In biology, carnivorous animals or plants that lurk more or less in one place for prey are referred to as ambulance hunters , more rarely also as hide hunters . If the camouflage is achieved by imitating inanimate objects or harmless organisms, one speaks of mimesis . The success of the stalking hunt is essentially based on the surprising overpowering of the prey.
- Mammals: cats that hunt individually are predominantly categorized as ambulance hunters. On the other hand, cats and dogs hunting in packs are more likely to be hunters .
- Birds: seat guard , for example the branches of a tree. Examples are kingfishers , hawks and kestrels , which, in addition to high-seat hunting, also use aerial hunting , which, however, is quite exhausting due to the shaking flight used .
- Reptiles: Chameleons , snapping turtles and crocodiles are stalkers, crocodiles, depending on the circumstances, also hunters.
- Bone fish: Frogfish are an example of ambulance hunters who use a lure method.
- There are also lurker hunters among the crustaceans , such as the mantis shrimp .
- Arachnids: Many hunting techniques have been developed by arachnids , including various stalking methods: trapdoor spiders and articulated spiders lurk in their living tubes for contact signals from their alarm and trip threads. Wallpaper spiders build a well-camouflaged catch hose and lurk in their living tube. Funnel spiders lurk for prey in a ground funnel lined with silk. Crab spiders or jumping spiders do not use spun tools in their stalking hunt.
- Insects: Juvenile ant lions lurk for prey like ants in a sand funnel they have dug themselves. Terrors are diurnal ambulance hunters.
- Many beetle snails are also predatory hunters.
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- Ralf Wassmann: Ornithological Pocket Lexicon ; Aula-Verlag; Wiesbaden 1999; ISBN 3-89104-627-8
- Colin R. Townsend, Michael Begon, John L. Harper: Ecology (= Springer textbook ). 1st edition. Springer, 2003, ISBN 978-3-662-09048-0 , ISSN 0937-7433 , p. 329 , doi : 10.1007 / 978-3-662-09048-0 (English: Essentials of Ecology . 2002. Translated by Thomas S. Hoffmeister, Johannes Steidle, Frank Thomas).
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