Rainbow trout

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Rainbow trout
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss )

Overcohort : Clupeocephala
Cohort : Euteleosteomorpha
Order : Salmonid fish (Salmoniformes)
Family : Salmon fish (Salmonidae)
Genre : Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus )
Type : Rainbow trout
Scientific name
Oncorhynchus mykiss
( Walbaum , 1792)
Image of a rainbow trout

The rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss , Syn . : Parasalmo mykiss , Salmo gairdneri , S. irideus ) is a fast-growing salmonid from North America , which was bred as a food fish in England in the second half of the 19th century. By 1885 at the latest, rainbow trout eggs were brought to Germany. These were distributed to various fish farmers by the German Fisheries Association .

In many trout streams and rivers it is now being persecuted again, also by means of legal requirements, because it can displace native species such as the brown trout .

Rainbow trout, which are sometimes offered as salmon trout to consumers in adulthood (like other salmonids with reddish meat) , are mostly edible fish that are reproduced and fattened in artificial pond management systems, silos and troughs. Specially bred breeds of rainbow trout are better suited for mass production than native trout species ( lake and brown trout), especially since they have a lower mortality rate with their high growth rate in a stressful environment such as the artificial tanks with high population density, require less natural feed and can also tolerate higher water temperatures (up to 25 ° C).

Rainbow trout, together with certain types of carp farming (whose aquaculture production is mainly in Asia), are among the longest cultivated fish.


Rainbow trout

The scientific name of the rainbow trout is Oncorhynchus mykiss . This species was originally named that way in 1792 by the German naturalist and systematist Johann Julius Walbaum . He examined fish from the Kamchatka Peninsula in Siberia . The name of the genus is derived from the Greek word onkos (hook) and rhynchos (nose) and alludes to the pronounced spawning hooks of milkers during the spawning season. The rainbow trout owes its name to the many brightly colored iridescent ribbons that run on both sides of the body. The British naturalist Sir John Richardson named this species Salmo gairdneri in 1836 in honor of Meredith Gairdner, a surgeon for the Hudson Bay Company, who introduced him to this species of fish near Fort Vancouver on the Columbia River . William P. Gibbons, curator of geology and mineralogy at the California Academy of Sciences, discovered another population and named it Salmo iridia . For reasons of conspecificity, however, the type description by Walbaum was given preference, so the priority rule was followed . In 1989, Ralph F. Stearley, a PhD student at the University of Michigan Museum of Paleontology, discovered that the Pacific Basin trout was closer to the Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus species) than the salmo species such as the brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) or the Atlantic Salmon ( Salmo salar ). As a result, other trout species in the Pacific Basin, such as the cutthroat trout , were assigned to the genus Oncorhynchus . The previous species names such as S. irideus and S. gairdneri were assigned to the subspecies of the coastal rainbow trout and the Columbia River Redband trout. The anomalous shapes are known as steelhead trout. The rainbow trout was considered a Salmo species for over 170 years , even though it comes from an area where otherwise only Oncorhynchus occurs and Johann Julius Walbaum correctly assigned it. However, Walbaum was mainly active in compilation and used an idiosyncratic terminology, so that Cuvier rejected the renewed Artedi Walbaums (1792) (and thus also its binary names, which were consequently forgotten). The cutthroat trout ( Oncorhynchus clarki ), which is very similar to the rainbow trout, is an independent species.


The steelhead trout ( German steel head trout ) is the anadromous migrating form of the rainbow trout. The name comes from the steel blue color of the head and back. The natural range extends from Alaska to California . The steelhead trout is the official fish of Washington State .


The subspecies of Oncorhynchus mykiss according to Robert J. Behnke:

Geographic group designation Scientific name distribution image
Type subspecies Kamchatka rainbow trout O. m. mykiss
( Walbaum , 1792)
Western Pacific: Kamchatka Peninsula, also found on the Commander Islands east of Kamchatka, and sporadically in the Sea of ​​Okhotsk and further south in the estuary of the Amur
Coastal shapes Coast rainbow trout O. m. irideus
(Gibbons, 1855)
Pacific Ocean tributaries from the Aleutian Islands to Alaska to the south to southern California . Anadromous forms are known as steelhead, freshwater forms as rainbow trout. Lake Washington Ship Canal Fish Ladder pamphlet - ocean phase Steelhead.jpg
Lake Washington Ship Canal Fish Ladder pamphlet - male freshwater phase Steelhead.jpg
Marine and freshwater forms of coastal rainbow trout; also known as "Steelhead"
O. m. irideus
Beardslee Trout O. m. irideus var. beardsleei
(not a real subspecies, but a genetically differentiated, lake-dwelling variety of the coastal rainbow trout) ( Jordan , 1896)
occurs in isolation only in Lake Crescent , Washington state
Redband trout Columbia River Redband Trout O. m. gairdneri
( Richardson , 1836)
occurs in the Columbia River and its tributaries to Montana , Washington and Idaho . Anadromous shapes are known as Redband Steelheads.
Athabasca rainbow trout O. m. spp.
Behnke thinks it is a form of O. m. gairdneri , but the biologist LM Carl from the Ontario Ministry of Resources, Aquatic Ecosystems Research Section, estimates them as a separate subspecies in his paper published in 1994
Occurrence in the Athabasca River system in Alberta
McCloud River Redband Trout O. m. stonei
(Jordan, 1894)
endemic to the McCloud River , upstream of Middle Falls and in the tributaries of northern California , south of Mount Shasta .
Sheepheaven Creek Redband Trout O. m. spp. endemic to Sheepheaven Creek, Siskiyou County , State of California. Sheepheaven Creek Redband trout were introduced to Swamp Creek in 1972 and Trout Creek in 1977.
Great Basin Redband Trout O. m. newberrii
( Girard , 1859)
endemic to southeast Oregon , parts of California, and Nevada on the periphery of the Great Basin .
Eagle Lake Trout O. m. aquilarum
( Snyder , 1917)
endemic to Eagle Lake in Lassen County , California.
Kamloops rainbow trout O. m. kamloops strain
(Jordan, 1892)
endemic to several large lakes in the Canadian province of British Columbia , specifically Kamloops Lake and Kootenay Lake . The Kamloops rainbow trout are known for their sizes and are therefore specifically used in the breeding of heavy rainbow trout.
Kern River Gold Trout Golden trout O. m. aguabonita
(Jordan, 1892)
endemic to Golden Trout Creek (tributary of the Kern River), Volcano Creek (tributary of Golden Trout Creek), and the South Fork Kern River. Goldentroutwiki.jpg
Kern River Gold Trout
O. m. aguabonita
Kern River Rainbow Trout O. m. gilberti
(Jordan, 1894)
endemic to the Kern River and its tributaries in Tulare County , California. Their current range is drastically reduced. The remnants of the population live in the Kern River above Durrwood Creek, in the upper reaches of Ninemile, Rattlesnake, and Osa Creeks, and possibly also in upper Peppermint Creek.
Little core golden trout O. m. whitei
( Evermann , 1906)
endemic within 150 kilometers of the Little Kern River and its tributaries. Its current range is limited to five upper rivers in the Kern River Basin (Wet Meadows, Deadman, Soda Spring, Willow, Sheep and Fish Creeks) and an introduced population in Coyote Creek, a tributary of the Kern River.
Mexican forms Mexican rainbow trout
Río Yaqui , Rio Mayo and Guzman trout
Rio San Lorenzo and Arroyo la Sidra trout
Rio del Presidio trout
O. m. nelsoni
(Evermann, 1908)
Sometimes referred to as Nelson's trout, it occurs in three different geographic groups. The taxonomy of these trout is the subject of current research. It is believed that there is significant diversity in the forms in this group.
Mutations Golden rainbow trout
Palomino trout
the so-called golden rainbow trout and palomino trout emerged from a single mutated color variety of O. mykiss , which came from a farm in West Virginia in 1955 . Golden rainbow trout are primarily yellow in color. Instead, the green background and the black dots that are typical for rainbow trout are missing. The diffuse red side stripe, however, remains. The palomino trout is a cross between golden and common rainbow trout and has a mixed color. The golden rainbow trout should not be confused with the naturally occurring subspecies O. m. aguabonita , the Kern River golden trout from California. Golden Rainbow Trout Cropped.jpg
Golden rainbow trout


The original range of the rainbow trout
Distribution area of ​​the steelhead trout
Natural range of rainbow trout in the USA
Rainbow trout at the Tongariro National Trout Center, New Zealand

The steelhead trout is the anadromous migratory form of the coastal rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus ) and the redband rainbow trout. Originally native to cold, oxygen-rich waters of the northwestern United States (e.g. Columbia River), western Canada (e.g. Mackenzie River and Peace River ), Alaska, and the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia, the rainbow trout has also been native since 1882 common in Europe. Rainbow trout are now found in at least 45 countries around the world on all continents with the exception of Antarctica , making them one of the most widespread salmonid species - they may also have reached the Arctic Sea / Arctic Ocean via the connection of the Beaufort Sea. Spawning and young fish have been exported and settled worldwide since the end of the 19th century. They live in rivers and lakes, but prefer fast-flowing and clear mountain streams. Its introduction in southern Europe , Australia and South America ( Chile and Argentina ) has had a negative impact on the local fish fauna. Due to their hunting behavior, they can displace endemic trout species. Mixing with autochthonous trout species such as the brown trout is also possible. The rainbow trout is also responsible for spreading the pathogen causing the whirling disease ( Myxobolus cerebralis ). The introduction of rainbow trout to the Great Lakes or the Firehole River in Wyoming had a positive effect, making them excellent sports waters.


A number of local populations and certain subspecies are considered threatened in some places and are listed in the Endangered Species Act.


School of rainbow trout
Underwater shot of rainbow trout
Young fish from the Boise National Forest, Idaho with typical shoulder stripes
Rainbow trout ( Rogner with less intense markings)

Rainbow trout grow up to 80 cm long and weigh 10 kg. The coloring and drawing of rainbow trout varies greatly depending on the subspecies, shape and environment. The fish are blue-green or olive-green in color, a reddish stripe can be seen along the sides, especially in younger males during spawning. The caudal fin is only slightly forked. In rainbow trout living in large lakes and in anadromous shapes, the basic color is silver and the reddish side stripes are less pronounced. The rainbow trout resembles the native brown trout with its distinctive pattern of black dots , but has a smaller and more pointed head with a lower jaw set further back. The presence of black spots on the dorsal fin also distinguishes them from young huchen . Juvenile rainbow trout have dark vertical bars, typical of most juvenile salmonid fish. In some places, farmed trout are marked by clip markings in the adipose fin.

Growth and size

In October ?

While the anadromous migrating forms can weigh up to 10 kilograms, trout that live in lakes and reservoirs without access to the sea often have an average weight of only 2 kilograms. In the case of rainbow trout, the focus of breeding efforts was placed on achieving maximum weights very early on. Rainbow trout are the most common fish in commercial fishing and trout ponds and put-and-take lakes. Here, individual animals from Danish breeding facilities, known as steelheads to promote sales , are fattened to record weights of up to 20 kg and then caught again. In Denmark, an entire branch of industry has specialized in the breeding and pond management of large trout. Over 250 Danish put-and-take lakes invite tourists from all over Europe to go trout fishing.

1988 succeeded three researchers from the Chesapeake Bay Institute at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore in the US state of Maryland incorporate a gene of rainbow trout in the gene sequence of the carp, so that genetically modified fish grows faster.

Weight record

The world record weight for rainbow trout caught in a natural body of water is ≈ 19.11 kg (42 lbs. And 2 oz. ). This fish was caught by David Robert White on June 22, 1970 in the Bell Island Lakes on Bell Island in southern Alaska . In 2007 Adam Konrad pulled a rainbow trout weighing ≈ 19.79 kg (43 lbs. And 10 oz.) From Lake Diefenbaker . That catch sparked a debate about the validity of the record. In 2000 genetically modified rainbow trout broke out of a fish farm in this lake . These fish were triploid , which means they had three complete sets of chromosomes. These rainbow trout are sterile and the energy saved for reproduction can be invested in growth. Two years later his brother Sean Konrad caught the largest living specimen of rainbow trout to date in the same lake, weighing ≈ 21.77 kg (48 lbs.). He holds the current world record.

Way of life

A rainbow trout
Rainbow trout from Giant Springs State Park and Giant Springs Trout Hatchery, Great Falls, Montana, USA

Rainbow trout, like most salmonids, prefer running waters with low water temperatures. Rainbow trout living in standing waters (e.g. reservoirs) can often be found in medium depths of cold lakes, where they find their food in medium vegetation. This type of trout also needs flowing water with a gravel bottom to spawn. Rainbow trout live in schools as juveniles. They only begin a solitary life in their own territory from a weight of around 3 kg. Their life expectancy depends heavily on the water quality and other local conditions; however, most animals do not live to be older than 7 years. However, there are said to have been some rainbow trout in California that lived to be 11 years old.


Rainbow trout are predatory fish and, depending on the season and the food available, feed on insects , small fish such as minnows and poppies and also smaller conspecifics, frogs , worms , tadpoles , river fleas and maggots . They hunt insects both under water (larvae) and above and on the surface of the water. They pursue their prey in the open water or lie in wait for it from cover like large stones, wood, etc. The predatory behavior of large rainbow trout is usually more aggressive than that of the smaller brown trout , which under certain conditions can lead to food competition between the two species. Like all trout species, rainbow trout are spawning predators. Since they belong to the noble fish as a salmonid species, the undesirable chub , a white fish species with pronounced spawning behavior, are mostly decimated by humans.

In pond farming, rainbow trout are almost exclusively given pellet feed , which essentially consists of pressed fish meal , blood meal , fish oil and a mostly vegetable binding agent. Wet feeding with slaughterhouse waste from conspecifics, which was previously widespread, is now obsolete for reasons of epidemic policy. When rearing brood, cannibalism often occurs through so-called pre-growths, i.e. faster growing individuals.

Sensation of pain and magnetic sense

It is through nociceptors that the nervous system learns that there is pain somewhere in the body. To do this, signals are sent to the spinal cord and brain via the nerves. In 2003, Lynne Sneddon from the Roslin Institute carried out a study that demonstrated the presence of nociceptors in the face and mouth of rainbow trout and thus proved that they can sense pain.

Effects of magnetic fields on the behavior of rainbow trout were found; presumably they have a magnetic sense .

Life cycle and reproduction

Strongly drawn Milchner
Juvenile form of rainbow trout
Rainbow trout juvenile

Rainbow trout become sexually mature at around 2 years of age. The maximum observed life cycle of a rainbow trout was 11 years. Anadromous forms migrate back from the sea to fresh water when they reach sexual maturity. Their spawning season lasts in Central Europe from December to May, in the USA from March to April, or from January to June. In the southern hemisphere from September to November. Water temperatures of 6 to 7 ° C are decisive.

A distinction is made between the freshwater and marine life cycle:

Freshwater life cycle

Steelhead trout spawning

Spawning waters are headwaters of oxygen-rich rivers and streams with a gravel bottom. These include the stony alluvial flowing waters of the Pacific Basin. However, rainbow trout introduced into other bodies of water could also adapt to spring streams and streams with rocky bottom. The ideal spawning ground consists of a fine gravel bed near rapids and deep pools. To spawn, the female digs a spawning pit in the gravel with her caudal fin, in which she lays her eggs. The eggs fall into the spaces between the pebbles, where they are surrounded by highly oxygenated water. The male then inseminates the eggs, whereupon the female covers the pit again with sand and gravel. The development takes 300 to 320 degrees a day (i.e. 30 to 32 days at 10 ° C, twice as long at 5 ° C). The maturation time of the eggs is given as four to seven weeks. Depending on the region and habitat, there can be great variability. After hatching , the fry still carry a yolk sac that feeds them. Until this is used up, they remain near the pit. About 15 days after hatching, the fry feed independently, usually zooplankton . The growth rate of rainbow trout is directly correlated with the factors water type, habitat, food quality and quantity. In many bodies of water (e.g. quarry ponds in Central Europe), however, there is no longer any natural reproduction. These waters are stocked with catchable fish that survive there for several years, are caught or die without reproducing.

Marine life cycle

Steelhead trout from Lake Erie
Steelhead trout sea shape
Steelhead trout Milchner spawning color in fresh water

The anadromous migratory form of rainbow trout is called the steelhead in the USA and Canada. In Tasmania they are called "Ocean Trout" and are kept in sea cages. But it is the same species. The fish show a migratory behavior like salmon and there is a similar mass ascent from the sea into the cold running waters. In contrast to the Pacific salmon, steelheads are iteroparous, i. H. they can spawn several times. They are able to take part in several spawning runs from salt water to fresh water, but the survival rate is less than 10 percent. The survival rate of introduced populations such as B. in the Great Lakes area, but can be up to 70%. The steelhead smolts remain in the river for one to three years before migrating into the sea. Certain steelhead populations leave the ocean and migrate into their "home streams" several times a year. In the USA, a distinction is made between the two forms “Summer-Run Steelhead” and “Winter-Run Steelhead”. “Summer-Run Steelheads” migrate back into freshwater between May and October until their reproductive organs have fully developed. These ripen in fresh water, usually in spring on the trail to the spawning grounds in the upper reaches of the water. "Summer-Run Steelheads" occur in larger rivers with longer stretches such as the Columbia River. “Winter-Run Steelheads” are ready to spawn when they emerge from the sea between November and April. They spawn a short time after entering fresh water in coastal rivers with less travel, such as B. the Olympic Peninsula or the coastline of British Columbia. After reaching the spawning grounds, the marine forms plant themselves in the same way as the freshwater forms.

Interspecific competition between brown trout and rainbow trout

It is generally assumed that in some bodies of water (water zones: trout and grayling regions) the larger and more agile rainbow trout are displacing the local brown trout due to food competition . Research shows that when there is a high population density of young fish, the rainbow trout competes interspecificly with the brown trout via density regulation. A so-called “bottleneck situation” can arise for the brown trout if it has to assert itself against the introduced species of rainbow trout in a few and small territories. However, it must be taken into account that the investigated water body (a secondary biotope - inland canal) only offers suboptimal conditions for brown trout, since their shelters have been lost due to falling water levels and the water quality has deteriorated significantly. It is therefore questionable whether it was really the rainbow trout that caused the change in the brown trout population, or whether it simply took over the niche that had become free. In their native North America, the rainbow trout usually live in a sympatric population with other salmonid species. In near-natural waters with sufficient coverage, such as B. undermined banks, dead wood etc., however, both species can form stable populations.


caught rainbow trout
Portion trout

Rainbow trout are economically important productive fish. They are still commercially caught by Native American fishermen on Puget Sound, on the coast of Washington state or in the Columbia River . A trout production branch has established itself worldwide.

Artificial Propagation

Rainbow trout have been artificially reproduced by the US Fish and Wildlife Service since 1870 in order to replenish stocks in natural waters or to introduce the species into new habitats. The first trout farm, which began operations in 1871, was located on San Leandro Creek , a tributary of the San Francisco Bay . It was steelhead trout and local subspecies of rainbow trout that were reproduced in the first breeding program. From there rainbow trout were brought to Caledonia / New York and Northville / Michigan . In 1877 a second National Fish Hatchery System was established on Campbell Creek, a tributary of the McCloud River. Other genetic material was used here: McCloud River Redband Trout ( O. m. Stonei ) and trout eggs from local coastal forms. Today there are hundreds of state and private breeding establishments, some operated by Indian tribes with the purpose of producing sport fish and conserving natural trout tribes. In Canada, six out of ten provinces operate intensive trout farming, with the province of Ontario taking the lead.


Rainbow trout are among the economically most important fish in aquaculture. From the 1950s onwards, rainbow trout pond farming increased exponentially. In 2007, 604,695 tons of trout meat with a market value of USD 2.6 billion were produced worldwide. The largest producer at the moment is Chile . In Chile and Norway , rainbow trout from sea cages are supplied to the export markets. There has also been an increase in domestic rainbow trout production in countries such as Italy , France , Germany , Denmark and Spain . Other major trout producing countries are the USA , Iran and the UK . In the USA, the rainbow trout industry is viewed from an ecological perspective. Three quarters of the US production of rainbow trout comes from the state of Idaho , especially from the area around the Snake River , as the water quality and water temperatures are particularly favorable here. Other states with intensive rainbow trout farming are California and Washington, on the east coast Pennsylvania , North Carolina and West Virginia . The keeping of native rainbow trout is currently the second largest branch of aquaculture in the USA. They are kept in ponds or flow channels with constantly flowing water, whereby care is taken to ensure that the fish have little opportunity to escape into a natural body of water nearby and to keep water pollution as low as possible. The US trout industry is assigned the "Best Management Practices". Domestic production largely covers domestic demand. Imports only make up 15%. Worldwide, however, only 7% of rainbow trout are produced in the USA. Especially rainbow trout from ponds are particularly susceptible to the disease "Enteric Redmouth Disease" ( Yersinia ruckeri ), which can threaten the existence of trout farmers affected. This bacterial infection does not spread to humans.

Preservation of natural biodiversity

The natural populations of several local rainbow trout subspecies such as “O. m. irideus ”(coastal rainbow trout) and“ O. m. gairdneri ”(Columbia River Redband Trout) have declined significantly due to overfishing , habitat degradation, disease, introduced fish species, pollution, hybridization with other species, and other causes. As a result, some populations of rainbow trout, especially the anadromous forms, have been classified as endangered by US federal agencies. The rainbow trout is also used as an indicator species for water pollution by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Some non-profit organizations have made it their business to protect and preserve natural populations of rainbow trout and steelheads and to restore them to their original state as far as possible. One of these organizations is Trout Unlimited (TU), which is committed to the conservation of trout and salmon in North American streams and rivers. One of the projects is the Circle Creek Fish Passage Project, which enables spawning ascent for steelheads and other salmonids. "The Wild Salmon Center" is an association of Russian, Canadian and US researchers who are carrying out the 20-year "Kamchatka Steelhead Project" (1994–2014). “The Kamchatka Steelhead Project” examines the living conditions of the Kamchatka Steelhead (“Mikizha”), a species of fish that is particularly threatened according to the Red Data Book of Russia. Other organizations are dedicated to the conservation of the California trout or in Canada it is the Steelhead Society of British Columbia, which is dedicated to the conservation of the wild salmonids in the natural waters of British Columbia.

Trout diseases

The following are listed as economically important trout diseases:

  • Rotational sickness "Whirling Disease" ( Myxobolus cerebralis )
  • Redmouth Disease ( Yersinia ruckeri ) is common in trout farms with poor water quality
  • VHS: Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Trout
  • HIM: Infectious hematopoietic necrosis of the salmonids
  • ISA: Infectious Salmon Anemia

The following invasive species were introduced into wild waters along with the trout population:

  • New Zealand mud snail ( Potamopyrgus antipodarum ) was introduced with trout stock
  • Didymo snail ( Didymosphenia geminata )

Sport fishing

Rainbow trout are very popular sport fish in the USA and other countries and are said to have tough fighting behavior on the line. In the United States, they are among the top five fishing fish . Rainbow trout can be fished both actively and passively. In active fishing, both fly fishing and spin fishing are used. In passive fishing, on the other hand, float fishing, which is often also known as swimmer fishing, and bottom fishing are used. With these types of angling, rainbow trout can be caught in natural wild waters as well as in artificial trout lakes. Trout lakes, which are often refilled, are also enjoying lasting popularity in Germany.


Transport of live trout with oxygen supply

Advertising sheet for the patented "Dispatcher for live fish - Hofer Oberndorf aN system" from 1912
Advertising sheet for the patented "Dispatcher for live fish - Hofer Oberndorf aN system" from 1912

In 1911 Josef Hofer, purveyor to the court of His Majesty the King Wilhelm II of Württemberg, invented the "shipping apparatus for live fish" (patent specification No. 145509, Imperial Patent Office April 11, 1912) and delivered his live trout a. a. to Mailand. Previously, so-called vibrating barrels - swiveling suspended tubs that were moved by companions to supply oxygen - were used to transport live fish. Hofer, who was chief master in the forge at the Mauser weapons factory until 1905 and was a main occupation as a trout breeder from 1896, used oxygen bottles that he knew from the blacksmith's workshop.


The word “rainbow trout” is often used in the form of a running gag to introduce the topic of cryptology . Because of its length and the repeated occurrence of the same letters (e, r, o, n, l) it is particularly suitable for the illustration of simple encryption algorithms.

Web links

Commons : Rainbow Trout  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Rainbow trout  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. von dem Borne: "Die Fischzucht", 3rd edition, Berlin 1885, p. 147.
  2. A real "farm" - animal with 100 years of domestication ( Memento of the original from March 6, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Biomar - The Future of Rainbow Trout Breeding @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.biomar.com
  3. a b c d e Robert J. Behnke, Joseph R. Tomelleri (Ill.): Rainbow and Redband Trout. In: Trout and Salmon of North America. The Free Press, New York 2002, ISBN 0-7432-2220-2 , pp. 65-122.
  4. John Richardson, William Swainson, William Kirby: Fauna Boreali-Americana, or, The Zoology of the Northern Parts of British America : Containing Descriptions of the Objects of Natural History Collected on the Late Northern Land Expeditions, Under Command of Captain Sir John Franklin , RN (1829), Part Third: The Fish. Richard Bentley, London 1836, OCLC 257860151 , p. 221. viewed January 2, 2014.
  5. ^ Invertebrate Zoology and Geology. ( Memento of the original from February 18, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. California Academy of Sciences. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / research.calacademy.org
  6. iridius - the rainbow
  7. Washington designated steelhead trout (Salmo gairdnerii) as the official state fish in 1969. Fishing is a major industry in Washington state (and steelhead trout is one of the most popular fish for recreational fishing). - In 1969 the steelhead trout was declared an official fish of Washington State. Fishing and sport fishing is one of the largest industries in Washington, and steelhead trout is one of the most popular recreational fishermen
  8. Joseph B. Rasmussen, Eric B. Taylor: Status of the Athabasca Rainbow Trout O. m. in Alberta. (PDF) (No longer available online.) Government of Alberta-Fish and Wildlife Division, 2009, archived from the original on February 21, 2014 ; Retrieved November 29, 2013 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / esrd.alberta.ca
  9. Little Kern Golden Trout. (PDF) In: SOS: California's Native Fish Crisis. California Trout, p. 74 , accessed January 2, 2014 .
  10. ^ Richard L. Mayden: Biodiversity of Native Mexican Trout (Genus Oncorhynchus spp.) And The Impending Treat of Their Demise by The Exotic Rainbow Trout O. mykiss gairdneri. (PDF) 2005, accessed on March 10, 2014 .
  11. ^ John McCoy: 50 Years Later, Golden Rainbows Still 'a Treat' for Mountain State Fishermen - 50 years later, the golden rainbow trout is still a "treat" for the anglers of the mountain state. In: Saturday Gazette-Mail. May 11, 2013. Retrieved December 29, 2013 .
  12. a b c Golden Rainbow Trout. (No longer available online.) Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission FAQ, archived from the original on Nov. 27, 2013 ; Retrieved November 28, 2013 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.fish.state.pa.us
  13. Golden Rainbow Trout. Retrieved November 28, 2013 .
  14. engl. Steelhead trout
  15. lives in the Pacific Ocean and spawns in fresh water
  16. engl. Red ribbon trout
  17. Fin clipping is a management tool used to identify hatchery-reared fish ( Memento of the original from December 30, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Minnesota Department of Natural Resources @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / files.dnr.state.mn.us
  18. Dr. Dennis A. Powers (1938–2003), chairman of the biology department at Johns Hopkins University; Thomas T. Chen (born July 16, 1942), a molecular biologist at the Center for Marine Biotechnology at Johns Hopkins University, and Dr. Rex Dunham (* 1955/56), a fishing geneticist at Auburn University in Auburn in the US state of Alabama . Most of the isolation and duplication of the rainbow trout genes was done by Dr. Chen and Dr. Powers done.
  19. Keith Schneider: Carp With Genes Altered Grow Faster ( English ) In: The New York Times . June 2, 1988. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
  20. ^ New World Record Fish: Freshwater Records, in: Field & Stream, Vol. 79, No. 10, February 1975, p. 72.
  21. Brandon Keim: 48-Pound Trout: World Record or Genetic Cheat? ( English ) In: Wired . September 15, 2009. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
  22. Lynne U. Sneddon: Trigeminal Somatosensory Innervation of the Head of a Teleost Fish with Particular Reference to Nociception . In: Brain research No. 972 (1), 2003, pp. 44-52 ( PDF; 330 kB ).
  23. ^ GL Chew and GE Brown: Orientation of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in normal and null magnetic fields. In: Canadian Journal of Zoology. Volume 67, No. 3, 1989, pp. 641-643, doi: 10.1139 / z89-092 .
  24. ^ Rainer Froese, Daniel Pauly: Oncorhynchus mykiss. In: FishBase. February 2006.
  25. Kathryn Staley, John Mueller: Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (PDF). US Department of Agriculture, May 2000.
  26. ^ Wisconsin Trout Fishing: Trout Stream Classifications , Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
  27. Chefs Cherish Ocean Trout. ( Memento of the original from December 3, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF). Brand Tasmania Council. 2009. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.brandtasmania.com
  28. Smolt - immature young salmon, immature young trout
  29. Recreational Salmon Fishing Salmon / Steelhead Species Information Steelhead (Rainbow Trout) Oncorhynchus mykiss. ( Memento of the original from January 7, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / wdfw.wa.gov
  30. Epi- and Metarhithral
  31. Peter Rey, Hydra Konstanz: Rainbow trout expertise, with special consideration of the situation in the Alpine Rhine area between Sargans and Lake Constance. 2002.
  32. Armin Peter: Studies on the competition between brown trout and rainbow trout in the catchment area of ​​Lake Constance.
  33. ^ Historical Distribution and Current Status of Steelhead / Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Streams of the San Francisco Estuary, California
  34. ^ Ben Schley: A Century of Fish Conservation (1871-1971). US Fish and Wildlife Service
  35. ^ Cultured Aquatic Species Information Program: Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) . Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Fisheries and Aquaculture Department
  36. a b Staff. Seafood Watch: Rainbow Trout ( Memento of the original from March 6, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Monterey Bay Aquarium @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.seafoodwatch.org
  37. Brendan O'Neill: Seafood Watch Report: Farmed Rainbow Trout. ( Memento of the original from January 7, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF) Monterey Bay Aquarium. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.seafoodwatch.org
  38. Timothy Egan: Trout as Wild as All Outdoors, Almost. In: The New York Times. February 25, 1998.
  39. G. L Bullock, RC Cipriano: Enteric Redmouth Disease of Salmonids LSC. ( Memento dated June 16, 2009 on the Internet Archive ) Fish Disease Leaflet 82nd US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1990.
  40. ^ Species Profile: Steelhead . US Fish and Wildlife Service
  41. Whole Effluent Toxicity . EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency
  42. ^ William and Catherine Washabaugh: Deep Trout: Angling in Popular Culture. Berg, Oxford, United Kingdom 2000, ISBN 1-85973-393-X , p. 119.
  43. ^ Circle Creek Fish Passage Project. Trout Unlimited
  44. Steelhead Project Report ( Memento of the original from March 6, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Wild Salmon Center @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.wildsalmoncenter.org
  45. About Us. The Steelhead Society of British Columbia
  46. ^ Bavarian State Office for Health and Food Safety, Animal Diseases, Virus Infections
  47. Super User: History. In: hofer-forellen.de. Retrieved March 27, 2016 .
  48. ^ Company archive Hofer Forellen GmbH and oral tradition from Josef Hofer's widow Rosa Hofer, 1876–1974, to grandson Peter Hofer, interview on March 29, 2016