The Katipunan ( traditional Baybayin : ᜃᜆᜒᜉᜓᜈ, colonial Baybayin : ᜃᜆᜒᜉᜓᜈᜈ᜔) was a nationalist secret society in the Philippines , which was founded in 1892 by Andrés Bonifacio with the aim of liberating a large part of Luzón from Spanish rule. Later the Katipunan fought against the new colonial power USA . The name Katipunan is the short version of the official name in Tagalog : Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng̃ mg̃á Anak ng̃ Bayan ( traditional Baybayin : ᜃᜆᜀᜆᜀᜐᜃᜄᜎᜄᜎᜅᜃᜆᜒᜉᜓᜈᜋᜅᜀᜈᜊᜌ, colonial Baybayin: ᜃᜆᜀᜆᜀᜐᜈ᜔ᜃᜄᜎᜅ᜔ᜄᜎᜅᜈ᜔ᜃᜆᜒᜉᜓᜈᜈ᜔ᜅ᜔ᜋᜅᜀᜃ᜔ᜅ᜔ᜊᜌᜈ᜔, German: "highest and most honorable society of the country children") and is also known under the abbreviation KKK . The word katipunan is a Tagalog word for "society" or "assembly".
Foundation and revolution
The reason for the founding of the Katipunan was the arrest of leading members of the Liga Filipina , led by Dr. José Rizal had been founded and, in addition to Bonifacio, also the other two founders Ladislao Diwa and Teodoro Plata belonged.
The decision to found the Katipunan was made on the day the Spanish colonial government announced Rizal's exile to Dapitan . The leaders of the Katipunan - Diwa, Bonifacio, and Plata - gathered on July 7, 1892, along with some other members of the League, in a house on Calle Azcarraga (now Claro M. Recto Avenue) near Calle Elcaño in Tondo , Manila. At this meeting, Deodato Arellano was elected President of the Katipunan. Valentín Díaz and José Dizon were also present. These men jointly undertook to secretly prepare for an armed revolt with the aim of achieving independence for their country from Spanish colonial rule.
The Katipunan and the Cuerpo de Compromisarios were follow-up movements of the La Liga Filipina and were inspired by the nationalist writings of the propaganda movement of Filipino students in Spain. The league, composed mainly of intellectuals, had advocated peaceful reform. The Illutrados and the propaganda movement of the Filipino students, for their part , arose out of the execution of the Gomburza trio .
Marcelo H. del Pilar , another leader of the propaganda movement in Spain, also influenced the formation of the Katipunan. Some historians even believe that he was directly involved in the organization because of his role in the propaganda movement and his prominent position with the Filipino Freemasons . Most of the Katipunan founders were Freemasons. In addition, the entry rituals of Katipunan were copied by the Freemasons, as well as the hierarchies resembled those of this community. Rizal's Spanish biographer Wenceslao Retaña saw the design of the Katipunan as Del Pilar's victory over Rizal. He wrote:
- La Liga dies and the katipunan takes their place. Del Pilar's plan triumphs over Rizal's.
- Del Pilar and Rizal have the same goal, only the ways to get there are different.
For Bonifacio, the suppression of the league was proof that peaceful reforms against Spanish rule were useless. A meeting place of the independence movement was the Pamitinan Cave ; It contains stone carvings by eight leading members of the later Katipunan.
In August 1896, the Philippine Revolution began in Manila and its suburbs after the Katipunan was discovered by the Spanish authorities. The events around August 23rd are referred to in the Philippines as Sigaw sa Pugad Lawin (German: Ruf des Falkennestes ). It quickly spread to the neighboring provinces of Laguna , Bulacan , Batangas , Cavite , Pampanga , Tarlac , and Nueva Ecija .
Rizal, who was considered honorary president for the Katipunan - although he did not belong to the Katipunan - was accused by the Spaniards of being the leader of the revolution. After the Spanish colonial government sentenced him to death, he was shot on December 30, 1896. Rizal thus became a martyr for the revolutionaries and Mabuhay si Dr. José Rizal (German: "Long live Dr. José Rizal") became the battle cry of the revolutionaries, although Rizal was actually a reformer who at the time only pleaded for equal rights for the Philippines within Spain.
Power struggles in Katipunan
During the revolution there was a split between the Magdiwang faction, which was close to Bonifacio, and the Magdalo faction of General Emilio Aguinaldo from Cavite, a scion of a wealthy family of politicians.
On March 22, 1897, a convention was held in Tejeros, Cavite, to form a revolutionary government. There Bonifacio lost to Aguinaldo trying to become president and was instead elected minister of the interior. When members of the Magdalo parliamentary group tried to portray Bonifacio, who came from a humble background, as uneducated and unsuitable for the position of interior minister, Bonifacio declared the results of the convention null and void due to his position as supremo (leader) of Katipunan. He and his followers founded their own revolutionary government in Naic, Cavite. Bonifacio was later captured on the orders of Aguinaldo and executed on May 10, 1897.
Armistice of Biak-na-Bato
The first provisional republic of the Philippines was proclaimed in the caves of Biak-na-Bato of Aguinaldo in July 1897, the republic of Biak-na-Bato , and the first constitution of the Philippines was passed there on November 1st. November came into force. On December 14th, 1897 Aguinaldo agreed in the caves of Biak-na-Bato after intense fighting with the Spaniards an armistice and the dissolution of the republic with the Spanish governor. Aguinaldo and 34 others received money from the Spanish and went into voluntary exile in Hong Kong . The ceasefire did not last very long, however, as not all Filipino generals wanted to surrender their weapons and continued to fight. When the Spanish-American War broke out in 1898 , Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines, since he saw an ally of the Philippines in the USA - after a few talks with American diplomats in Hong Kong. On May 1, 1898, the obsolete Spanish fleet was destroyed in the Battle of Manila Bay by the US Pacific Fleet under Commodore George Dewey . On June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo declared the independence of the Philippines and was elected President of the first Philippine Republic in early 1899 .
War with america
At the end of 1898, the Treaty of Paris surrendered the Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guam from Spain to the USA and ended the Spanish-American war. Cuba became independent, but in fact came under US administration. Since the USA did not want to recognize the independence of the Philippines, the Philippine-American War broke out in early 1899 . In 1901 Aguinaldo was captured by American troops, in 1902 the war was officially declared over by the US side.
- The Philippine Revolution (English)
- The tragic struggle of Andres Bonifacio
- Chronicle of the Philippine Revolution
- Propagandist and First President of the Katipunan
- The Death of Gomburza & The Propaganda Movement in Philippine History
- Homepage of the Pamitinan Protected Landscape ( Memento of the original from October 22, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- The Cry of Pugadlawin on Filipino.biz.ph - Philippine Culture
- The Republic of Biak na Bato in Philippine History (English)