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Duck Duck Goose / Catch

Play (from Old High German : spil for "dance movement") is a form of activity, play is an activity that can be carried out for pleasure, for relaxation, purely for the joy of doing it, but also as a job ( theater play , sports play , violin play ). It is an occupation that is often undertaken as a playful confrontation in community with others. Much of the cognitive development and the development of motor skills and social competence takes place through games, in humans as well as in numerous animal species. In education , the game is also used specifically as a learning method . A game is often based on very specific courses of action, from which, especially in a community, binding rules can emerge. The specific course of action can result from the type of game itself, the rules of the game ( dodgeball , don't get angry ), as well as from the desire of different individuals to act collectively (building a sand castle , cooperative game ).

There is a wide variety of games. There is no limit to their number and games are constantly being reinvented and varied.

Definitions and characteristics

An old definition for play comes from the Dutch cultural anthropologist Johan Huizinga . In his main work Homo ludens he writes:

"Play is a voluntary act or activity that is carried out within certain fixed limits of time and space according to voluntarily accepted but absolutely binding rules, has its goal in itself and is accompanied by a feeling of tension and joy and an awareness of ' Being different 'than' ordinary life '. "

- Huizinga : 1938/1991, p. 37

However, game science distinguishes between purpose-free and purpose-oriented games. Functional games , for example, are deemed to have no purpose, and educational games are purposeful . The purposeful game already existed among the philanthropists , such as Guts Muths . The educational game should serve the purpose of learning , but still be playful. In addition to the educational game, a game movement that can be described as an educational game has been established since around 1995: Playing Arts.

The sports game has a special position: It is to be understood as a work and source of income (professional football) as well as being connected to the joy of playing. There is also a holy seriousness of the game: The game then contains cultic and religious features.

For Roger Caillois , all games are always shaped by at least one of the following four principles:

These principles can mix in many ways. However, Caillois sees an essential dividing line between competition and chance on the one hand and mask and intoxication on the other. Here he established a connection between the gaming culture and the general constitution of a society. Archaic or so-called primitive societies are more likely to be dominated by mask and intoxication, so-called civilized societies by competition and chance. The catchphrase of the “performance society” is well known - but it is also obvious that a lot is thrown in this by the chance of birth, inheritance, relationship, chance.

Friedrich Georg Jünger does not see the idea of ​​competition as a reason for games. He traces all games back to just three principles, namely skill , chance, and Ahmung [ sic !]. The last principle - which means representation and evocation at the same time - only partially coincides with Caillois' principle of mask and intoxication. Jünger writes:

“A game of skill is never based on agon, but rather on skill. Competition, competition, agon are something that is added to the game. This becomes visible where the same game is now played by players who measure their skills, now by a single player whose passion is the game itself and who does not think about entering a competition. "

Games acquire a special quality when creative aspects predominate, i.e. more far-reaching developments of the participating personalities and their social relationships are considered. Although such games are by no means work according to economic criteria, from a social science point of view they still have very important work characteristics . It depends on the role and function of those involved in play or non-play and on the point of view of the observer.

Ludwig Wittgenstein was of the opinion that the entirety of all games is connected to one another only through family resemblance, so that there is no property that is common to all games. Andreas Dorschel worked through this idea on the phenomenon of music .

Playing, according to Natias Neutert as a former lecturer in polyesthetics , sharpens the sense of possibility in the face of crude reality. In games is a serious case , he writes:

"Playing creates its own reality: that of possibilities."

- Natias Neutert : 1971

Classification of games

The very complex area of ​​games can be broken down under different points of view, for example under the aspects


Games indoors, outdoors or in virtual rooms - indoor games and outdoor games - forest games - sports field games - water games


A Tanzanian boy playing a running game with a bicycle rim

Movement games , which include hide and seek , running, jumping and catching games .

The dance game can be seen as a special form of movement play . Hugo Rahner writes in the last chapter (with the headline: "The heavenly dance game") of his game theological work Der spielende Mensch : "All game is somewhere at the bottom of its being a dance, a dance about the truth. The sacred game has always been a dance game . " This closes the circle to the etymological root of the game term ( spil ).


Relaxation games that serve to sharpen observation and attention and exercise the mind, or meditation games


Here are most of the so-called board games , card , board games


This includes competitive games that aim to measure with the skills of others, such as dodgeball , running relays or games such as algorithmic games, including taking away matches , tic-tac-toe , go , halma and chess .

Play device

Ball, ball, skittles, marble games

There are overlaps with every attempt at classification. Classifications are suitable as useful overviews, for example in the context of a game collection for practical use.

Soap bubbles

As early as the late Middle Ages, gambling for money came to the fore, mainly in the cities. In the past few decades, this development has also extended to classic games, so that participation in them should not always be viewed as games in the true sense of the word. Games, in particular games of chance , which are operated solely for the purpose of achieving financial gain, do not fall under this term of the game.

Thus, chess or backgammon not be regarded as playful when they serve the professional players to earn money. On the other hand, roulette becomes a strategy game when passionate long-time gamblers take part in this game because of the “constant challenge of chance” and only measure the success or failure of their tactical approach by their chip results. Thus, the boundaries of classification in a category are basically fluid and often depend on the basic attitude of the player and the framework conditions.

Most of the time the game (s) has a casual character. But the so-called play instinct of humans, if it is no longer controlled, can also degenerate into addiction .

In most societies, especially industrial ones, playful activities are by nature not assigned to work , but to leisure time , where they serve to pass the time or relax the player or a game community. Supporters of egalitarian and holistically oriented models of society, however, see this as a fateful separation that robs both work of pleasure and leisure of plasticity.

Curiosity and the desire to play are innate in every child. In developmental psychology, they are seen as the main driving forces behind early childhood self-discovery and later human socialization . Afterwards , humans first reflect , explore and recognize the world in child's play . The legislators and philosophers of antiquity already knew the value of the game. Later, it was also used in an educational way , primarily through Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the pedagogues Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi and Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel . The movement games have strongly influenced gymnastics , especially school gymnastics.

Sociology and ludology explore the role of play in society . Mathematical game theory deals with mathematical models that describe the behavior of players and their game strategies.

Classification of games in education and science

Free play with playing cards: A house of cards

In their standard work on developmental psychology, Rolf Oerter and Leo Montada have classified the development of play in children:

Another term plays an important role in early childhood education, namely free play (the child chooses game material, location, duration and players himself). The free play ( kindergarten , day care center ) is considered a method in teaching at German technical schools for social education or at specialist academies - e.g. B. in contrast to the guided game. Students have to learn how to organize a free game and what principles to follow. In experiential education , the guided game takes on a new meaningful role as a cooperative game , team game or team task: in it and a subsequent reflection, a group should develop a stronger cohesion.

In contrast to free play (kindergarten) there are also outdoor games; they differ from games in (protected) rooms. The outdoor games are possible in environments that are reasonably protected (little traffic; weatherproof). In today's pre-school education and teaching of kindergarten teachers, they play a rather subordinate role.

There is no general classification of games. The criteria for classifications are difficult to find. The authors set different priorities for game types or game forms according to their origin and game intentions. For example, Johan Huizinga focuses on the cultural aspect , Jean Piaget on the learning aspect, and Moritz Lazarus on the social aspect. The term educational game may show how difficult it is to differentiate : Basically, every game is an educational game. It looks similar with the language game. Nevertheless, the assignment is a big problem, depending on what a specific language game involves. The boundaries between the terms in specific examples are often blurred. In the case of a specific game, it sometimes shows that it could be assigned to several categories. This is also a problem for research and for the comparability of scientific studies on the game. The game researcher Jens Junge suggests a structured orientation towards the terms used in English: play, toy, game, gambling and sport. Nonetheless, play is one of the most important ways of encouraging children and therapeutic efforts. The practitioner of gaming is primarily interested in categorization when looking for suitable games in the game collections with which he can achieve the concrete learning effect or therapeutic success.

The function of the game differs according to the educational or leisure field of activity. While the learning effect is more in the foreground for both children and adults in the school sector, the pure joy of playing is more pronounced for both in the leisure sector. Children are also more likely to be encouraged to play, while adults often hold back, reject games or just watch them.

A classification that is gladly accepted in the educational field, also because of its good practical feasibility, comes from Warwitz / Rudolf. It is based on the

Meaning of the game

  • Make contacts while playing
  • Move while playing
  • Try out your senses while playing
  • Measure yourself by playing
  • Experience adventure while playing
  • Solve problems with ease
  • Relax and play
  • Be someone else while playing
  • Learn by playing
  • Try your luck by playing
  • Build and design with ease
  • Dive into virtual worlds while playing
  • Encounter earlier times with ease
  • Encounter other peoples while playing

Anthropological and cultural importance

The educational value of play for the development of the human personality does not only arise from the educational game , but is realized in the pure functional game . After the game was ostracized in the Middle Ages as a useless hustle and bustle and instrumentalization as a didactic method by the philanthropists or Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, this realization did not establish itself until modern times with the reflections of philosophers, psychologists, anthropologists and game scientists such as Friedrich Schiller , Frederik Jacobus Johannes Buytendijk , Johan Huizinga or Hans Scheuerl gradually through:

The form of self-forgetting doing, which is meaningful in itself, which Schiller summed up in the famous sentence “ ... people only play where they are in the full meaning of the word human, and they are only fully human where they play ” signals a rethink the human educational effect of playing, which is no longer characterized by useful thinking. This happens - mostly unintentionally and unconsciously - when people fully engage in a game with the conditions and possibilities of their environment and thereby set their own tasks. According to Huizinga, human abilities develop from the joy of pure doing, which rewards itself autotelically and does not require external confirmation. On the other hand, cultural creations such as literature, art, music and science arise. The release of creative forces is accompanied by a sensory experience that exerts invigorating impulses on soul, mind and body and increases the emotional state in the form of feelings of happiness. The game scientist Siegbert A. Warwitz describes this effect as the "secret wisdom of playing", which is expressed in its optimal phase in a kind of flow state. It is most clearly recognizable in the unguided children's game, which is completely absorbed in a self-chosen task.

Historical classification

Achilles and Ajax playing dice

Humans have always been fascinated by the playful handling of matter. It is human nature to want to play. Numerous motifs from cave drawings and clay paintings found in France testify to this .

According to Greek mythology , the gods invented the game. The invention of the dice for the purpose of playing is said to be traced back to the god Hermes . In addition, the ability of clairvoyance and vision of the future is attributed to the son of Zeus (similarly, playing cards have been used for divination since the 17th century). Two millennia ago , the Chinese named a number lotto Keno , which has striking similarities with today's bingo ; Since it was used to finance the Great Wall of China , it may have been the first state lottery known to mankind, unless archaeological finds of even older evidence show that lotteries were used for state funding well before this time, but their character in antiquity was not personal enrichment of the fellow players, but corresponded to the consciousness of the individual to serve the common good in a playful way. Archaeological finds show that the ancient Egyptian snake game lasted until around 2800 BC. Can be traced back.

Race at the Panathenaic Games, 530 BC

In ancient times, the great public fighting games were the top priority, but also social games - especially among the Greeks (during drinking parties the "wine gossip" Kottabos ) - had their place in everyday life.

It can be assumed that the great generals followed the gods of luck at that time. They often made their war strategies dependent on the outcome of a previous game. According to ancient traditions, there were royal lottery directors. Often wars were financed through proclaimed lotteries, which at that time lacked the current gambling character. In earlier times, the proclamation of a war lottery resulted in a mass rush of the population, who were rather puritanical about gambling . Archived parish records from colonial America indicate, for example, that it was the social occasion to take part in a war lottery in the Civil War. It was a patriotic act in which the individual bought a ticket until he had won something. The one who enjoyed the highest reputation was the one who had to draw the most lots before the hit and thus made the most funds available for the financing of the war.

In prehistoric times, games were often determined by magic . Throwing a ticket or a dice was considered an attempt to determine the divine will or unwillingness.

The ball game , which was very popular with the Greeks and Romans, and the game of dice , the children's judging game - they were all played with passion.

The game of skill known worldwide under the name of Mikado was already known to the Romans in 100 BC. Known. The arrangement of the chopsticks turned in the hand and then dropped onto a flat surface was used to oracle. Appropriate conclusions related to the player were drawn from the ability of the player to remove the chopsticks individually from the arrangement without moving other chopsticks. The differently marked chopsticks each had the properties specified before the start of the game, so that the fall of all chopsticks was predetermined as an overall event. Both the properties assigned to the chopsticks, which the player was able to pull out of the formation without any complaints, as well as the "disturbed properties" moved when pulling, predicted something about the future development of the overall event as well as about the personal fate of the player.

A board game called petteia , according to legend, an invention of Palamedes , already appears in Homer as entertainment of the suitors in Ithaca (see Odyssey , I, 107). However, there is no more detailed information about the type of Greek board games.

Puff game or backgammon

The “city game” seems to have been similar to today's chess or checkers game . Of the various genres of Roman board games, the ludus latrunculorum (robber game), a kind of siege game, and the ludus duodecim scriptorum are known to some extent . In the robber game, the existing stones were divided into farmers and officers and it was a matter of striking or fixing the enemy stones. In the ludus duodecim scriptorum , the game of 12 lines, the advance of the 15 white and 15 black stones had to be determined by the height of the dice roll preceding each move (forerunner of backgammon ). A game similar to Halma also existed.

A large number of the board games still popular today have their origins in the Mediterranean region.

Finger guessing was very popular in antiquity and is still widespread in Italy as a Morra game (see also scissors, stone, paper ).

From the German-speaking area, the sword dance should be mentioned as a folk game in the Middle Ages . Stone throwing , javelin throwing and running were also popular. Also, the bowling and the always operated with passion dice game have long been at home in Central Europe. While the rural folk stuck to these games, the courtly circles of knighthood turned mainly to fighting games, from which the actual knight games ( jousting , booing and tournament ) developed under foreign influence . In addition, the ball game (mostly by the female youth) and the most popular mind game the board game and the chess game (since the 11th century) were operated.

The first Olympic Games in Greece date back to 776 BC. Only the advancing archaeological research allows conclusions to be drawn about the unselfishness and the so-called Olympic basic idea, on which every participant of the modern games should take an oath even today; so the early Hellenic games were by no means due to the honor benefiting the winner, the reputation and the life-facilitating benefits in his place of origin, only unselfish motives. Game fraud (for example the setting of markers for performance evaluation and unfair behavior) has been used just as abusively, contrary to the “sporting attitude” that is handed down today and generally presented as an example, as performance increases are achieved today with drugs. To make matters worse for the participants was that there was no “winner's podium”; only the winner achieved fame and honor in antiquity - and fortune after returning home. Even the runner-up in the respective discipline sank into insignificance, which probably led to the competitions being brutalized. The reckless behavior of those involved in the chariot race , the final climax of the respective games, the winner of which was accordingly highly regarded, regularly led to deaths.

The further north one moves from the Mediterranean area, the more the character of the games is shifted to "strength games", in the physical performance measurement as a forerunner of later sporting events.

Since the existence of games known to us, it has been evident that people also gambled for material assets, initially for natural products , with the advent of alternative means of payment (the first coins) for money. With this investment of assets, the concept of the bet was created. Even then, the thrill of correcting the apparently predetermined fate and challenging Fortuna , the goddess of happiness, increased. The forms continued to develop from their originality of past millennia.

However, not only the reasons for the game developed, but also the forms of the game and the stakes. Some Germanic tribes used women and children, and even put themselves at risk by prescribing their body and soul, which in individual cases even led to their slavery ( serfdom ).

Between the advancing enlightenment and the arch-conservative attitude of moralists, the game was considered blasphemy for a long time in the Middle Ages .

  • Whenever church fundamentalists and moralists had the say, gambling was considered heretical , and bans were repeatedly pronounced, underpinned by punishments that were disproportionate to the occasion.
  • If secular rulers had to determine the fate of society, the prohibitions were softened, so that gambling was regarded as socially unproductive and thus frowned upon, but tolerated.

The situation changed when the sovereigns rediscovered a possibility that early generals had already used to finance their wars, namely to fill their state coffers by hosting games. The income from the public, state-controlled game was an excellent way to finance households, construction work or investments in education.

The ecclesiastical institutions also lifted temporary bans because the capital requirements (for example for the construction of a monastery) for an order could no longer be raised in any other way. Research institutions and social institutions, in particular the fight against emerging epidemics (such as the plague in the Middle Ages), the care of old and sick people, could no longer be raised through the earnings of church productions, and the tax revenues have long been able to meet the capital requirements of the church after the end of the Inquisition and with no longer cover the task of writing out so-called letters of indulgence . Ultimately, the lifting of the ban on gambling by the Vatican in Italy in the 17th century should not be viewed as a surrender to the human need to gamble, but as an economic factor - in a sense a forerunner of later social lotteries. It took 337 years from the introduction of the number lottery in Genoa in 1620 to the first public drawing of the lottery numbers on German television (DFF).

Horse bet

As a result, there have always been competitions and games of chance, and the desire to bet on them as well - so in the game, free of selfishness and material thinking, the Greeks already bet on the winner. Linguists assume that the fact that bets were made on every performance measurement of those involved in games by non-participants gave rise to the word competition , which first appeared in connection with the Olympians in ancient times.

Lotteries were already very popular among the general public back then. Drawings based on the principle of today's number lottery have existed in Italy and England since the 16th century. Lotto according to the rules that exist today was invented in Italy at the beginning of the 17th century, in which political decisions were determined by drawing lots. In a drawing of 5 out of 90, five councilors were chosen at random. Historians see in this political process the development of the numerical bet; nevertheless, those criteria are not to be assigned to "luck", but to a higher disposition, to be appointed as councilor.

In the absence of communicative and publicity options, games of this kind were initially made official in administrative buildings and later offered in specially designed houses, the so-called “playhouses”. Only later, in the 18th century, did the first casinos develop from them , in which dice games and card games at hollow tables were mainly operated. In the course of time, the first lottery machines were constructed in which the chances of success could be drawn mechanically in order to rule out manipulation on the part of the operators.

A real triumph of its time was “ Pharo ”, a bet on the card that was next drawn and revealed. In this game, too, the basic idea of ​​achieving a better result against the other players, and not of material gain, was initially applied. In the 19th century Trente-et-un (31) was the most common parlor game in casinos, followed by Vingt-et-un (21), which can now be found in blackjack with changed rules . The absolute hit among the public games was the classic roulette in the last century , which is to be regarded as a game of chance , but its appeal for many players consists of a tactical approach by means of its stake to speculate on the further course of the future from the process of randomly falling rows of numbers and to react so that it is also viewed as a strategy game by the players. To this day, the dice and the roulette wheel with its number turntable are the game symbols par excellence.

Terranigma computer game with game console

In many cases, electronic games and digitally animated games with strategy, skill or creative tasks have taken the place of their predecessors - known among them are “ Counter-Strike ” and the current “ World of Warcraft ”. Through the networking of player terminals to a platform increases the number of to increase in a game parties to the appeal of participating in the game. With today's technological possibilities in terms of communicative data transmission and the interactive content of the game-specific software, up to several thousand players play on servers on the Internet that are accessible to everyone around the world .

So the origins in connection with the so-called human play instinct have persisted until today, initially as a basic human need for diversion or as an immoral nuisance.

The age of games

17th century mikado

Playing with animals

The individuals of some animal species also show play behavior. So not only are mammals sometimes highly complex behaviors to pass the time , but also birds and reptiles have seen simple ball and tug of war games.

Games also have a learning background in animals: young animals learn and try out certain behaviors that they need to survive in adulthood. In mammals, young animals like to play with siblings and other peers.

The game in the proverb

In Wanders Deutsches Sprich emphasis-Lexikon there are 264 proverbs for play , 125 for play and 55 for players . There are more for compound words: play money , play hansel, playhouse, playing card, minstrels, minstrel, play treasure, play piece, play devil, music box, spoilers, play losers, play mechanisms and toys .

The game on coat of arms

Heraldic are chess and checkers in Ströbeck and Trebbin shown. The cube can be seen in Pfaffing , among other places .


  • "The world? A child at play, setting the board." - Heraclitus of Ephesus 500 BC Chr.
  • "Because, to finally say it all at once, people only play where they are in the full meaning of the word human, and they are only fully human where they play." - Friedrich Schiller ( On the aesthetic education of people, 15 . Letter ). This quote relates to acting.
  • "The archetype of people in the flow is the playing child who is in the blissful state of total being with oneself. - Siegbert Warwitz ( Sinnsuche im Wagnis , 2nd edition, Schneider Verlag, Baltmannsweiler 2016, p. 209)
  • "Through playful experimentation , there were probably as many perspectives as the systematic processing of given programs." - Werner Winkler ( Solving problems quickly and easily. ISBN 3-636-07001-0 , p. 170)
  • “The game is the only thing men take seriously. That is why the rules of the game are older than any laws in the world. ”- Peter Bamm
  • "At the end of the game the devil is waiting." ( Game. In: Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Wander (Hrsg.): Deutsches Sprichwort-Lexikon. Volume 4, Leipzig 1876, Sp. 694)
  • "You can tell from the game what's in you." ( Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Wander ; see above )
  • "The goal in playing is to win, but not winning is important, but the goal." - Reiner Knizia
  • "Rituals are more important in human life than one would like to assume in the apparently end-ritualized present. They are closely related to the game." Rolf Oerter


  • Alain (d. I. Émile-Auguste Chartier ): Age and outlook. Berlin / Vienna / Leipzig 1932 (French first edition 1927), therein the fourth book “The Games”, pp. 167–210.
  • Michael Andres: Sport - Games - Tension. Philosophical investigation of the game and its staging in sport . Turnshare, London 2007, ISBN 978-1-84790-001-2 .
  • Frederik Jacobus Johannes Buytendijk : The essence and meaning of the game . Wolff, Berlin 1933.
  • Roger Caillois : The games and the people: mask and intoxication . Ullstein, Frankfurt am Main / Berlin / Vienna 1958/1982.
  • U. Eerke: Hamer: The beginnings of the "game movement" in Germany (= contributions and sources on sport and society. In: Volume 3). Arena Publ., London 1989, ISBN 0-902175-48-3 .
  • Manfred Eigen , Ruthild Winkler: The game . Piper, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-492-20410-4 .
  • Daniil Elkonin: Psychology of the Game. Pahl-Rugenstein, Cologne 1980, ISBN 3-7609-0497-1 .
  • Eugen Fink : Play as a world symbol . New edition ed. by Cathrin Nielsen u. Hans Rainer Sepp. Alber, Freiburg 1960/2009, ISBN 978-3-495-46315-4 .
  • Karl Groos : The games of the animals. 3. Edition. G. Fischer, Jena 1896/1930.
  • Karl Groos: The games of the people . G. Fischer, Jena 1899.
  • Bernhard Hauser: Playing. Early learning in the family, day care center and kindergarten . Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2013, ISBN 978-3-17-021975-5 .
  • Karl Heldmann : Medieval folk games in the Thuringian-Saxon countries. Hall / S. 1908
  • Hans Hoppe: Games Finding and Inventing . Lit-Verlag, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-8258-9651-X .
  • Johan Huizinga : Homo Ludens . From the origin of culture in the game . Rowohlt, Reinbek 1939/2004, ISBN 3-499-55435-6 .
  • Olaf Jansen, Norbert Kühne : Games and play stories outdoors - the forgotten variant of creativity? In: Praxisbuch Sozialpädagogik. Volume 5, Troisdorf 2008, ISBN 978-3-427-75413-8 , pp. 115ff.
  • Friedrich Georg Jünger : The games. A key to its importance . Frankfurt am Main 1953.
  • Moritz Lazarus : About the charms of the game. Dümmler, Berlin 1883
  • Hans Mogel: Psychology of children's games: from the earliest games to computer games. 3. Edition. Springer, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-540-46623-9 .
  • Stephen Nachmanovitch: The Tao of Creativity. Creative improvisation in life and art . OW Barth, Frankfurt am Main 2008, ISBN 978-3-502-61189-9 .
  • Natias Neutert (Ed.): Playing. Kunsthaus, Hamburg 1971.
  • Rolf Oerter , Leo Montada: Developmental Psychology. 5th edition. Weinheim 2002, ISBN 3-621-27479-0 .
  • Birger P. Priddat: Beauty, play and leisure. Friedrich Schiller's aesthetic education for people, pp. 29 - 52 in: the same: Work and Leisure, Marburg: Metropolit 2019.
  • Rolf Oerter: Psychology of the game. 2nd Edition. PVU, Weinheim 1997, ISBN 3-621-27377-8 .
  • Hugo Rahner The person who plays. Johannes Verlag Einsiedeln, Freiburg 2008.
  • Hans Scheuerl : The game. Investigations into its nature, its pedagogical possibilities and limits. 11th edition. Weinheim / Basel 1990
  • Friedrich Schiller : About the aesthetic education of man . Reclam, Stuttgart 1795/2000, ISBN 3-15-018062-7 .
  • Siegbert A. Warwitz , Anita Rudolf: From the sense of playing. Reflections and game ideas. 4th edition, Baltmannsweiler 2016, ISBN 978-3-8340-1664-5
  • Siegbert A. Warwitz: About the wisdom of playing. In: Spiel wise, Journal des Bildungsforum. 25. Internationaler Spielmarkt Potsdam 2015, pp. 20–24.

See also

Portal: Games  - Overview of Wikipedia content on games

Web links

Wikiquote: Game  - Quotes
Wiktionary: Game  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: game  - in American colloquial language, long or extravagant talk, often with dishonest intent
Commons : Games  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Commons : Toys  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Siegbert A. Warwitz, Anita Rudolf: What play means and what features characterize it. In: Dies .: The sense of playing. Reflections and game ideas. 4th edition, Baltmannsweiler 2016, pp. 18–22.
  2. ICF Guts Muths: Games for exercise and relaxation of the body and mind. Schnepfenthal 1796
  3. a b Hans Scheuerl: The game. Investigations into its nature, its pedagogical possibilities and limits. 11th edition. Weinheim / Basel 1990
  4. Benedikt Sturzenhecker, Christoph Riemer (Ed.): Playing Arts. Impulses for aesthetic education. Weinheim / Munich 2005.
  5. Christoph Riemer, Benedikt Sturzenhecker (Ed.): Playing Arts. Gelnhausen 2002
  6. ^ Roger Caillois: The games and the people. Paris 1958, first German edition Stuttgart 1960, see therein v. a. Chapters VII and VIII
  7. ^ Friedrich Georg Jünger: The games. Frankfurt am Main 1953, p. 190. Although published five years earlier, Jünger's stimulating study is not mentioned by Caillois. It also covers sports, dressage, hunting, bullfighting, war, love and the like.
  8. ^ Andreas Dorschel, Music as Play. In: Paulo de Assis (Ed.), Virtual Works - Actual Things: Essays in Musical Ontology. Leuven University Press, Leuven 2018 (Orpheus Institute Series), pp. 115-133. pdf online
  9. Natias Neutert: Playing is a serious matter. In: Hamburger Morgenpost. No. 77, April 1, 1971, magazine, p. 4.
  10. Hugo Rahner: The playing person. Johannes Verlag Einsiedeln, Freiburg 2008, p. 59.
  11. For example, Henner Reitmeier in his "Relaxikon" Der Große Stockraus , Berlin 2009, in the article "Urlaub"
  12. Olaf Jansen, Norbert Kühne : Games and game stories outdoors - the forgotten variant of creativity? In: Praxisbuch Sozialpädagogik. Volume 5, Troisdorf 2008, ISBN 978-3-427-75413-8 , pp. 115ff
  13. Play? What's this? , Blog article by Jens Junge on accessed on October 16, 2018.
  14. ↑ Supporting free play as a support approach
  15. ^ Siegbert A. Warwitz, Anita Rudolf: From the sense of playing. Reflections and game ideas. 4th edition. Baltmannsweiler 2016, pp. 37–125.
  16. ^ Rabelais: Gargantua and Pantagruel 1535.
  17. FJJ Buytendijk: the nature and meaning of the game . Wolff, Berlin 1933.
  18. Friedrich Schiller: About the aesthetic education of man . Reclam, Stuttgart 1795/2000, pp. 591-595.
  19. ^ Johan Huizinga: Homo Ludens . From the origin of culture in the game . Rowohlt, Reinbek 1939/2004.
  20. ^ Siegbert A. Warwitz: About the wisdom of playing. In: Spiel wise, Journal des Bildungsforum. 25. Internationaler Spielmarkt Potsdam 2015, pp. 20–24.
  21. Der Spiegel : Why animals play: What nonsense. But makes sense from January 11, 2015, accessed on January 12, 2015.
  22. In: Psychologie des Spiel - An action-theoretical approach, Quintessenz Verlag, Munich 1993, p. 17.
  23. The chapters of the fourth book: The works, The works, The child's work, The game, The people of children, The games of adults, On the chance. The French philosopher expressly differentiates play from both work and artistic creation; see especially p. 167 and 183.