Branda Castiglione , sometimes also Castiglioni , (* before 1360 in Milan ; † February 3, 1443 in Castiglione Olona ) was an Italian humanist , cardinal and papal legate who was active in large parts of Europe in the first half of the 15th century. He was characterized by humanistic erudition, eloquence, diplomatic skills and church reform zeal; at the same time he distinguished himself as a friend and patron of science and art.
He studied civil and canon law in Pavia and completed his studies with a doctorate in both rights . Its religious development was influenced by the Bohemian Devotio moderna when leading representatives of this reform direction came to Italy in the 1990s; here he got to know the thoughts of the reform preacher Konrad von Waldhausen (1325-1369). From 1389 he came into contact with the Pope on a diplomatic mission on behalf of Gian Galeazzo Visconti . In 1404 he became bishop of Piacenza , but in 1409 by Gregory XII. discontinued. In 1412 he became bishop and count of Veszprém (Weißenbrunn / Hungary). Cardinal priest of San Clemente since 1411 , he was papal legate in Hungary (from 1410) and in Germania (from 1413). In King Sigismund's entourage he traveled extensively in Germany, Hungary and Poland. He also took part in the councils of Pisa (1409), Constance (1414-1418) and Basel (1431-1445). He was always concerned with the unity of Christianity, both with regard to the papal schism and the Eastern Church. He was the driving force behind the crusades against the Hussites and appointed Nikolaus von Dinkelsbühl as the official Hussite crusade preacher in 1421 . Appointed reformer generalis for all of Germany in 1421 , he strove to reform the clergy and the religious lifestyle. Cardinal Branda drafted reform statutes that could form the basis for church and monastery reforms (as they were then implemented in the Pillenreuth monastery, for example ).
In 1423 at the age of over 70, he began a lively construction activity in his hometown Castiglione, for which he brought in important artists. Castiglione is still shaped by it today. At the same time he was committed to education and social support by founding the Collegio Branda at the University of Pavia and by setting up schools and poor aid in his home town. On March 14, 1431 he was appointed cardinal bishop of the suburbicarian diocese of Porto-Santa Rufina . In 1433 he presided over a particular council convened by the Duke of Milan. On January 29, 1440 he moved to the suburbicarian bishopric of Sabina , which he held until his death.
Cardinal Branda died very old in 1443 and was buried in the church of Castiglione, where his tomb has survived.
- Dieter Girgensohn : Castiglione, Branda. In: Alberto M. Ghisalberti (Ed.): Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (DBI). Volume 22: Castelvetro – Cavallotti. Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Rome 1979, pp. 69-75.
- Hermann Tüchle : The Mainz reform decree of Cardinal Branda. In: Remigius Bäumer (Ed.): From Konstanz to Trient. Contributions to the history of the church from the reform councils to the Tridentinum. Festival ceremony for August Franzen. Schöningh, Paderborn et al. 1972, ISBN 3-506-70570-9 , pp. 101-117.
- Castiglione, Branda. In: Salvador Miranda : The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. ( Florida International University website), accessed December 20, 2015.
- Life and work (Italian) , on the pages of the Comune
- Publications about Branda Castiglione in the Opac der Regesta Imperii
Cardinal Bishop of Sabina
|Ludwig von Bar||
Cardinal Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina
Bishop of Wesprim
|Pietro IV. Manieri||
Bishop of Piacenza
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Castiglioni, Branda|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Italian humanist, cardinal and papal legate|
|DATE OF BIRTH||before 1360|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Milan|
|DATE OF DEATH||February 3, 1443|
|Place of death||Castiglione Olona|