Grand Canyon

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Grand Canyon
The rock layers in the Grand Canyon were exposed by the Colorado River.
The rock layers in the Grand Canyon were exposed by the Colorado River.
Grand Canyon (USA)
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Coordinates: 36 ° 6 ′ 0 ″  N , 112 ° 6 ′ 0 ″  W.
Location: Arizona , United States
Next city: Flagstaff
Surface: 4,862.89 km²
Founding: February 26, 1919
Visitors: 6,380,495 (2018)
Address: Grand Canyon National Park
P.O. Box 129
Grand Canyon, AZ 86023
Tel. (928) 638-7888
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The Grand Canyon [ grænd ˈkænjən ] is a steep, 450-kilometer-long canyon in the north of the US state of Arizona , which was dug from the Colorado River into the rock of the Colorado Plateau over millions of years .

The canyon is one of the great natural wonders on earth, in 2018 it was visited by over six million people. Most of it is in Grand Canyon National Park , which has been a World Heritage Site in the United States since 1979 .


The Grand Canyon stretches northeast to west in northern Arizona . It separates the northwest of the state, the so-called Arizona Strip , from the rest of Arizona. There are no bridges over the actual Grand Canyon, the south and north banks of the Colorado are connected by roads only east of the national park at Lees Ferry and Page or around 400 km further west over Nevada at Hoover Dam . The South Rim is accessible from Flagstaff , the North Rim and the Arizona Strip are sparsely populated, and the closest city is St. George in neighboring Utah .

The Grand Canyon is approximately 450 km long (350 km of which are within the national park ), between 6 and 30 km wide and up to 1,800 m deep. The name Grand Canyon for great or great was coined in 1869 by John Wesley Powell . Before that, various names were in use.

The area around the valley is divided into three regions: the South Rim, which attracts the most visitors, the North Rim , which is on average 300 m higher and cooler, and the Inner Canyon. The south rim of the Grand Canyon is on average 2100 m above sea level. M., while the Colorado on average at 750 m above sea level. M. flows.

Upriver, in southern Utah, lie other great Colorado canyons. The Glen Canyon, which has sunk into the Lake Powell reservoir since 1964 , was considered to be particularly scenic. Further to the northeast is Canyonlands National Park . Downriver, near Las Vegas , is Lake Mead Reservoir at Hoover Dam .


The Colorado River - an average of 100 m wide, while opposite edge plateaus can be more than 20 km apart

Settlement by Indians

People lived in the Grand Canyon area more than 3000 years ago. The Indians , called Desert Culture , were hunters and gatherers who could make baskets and sandals and who hunted with stone spearheads.

The peoples known as Anasazi settled in the area about 2000 years ago . They lived in mud huts and built their homes in the walls of the ravine. They lived from agriculture and left behind many rock carvings . About 700 years ago the Anasazi suddenly disappeared for reasons that are still unknown today.

The equally to Pueblo culture belonging Hopi are their descendants and lived like other Indian tribes in the recent past in the area. Some Havasupai Indians still live in the canyon today .

Exploration by Spaniards and Americans

The Grand Canyon was first sighted by García López de Cárdenas from Spain by a European who was looking for the legendary Seven Cities of Cibola on behalf of the conqueror Francisco Vásquez de Coronado . He arrived in September 1540 with a group of Spanish soldiers and guides from the Hopi Indians on the southern edge of the gorge. Three soldiers climbed into the ravine, but turned back about a third of the way due to lack of water. The Grand Canyon was classified as worthless and has not been visited by Europeans for over 200 years.

In 1776, two Spanish priests came along the north rim of the canyon while exploring southern Utah. They were looking for a way of Santa Fe ( New Mexico ) to California .

In the 1850s, the Mormon Brigham Young sent the first settlers to the area with the aim of finding an easy way to cross the river. After the settlers forged good relationships with the local Indians, two places to cross the river were discovered, Lee's Ferry and Pierce Ferry.

Satellite photo of the Grand Canyon

The scientific expedition of the one-armed John Wesley Powell , who set out on May 24, 1869 with nine men and four wooden boats in Green River, Wyoming , became famous . After 1500 km and through numerous dangerous rapids in the Green River and the Colorado River, the expedition finally came to the Virgin River , the end point of the Grand Canyon, on August 30th . Two years later, Powell repeated the trip, making accurate maps and reports. He also gave the canyon its current name.

Creation of the national park

From the 1880s, the Grand Canyon was discovered and developed as a tourist destination. In 1901 he received a direct connection through the railway.

On January 11, 1908, the area around the Grand Canyon was declared a National Monument by US President Theodore Roosevelt , who had often stayed in the area , before it was placed under protection as a national park on February 26, 1919 . The establishment of the park is considered an early success of the conservation movement. Since its last expansion in 1975, the entire park has been around 4900 km².

In 1979, the Grand Canyon was in the list of UNESCO - World Heritage added.


Grand Canyon canyons
Layer sequence of the Grand Canyon
1 Vishnu Group
2 Grand Canyon Supergroup
3 Tonto Group
4 Temple Butte, Redwall, Surprise Canyon
5 Supai Group
6 Hermit, Coconino, Toroweap, Kaibab

Most geologists agree that the drainage basin of what is now the Colorado River (of which the Grand Canyon is a part) was formed 40 million years ago. The Grand Canyon itself is most likely not much older than five to six million years, with most of the deep erosion occurring in the past two million years. The result of this erosion is the insight into one of the most complete strata of our planet.

The sequence ranges from the metamorphic basement (the oldest dating is currently 1.840 billion years Before Present for the Elves Chasm Granite) in the deepest area of ​​the Inner Gorge to the 230 million year old Kaibab Limestone on the canyon rim. The polymetamorphic basement is discordantly overlaid by non-metamorphic Proterozoic sediments. These were later placed at an angle and then, in the Cambrian , about 0.5 billion years ago, were in turn transgressed discordantly by a Paleozoic sequence of layers. Therefore, there is no continuous sequence of shifts, but rather two significant (and several smaller) shift gaps.

Many of the rock formations came to be deposited either in warm flat seas, near the coast ( beach area ) or in swamps , synchronized with the coastline that oscillated several times over the continental margin of Proto- North America . Exceptions are the Coconino Sandstone , which many geologists as desert - sand dunes interpret and parts of the Supai Group .

The great depth of the Grand Canyon (around 1,600 meters) and the overall thickness of its sequence of layers (most of the layers were deposited below sea level) suggest that the Colorado Plateau was raised by 1,500 to 3,000 meters. This uplifting process took place in the course of the Laramian mountain formation , which began around 65 to 70 million years ago and gave rise to the Rocky Mountains.

Due to the newly created barrier, the Colorado could no longer flow in its original direction to the southeast. So he dug a new bed across the nascent Colorado Plateau. The river now got the meltwater of the Rocky Mountains and, in addition, with the greater gradient, it had much more erosive power to start milling the Grand Canyon. The Colorado now flowed through fracture zones in the rock that were created by the elevation of the Colorado Plateau. There he removed the rock more quickly because it was broken up and shifted into one another. Over the course of millions of years, the Colorado dug deeper and deeper into the rock. Today he works on very hard and old (1.8 to 1.4 billion years) granites of the basement. Since these rocks are difficult to erode, the Colorado tends to erode softer layers at the edges (selective erosion). As a result, the gorge is growing more in width than it is in depth.

With the opening of the Gulf of California around 5.3 million years ago, the Colorado (or its predecessor) 's erosion base was drastically lowered, causing a tremendous increase in its erosive power. Other river systems were tapped in the upper reaches . As a result, it had almost reached its present level 1.2 million years ago.

During the ice ages there was much more precipitation in the catchment area of ​​the original Colorado, as a result, the speed at which the river cut into the depth increased.

Even the volcanic activity that began a million years ago on the western edge of the national park ( Uinkaret Volcanic Field ), whose ashes and lavas once clogged the canyon, could not withstand the forces of the river in the long term. This point is still clearly recognizable due to the different coloring.


The Grand Canyon is regularly below freezing temperatures from November to March; from May to September the temperature rises regularly over 20 ° C during the day; July is the warmest month with an average of 29 ° C (daily maximum temperature), while January is the coldest month with an average temperature of −8 ° C (daily minimum temperature). It should be noted that it is much hotter in the gorge than on the edges, especially in summer. On average, it rains considerably more on the northern edge than on the southern edge. On the northern edge, an average of up to 5 m of snow falls annually, on the south edge there is around 1.5 m of snow. At the height of the Colorado, on the other hand, snow rarely falls (less than 2 cm annual average). The total annual precipitation on the northern edge is approx. 700 mm / year, but on the southern edge it is only 380 mm per year. At the height of the Colorado in the gorge, about 180 mm of rain falls per year.

These values ​​(rain and climate) are average values.


Bighorn sheep at the Grand Canyon

The diversity of the Grand Canyon results from the height and climate differences in the canyon and at its edges, which comprise five vegetation zones: the river and the bank zone, a strip of desert in the inner canyon, the plateau zone with juniper and pinyon pine bushes, the The southern edge and corresponding zones on the north side are characterized by the yellow pine and the highest north edge with a spruce - fir forest. Depending on the exposure and inclination of the slopes, a mosaic of small-scale habitats with adapted vegetation and the corresponding fauna results. So far, around 1,500 plant , 355 bird , 89 mammal , 47 reptile , 9 amphibian and 17 fish species have been identified. There are also several thousand species of insects , arachnids and other invertebrates .

At the highest point of the Grand Canyon at an altitude of 2683  m , coniferous forest grows, while there is already mixed forest on the edge of the gorge. Below 1500  m (in the gorge) cacti and bushes grow, but no more trees. Directly on the Colorado there are oases where there are grassy areas. The rest of the river is desert. In total, there are more than 1500 different plant species on and in the Grand Canyon, 11 of which are considered endangered.

Along the Colorado River itself there are big cats like pumas and bobcats , but also other predators like cat frets , gray foxes and coyotes . Other mammals in the canyon include bighorn sheep and numerous small rodents. Mule deer come to the river in dry seasons. Herons , rainbow trout and frogs exist in the oases . Those responsible are particularly proud of the successful reintroduction of the California condor, which in 1987 almost became extinct . The otters appear to have disappeared in recent years, while the beaver population appears to have increased. In the remaining parts of the national park, the wider area around the canyon, there are 300 different bird and 76 mammal species. In addition to the species already mentioned, black bears, elk and collar peccaries can also be found here.

The river's ecosystem itself has been largely cut off from previous periodic floods since the construction of the Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. In 1996, 2004, 2008 and November 2012, experiments with targeted flooding of the canyon by opening the dam gates were carried out in order to promote the relocation of bed load , the creation of sandbanks and the creation of free sand, gravel and stone surfaces In particular, the flooding is intended to improve the living conditions of the Gila cypha (humpback chub), an endangered carp-like fish that has become extinct in the actual Colorado River since the dam was built and only occurs in the Little Colorado River tributary . Environmentalists at the Grand Canyon Trust see the benefits of the measure as proven and are calling for regular flooding instead of irregular experiments. In 2009, humpback chubs were established in another tributary of the Colorado River within the national park.

Native American cultures at the Grand Canyon

Today's Indian reservations (above) and traditional tribal areas (below) in the Grand Canyon area

Early history

There is a consensus among scientists that the early settlement of the American continent began at the end of the last Ice Age ( Pleistocene ), i.e. around 12,000 to 7,000 years ago. The southern edge of the ice sheet at that time ran roughly on the line of today's state border between Canada and the United States. The immediately adjacent area was tundra and then turned into an extensive forest area. The first immigrants apparently encountered a species-rich fauna in the late Pleistocene. However, when exactly the first people came to North America via the Bering Strait , then a land bridge, is one of the great archeological points of contention.

Scientists refer to the period between 7000 BC. Until the lifetime of Christ as the period of desert culture or Desert Cultures . People were already living in the Grand Canyon area at that time. The members of this hunter-gatherer culture had settled the steppes and deserts of northern Mexico and the southwest of the USA. The basic food for these peoples, who could make baskets and sandals and go hunting with spearheads made of stone, represented the hunting of small animals as well as the intensive search for edible plants, wild grain, tubers and berries. They built permanent pit houses, round or square holes in the ground, which were covered with branches and mud and are called pithouses .

Between 1200 BC The basketmakers lived in the region until around 400 AD . The name refers to the typical basketry in bead technique, which has been well preserved in the dry climate of the southwest. They are a preliminary stage of the Anasazi culture with sites on the southern Colorado Plateau.


Until about 700 BC The culture of the Anasazi can be traced back. The Anasazi were native to the Colorado Plateau in what is now the states of Arizona, Utah, Colorado and New Mexico and initially lived as hunters and gatherers, but later they made a living from growing corn and beans and raising turkeys. They lived first in pit houses and then in pueblos , which were built from unfired clay (adobe) . The pit houses were expanded into places of worship, the kivas , which, like the abandoned pueblos, can be found in numerous places in the southwest. Many of the Anasazi settlements have been preserved under the protection of the dry desert air, while others have been restored.

In the 14th and 15th centuries, there were extensive population movements, the reasons for which cannot be fully explained to this day. From 1276 on, the Colorado Plateau was extremely dry; Hardly a drop of rain fell for nearly a quarter of a century. This presumably forced the Anasazi to leave their settlements. They moved to the Hopi mesas in northern Arizona, the Zuni River, and the Rio Grande. Today's Hopi and Pueblo Indians are considered to be descendants of this people.

Indian cultures of the modern age

After the Anasazi left the Grand Canyon area, Athapaskan- speaking nomads, the Apaches and Navajo , appeared from the north , while the Yuma , Zuñi, and Hopi settled in their traditional tribal areas from the south and west . The rich oral tradition of most of the tribes about this period is preceded by detailed origin and migrant legends. The tribes in the Grand Canyon area include the Walapai , Havasupai , Hopi, Navajo, and Kaibab .


The Walapai, or Hualapai, are a Yuman- speaking tribe of the Hokan language family, and their traditional tribal area stretched from the Bill Williams River in the south to the Grand Canyon in the north and stretched to the Colorado in the west. The Walapai were a small tribe whose total population did not exceed a thousand. Their tiny settlements usually consisted of two or three families and were to be found on the arid plateau wherever a permanent supply of water could be found. The Walapai did some farming, but mostly ate game and edible wild plants. Nowadays, livestock is their main livelihood and tribal income is earned from sales of timber. Because of limited natural resources, most Walapai have to leave the reserves to earn a living. The 2000 census found 1,353 Walapai, of whom 425 were permanent residents on the Hualapai Reservation. The Walapi run the Grand Canyon West adventure park outside of the national park. There you will also find the Grand Canyon Skywalk , which opened in spring 2007 , which allows visitors to stand 1200 meters above the floor of the Grand Canyon on a steel bridge in the shape of a horseshoe, with a glass floor and railing.


The Havasupai also speak Yuman like their western neighbors, the Walapai, from whom they separated in the 12th century. To seek protection from possible attackers, they moved to the bottom of the Grand Canyon. Even today, they are the most isolated Indian tribe in the United States. Their Havasu Canyon reserve can only be reached on foot or on horseback via two long trails that lead down from the rim of the canyon. Previously, the Havasupai only inhabited the canyon floor in the spring and summer months to cultivate their tiny gardens. After the harvest in autumn, they moved to their winter quarters on the plateau, where they hunted deer, antelopes and mountain sheep. In the winter months, the river valley became cold and hazy because the steep canyon walls did not let in the sunshine. The cremation of the dead with subsequent destruction of their personal property, one of several rituals customary in the Yuma, was practiced until 1895, when the Bureau of Indian Affairs prohibited this "uncivilized" practice. The 2000 US census counted 634 members, 404 of whom still spoke the traditional tribal language.


The Hopi are the westernmost group of the Pueblo Indians and now live in northeastern Arizona in a 12,635 km² reservation, which is an enclave in the much larger reservation of the Navajo. They live in villages on the mesas rising from the Colorado Plateau and speak a Shoshone dialect from the Uto-Aztec language family. The Hopi used to farm and raise sheep. Mainly corn was grown, but they also planted beans, squash, melons, and a variety of other vegetables and fruits. They are known as a deeply religious people, and boys and girls began their ceremonial careers soon after they were six years old with an introduction to the Kachina cult . Hopi kachinas were masked imitations of a large number of gods and spirits, as well as deceased ancestors, portrayed by men. The most famous of all Hopi rituals is the snake dance performed at the end of August, in which the actors dance with live snakes in their mouths. In fact, viewers only see a short but exciting segment of a longer ceremony, most of which is celebrated in secret in Kivas.

The Hopi reserve has been threatened time and again since the 1960s, as large white companies have claims to the mineral resources located there. However, the Hopi have so far been able to resist this pressure, also through very good public relations work.


The Navajo, also Diné in their own language, are the largest of all Indian peoples in the United States with 338,443 members (according to the 2005 census) and live mostly in the 69,650 km² largest reservation in northern Arizona and New Mexico. Like the Apaches, the Navajo speak an Athabasque language . The former nomads have been strongly influenced by the neighboring Pueblo Indians over the centuries, with the result that agriculture has become the most important basis of their subsistence. However, the region is predominantly dry and generally did not allow enough arable and livestock farming to secure a livelihood for everyone. Thousands therefore earn their living working far away from Navajo Land, and a considerable number have settled on irrigated land in the Colorado and in such places as Los Angeles and Kansas City .

The Navajo religious system is diverse. The complex rites require a specialist, who is paid for according to his ability and the length of the ceremony. Most of the rites are mainly staged to heal physical or mental illnesses. Other ceremonies have simple prayers and chants, and dry paintings are made of pollen and flower petals. In some cases, there are public dances and performances that gather hundreds or thousands of Navajo and visitors.

The Navajo regularly carried out raids against neighboring peoples and white settlers, even if this never reached the extent of their warlike relatives, the Apaches . They were considered dangerous enough that Colonel Kit Carson was finally ordered to submit to them in 1863. More than 8,000 Diné were taken prisoner to Bosque Redondo in southern New Mexico during the 480km march in 1864 .


The Kaibab are a branch of the Southern Paiute belonging to the Uto-Aztec language family and who lived on the North Rim of the Grand Canyon in northwestern Arizona as well as southern Utah and southeastern Nevada. The kaibab's livelihood was gathering food. They led a semi-nomadic life to get to the most productive places where the wild plants grew. Their plentiful consumption of edible roots earned them the despicable name of "Diggers" from the whites, but even the most arrogant Americans had to acknowledge that the Paiute could exist in a land where a white man would starve to death. Nothing edible went unnoticed: pine seeds, wild grass seeds, even grasshoppers and caterpillars. There was hardly any game, so the Indians had to catch rabbits, birds, prairie dogs and mice. The Kaibab Reserve was established in 1917. The land is only suitable for ranching, although some gardens are cultivated. These Indians earn their living with a tribal herd and wage labor. The 2000 census revealed 196 tribesmen living in the 487 km² reserve.

The Bright Angel Trail (pictured left)


Various activities are available on or in the Grand Canyon. A sightseeing flight from the small airport on the southern edge or from Las Vegas provides a good “overview”.


A common activity is heading to the various viewpoints and exploring one or the other piece of the canyon rim on foot. For this purpose, the edge of the Grand Canyon is mainly developed in two areas, in the vicinity of the “Grand Canyon Village” on the south edge and in the vicinity of the “Bright Angel Point” on the north edge, where the information center is located. On the south rim, an 11 km long section of the rim from the “Grand Canyon Village” to the west to “Hermits Rest” is only accessible by shuttle bus (“West Rim Drive”). The main road from "Grand Canyon Village", which is accessible to cars, follows the course of the canyon ("East Rim Drive") 42 km east to the "Desert View" lookout point.

A panoramic view from the South Rim
Angels Window at Cape Royal

The Bright Angel Point is accessible on the northern edge, with good views of side canyons from the approach. The road from "Point Imperial" to "Cape Royal" follows the canyon rim for 29 km. At this southernmost vantage point of the North Rim you can see the stone arch of the Angels Window. This rock formation was created by the weather. Rain, water accumulation, ice, wind etc. hollowed out the transition to the viewpoint, so that a window was created.

In addition, individual points on the canyon can be reached via gravel roads, in particular the "Point Sublime" on the northern edge, a point in the Havasupai reserve on the southern edge, from which the Supai Indian settlement in the canyon itself can be reached on foot, by mule or by helicopter can, as well as a point in the Hualapai reserve, also on the southern rim, where the Grand Canyon Skywalk opened in 2007 .

In order to get as different impressions of the canyon as possible, great distances have to be covered. The walk from "Grand Canyon Village" on the south rim to "Bright Angel Point" on the north rim is 34 km, but a vehicle has to cover 354 km as there is no bridge over the canyon. The Skywalk is 390 km from the Grand Canyon Village.


For more sporty people, a hike in the canyon or in the canyon is ideal. A permit is required for overnight stays within the Grand Canyon. It can be requested no earlier than four months before the planned date. The number of permits is limited. Strict rules apply to such tours, compliance with which is monitored by the park rangers . Day tours, on the other hand, are possible without a permit.

There are a large number of trails in the canyon: the best known (and most traveled) are the South Kaibab Trail and the Bright Angel Trail from the south rim to the river, and the North Kaibab Trail from the north rim along Bright Angel Creek to the river, respectively .

Out and about in the Grand Canyon

Hikes from one of the edges of the valley to the river lead over 1,400 meters in altitude, through five climate zones and around 1.7 billion years of geological history. In summer, even with moderate temperatures at the canyon rim inside the gorge, there can be considerable heat. Overconfidence or inadequate equipment on the part of some hikers results in complicated rescue operations and even deaths year after year. Drinking water is only available on the North Kaibab Trail and Bright Angel Trail . Some companies offer trail rides through the Grand Canyon gorges on horses or mules.

Boat tours

Boat trips offer an extensive view from the river. Since the river is only accessible in a few places, either the northeastern part upstream of Lee's Ferry or the western part between Diamond Creek (on the Hualapai reservation ) and the confluence with Lake Mead (especially South -Cove exit). A trip from Lee's Ferry to Diamond Creek through the central portion of the Grand Canyon (364 km or 226  miles ) takes three or more days. It is also common to drive on during which a stop is made for smaller hikes and / or climbing and for which more time is estimated.

The boats used during the second Powell expedition in 1872 were open, not very robust and not very agile.
Modern rafters on one of the (mud-colored) rapids of the Colorado River

Boat tours are mostly used for the views and fame of the Grand Canyon. The Colorado also offers whitewater , with long stretches of calm water in between. For the most frequently paddled section of the river between Lee's Ferry to Diamond Creek (364 km), the American whitewater organization American Whitewater lists only 31 named rapids of levels II + to IV + on the VI-level whitewater difficulty scale ; the next 83 km (59 miles), which are often attached, are only followed by two more named rapids (as of January 2010).

The Colorado owes its reputation as an extremely difficult river for rafting or white water canoeing , which remains widespread to this day : For one thing, its power was actually greater before it was regulated by the Hoover and Glen Canyon Dam . On the other hand, white water sports have developed significantly over the past 100 years; With modern whitewater canoes, modern paddling technology - including the Eskimo roller  - and, last but not least, modern safety equipment ( helmets and life jackets), the rapids of the Colorado, which were awe-inspiring in the days of Powell's expeditions, are no longer anything unusual for experienced whitewater athletes. The challenge of the river today is its still impressive amount of water ( volume ) and, above all, its relative remoteness, because of which heavy luggage is carried for several days, which makes the boats difficult to maneuver. However, kayakers are often out and about with escorts, onto which equipment and food are loaded. This means that even small play boats can be driven on, which would not offer enough space or buoyancy for the necessary luggage.

Environmental hazards

The regulation of Colorado through the construction of the Glen Canyon Dam and many years of low precipitation since 2000 have led to a significant reduction in the amount of water. This resulted in wide beaches, which, however, do not correspond to the natural ecosystem of the canyon and therefore have a negative impact on the living environment. The canyon has already been flooded several times to minimize the consequences of anthropogenic interference.

See also


  • Ferde Grofé : Grand Canyon Suite (1929–1931) with the sentences Sunrise, The Painted Desert, On the Trail, Sunset and Cloudburst. Analog recording in vinyl with the London Festival Orchestra under the direction of Stanley Black: Liner SPC 21002.
  • Paul Winter Consort : Canyon. Recorded at different places in the national park with the following sentences: 1st: Grand Canyon Sunrise 2nd: Morning Echoes 3rd: Bright Angel 4th: Raven Dance 5th: Bedrock Cathedral 6th: River Run 7th: Elves' Chasm 8th. : Sockdolager 9 .: Air 10 .: Grand Canyon Sunrise.
  • Paul Winter : Canyon Lullaby (1995–1997; solo album recorded in the Grand Canyon).

Film documentaries


Web links

Commons : Grand Canyon National Park  - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files
Wikivoyage: Grand Canyon  Travel Guide

References and footnotes

  1. ^ John Wesley Powell: First Through the Grand Canyon. Outing Pub., New York 1915.
    Charles William Maynard: John Wesley Powell: Soldier, Scientist, and Explorer. The Rosen Publishing Group, New York 2003, ISBN 0-8239-6290-3 .
  2. The age of the earth is approximately 5.9 billion years.
  3. ^ NPS: Grand Canyon National Park - Animals. With links to species lists, accessed November 25, 2007.
  4. Eco-experiment - US government wants to flood Grand Canyon., February 27, 2008.
  5. ^ National Park Service: Grand Canyon National Park - Humpback Chub Translocation Experiment in Shinumo Creek. Retrieved August 24, 2009.
  6. Michael D. Coe (ed.): America before Columbus. Bechtermünz, Augsburg 1998, ISBN 3-8289-0711-3 , p. 28 f.
  7. Michael D. Coe (ed.): America before Columbus. P. 29 f.
  8. Colin Taylor et al.: Indians. The indigenous people of North America. Bertelsmann, Gütersloh 1992, p. 36 ff.
  9. Colin Taylor et al.: Indians. The indigenous people of North America. P. 37.
  10. Tom Bathi: Southwestern Indian Tribes. KC Publications, Las Vegas 1997, ISBN 0-916122-01-8 , p. 67.
  11. Skywalk ( Memento of the original from November 11, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  12. Tom Bathi: Southwestern Indian Tribes. P. 69.
  13. Tom Bathi: Southwestern Indian Tribes. P. 38.
  14. Tom Bathi: Southwestern Indian Tribes. P. 31 ff.
  15. Tom Bathi: Southwestern Indian Tribes. P. 46 f.
  16. Description of the Colorado section through the Grand Canyon: individual rapids. American Whitewater , accessed January 20, 2010.
  17. Description of the Colorado section through the Grand Canyon. American Whitewater , accessed January 20, 2010.
  18. To revive the eco-system - The Grand Canyon is flooded.