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POJ text sample.svg
Text in Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Long characters 白話 字
Abbreviation 白话 字
Pe̍h-ōe-jī Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pinyin Báihuà Zì
Jyutping Baak 1 waa 2 zi 6
meaning Slang
Inscription from a Tainan (Tâi-lâmer) church in memory of missionary Thomas Barclay

Pe̍h-ōe-jī , POJ for short ( Chinese  白話 字  /  白话 字 , Pinyin báihuàzì , Pe̍h-ōe-jī pe̍h-ōe-jī ; IPA : [ peʔ˩ ue˩ dzi˨ ]), also known as " Church Romanization " ( 教會 羅馬 字  /  教会 罗马 字 , Jiàohuì Luōmǎzì , Pe̍h-ōe-jī Kàu-hōe Lô-má-jī , short 教 羅  /  教 罗 , Jiàoluō , English Church Romanization , Pe̍h-ōe-jī Kàu-Lô ), is one Latinized transcription for all variants of the Sinitic language Min Nan , including Taiwanese , Hokkien and Teochew .


The POJ transcription system was developed by Western Catholic missionaries between the 16th and 19th centuries AD to convert Chinese who immigrated to the colonial areas in Southeast Asia to Catholicism . POJ was also used in Taiwan's first newspaper , the Taiwan Church News .

During the Japanese colonial period in Taiwan (1895–1945), the POJ was ousted by the occupiers and later, from 1895 to 1945, the Kuomintang was heavily criticized during the martial law . In Fujian , POJ use has declined since the People's Republic of China was established in 1949. Nowadays POJ is mostly used by Taiwanese Christians and Christian Chinese in Southeast Asia .

See also


  • Ang Ui-jin, Taiwan Fangyan zhi Lü (A Journey Through Taiwanese Regional Speech) (Chinese), Taipei, Avanguard Publishing, 1992. ISBN 957-9512-31-0
  • Edward Band, Barclay of Formosa, Ginza, Tokyo, Christian Literature Society, 1936.
  • Dominika Baran, "Taiwanese don't have written words": Language ideologies and language practice in a Taipei County high school in Conference Proceedings - 2004 International Conference on Taiwanese Romanization, 2004, Vol. 2.
  • William Campbell, A Dictionary of the Amoy Vernacular, Tainan, PCT Press [1913], 2006. ISBN 957-8959-92-3
  • Chang Yu-hong, Principles of POJ or the Taiwanese Orthography: An Introduction to Its Sound-Symbol Correspondences and Related Issues, Taipei, Crane, 2001.
  • Wi-vun Taiffalo Chiung, Language, Identity and Decolonization, Tainan, National Cheng Kung University, 2005. ISBN 957-8845-85-5
  • Wi-vun Taiffalo Chiung, Language, Literature and Reimagined Taiwanese Nation, Tainan, National Cheng Kung University, 2007. ISBN 978-986-00-9746-7
  • Chung Raung-fu, The Segmental Phonology of Southern Min in Taiwan, Spoken Language Services, 1996. ISBN 957-9463-46-8
  • John F. Copper, A Historical Dictionary of Taiwan (Republic of China), 2nd, Lanham, MD, Scarecrow Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-8108-5600-4
  • Elihu Doty, Anglo Chinese Manual of the Amoy Dialect, Guangzhou, Samuel Wells Williams, 1853.
  • Carstairs Douglas; Thomas Barclay, cinese-English Dictionary of the Vernacular or Spoken Language of Amoy, Taipei, Southern Materials Center [1923], 1990. ISBN 957-9482-32-2
  • Bernard LM Embree, A Dictionary of Southern Min, 1973.
  • Ann Heylen, Romanizing Taiwanese: Codification and Standardization of Dictionaries in Southern Min (1837–1923) in Ku Weit Ying (a cura di), Authentic cinese Christianity, Preludes to Its Development: Nineteenth & Twentieth Centuries, Leuven, Leuven University Press, 2001 . ISBN 978-9058671028
  • Iûⁿ Ún-giân, Processing Techniques for Written Taiwanese - Tone Sandhi and POS Tagging (Doctoral dissertation), National Taiwan University, 2009.
  • Henning Klöter, Written Taiwanese, Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz, 2005. ISBN 3-447-05093-4
  • Lin, Alvin (1999). Writing Taiwanese: The Development of Modern Written Taiwanese. Sino-Platonic Papers (89).
  • John Macgowan, A Manual of the Amoy Colloquial, Hong Kong, de Souza & Co., 1869.
  • Maryknoll Fathers, Taiwanese: Book 1, Taichung, Maryknoll, 1984.
  • Walter Henry Medhurst, Dictionary of the Hok-këèn Dialect of the Chinese Language, According to the Reading and Colloquial Idioms, Macau, East India Press, 1832.
  • Jerry Norman, Cinese, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-521-29653-6
  • Ong Iok-tek, Taiwanyu Yanjiu Juan (in cinese), Taipei, Avanguard Publishing, 2002. ISBN 957-801-354-X
  • Katsuhiro J Ota, An investigation of written Taiwanese (Master's thesis), University of Hawai'i at Manoa, 2005.
  • S. Robert Ramsey, The Chinese Language, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1987. ISBN 978-0-691-01468-5
  • Babuja A. Sidaia, A-Chhûn (in Hàn-lô Taiwanese), Taipei, Taili, 1998. ISBN 957-98861-6-4
  • Ernest Tipson, A Pocket Dictionary of the Amoy Vernacular: English-Chinese, Singapore, Lithographers, 1934.
  • Tseng Rui-cheng, Taiwan Minnanyu Luomazi Pinyin Fang'an Shiyong Shouce (Practical Manual for the Taiwan Southern Min Romanization System) (in Chinese), ROC Ministry of Education, 2009. ISBN 978-986-01-6637-8
  • John Van Nest Talmage, New Dictionary in the Amoy Dialect, 1894.
  • A. Livingston Warnshuis, Lessons in the Amoy Vernacular, Xiamen, Chui-keng-tông Press, 1911.
  • Wu Chang-neng, The Taigi Literature Debates and Related Developments (1987–1996) (Master's thesis), Taipei, National Chengchi University, 2007.

Web links

Commons : Pe̍h-ōe-jī  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. File: Peh-oe-ji.ogg , viewed on March 26, 2013