Tractatus de lepra morali , was described in the short inventory of the illuminated manuscripts of the Herzogenburg Abbey (Cod. 11 >> link )
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German Dominican|
|DATE OF BIRTH||before 1385|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Isny in the Allgäu|
|DATE OF DEATH||August 13, 1438|
|Place of death||Nuremberg|