President of the Philippines

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President of the Philippines
Seal of the President
Seal of the President
Standard of the President
Standard of the President
Rodrigo Duterte
Acting President
Rodrigo Duterte
since June 30, 2016
Official seat Malacañang Palace in Manila
Term of office 6 years
(no re-election possible)
Last choice May 9, 2016
Deputy Vice President

The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines . The Filipino name for the President of the Philippines is Ang Pangulo or Pangulo .

The President of the Philippines is also the embodiment of the executive branch in the country.


According to the constitution of the Philippines (Constitution of the Philippines) by 1987 must be a presidential candidate to be selected to meet the following requirements:

He must be at least 40 years of age, be on the electoral roll, be able to read and write, be a citizen born in the Philippines, and have had his primary residence in the Philippines for ten years.


The president is elected by majority vote by the duly registered voters of the Philippines. The election takes place on the second Monday in May.

In the event that two or more candidates receive an equal number of votes, the Congress of the Philippines has to determine the new incumbent in a separate election by a majority of its votes.

In the event of an objection, the Supreme Court of the Philippines has sole judgment. This is in an extraordinary session with the participation of all judges on each disputed point concerning this election, on all results and on the qualification of the presidential candidate.

Term of office

The President holds office for six years. The term of office begins around noon on the thirtieth day of June, which follows the day of the election decision. It must end around noon on the same date in the sixth following year. One can no longer stand for re-election unless he / she wins the presidency again through a successor in office. In this case, you may not occupy it for more than four years.


Before the newly elected President begins his / her official business, he / she has to take the following oath or assurance:

"I swear (or affirm ) solemnly that I fulfill my duties as president (or vice president or acting president) of the Philippines faithfully and conscientiously and preserve the constitution and protect, up out the laws and each is justified, and myself at the service of the nation will ask.
So help me God. ” In the case of insurance , the last sentence is omitted.


The president is the head of the executive arm of the government, which includes both the cabinet and all executive functions. The executive power as such is solely in the hands of the President.

The President is also the Supreme Commander (Commander-in-Chief) of the army and all the Armed Forces of the Philippines . As the highest leader of the army, the president has the authority to activate parts of the armed forces to secure or suppress anarchist acts of violence, an invasion or a rebellion. In the event of an invasion or rebellion, he / she is empowered, if public safety requires it, to suspend the privilege of habeas corpus for a period not exceeding 60 days and to place the Philippines or any part of the country under martial law .

After a judgment of the last legal instance, the President is authorized to approve deadlines, to reduce punishment, to grant pardons, and to reduce fees and compensation, unless the President is himself charged with impeachment.

The President may continue to borrow and grant foreign loans on behalf of the Republic of the Philippines and with the prior approval of the Monetary Bank within the legal limits.

The President has general supervision over all municipal administrative units.

The President is also empowered to appoint members of the Constitutional Commission, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, with the approval of the Commission on Appointments. He may continue to officers of the armed forces from the rank of colonel ( Colonel Insert) or Marine captain upwards, as well as any other officer, for the appointment of the President according to the Constitution of 1987 is capable.

The members of the Supreme Court are also appointed by the President. The basis for such an appointment is a list compiled by the Judicial and Bar Council . The consent of the Commission on Appointments is not required for this appointment.

Official title

The official title of the President prescribed by the current constitution of the Philippines from 1987 is "President of the Philippines". The salutation for the President of the Philippines is "Your Excellency" (Your Excellency) or "His / Her Excellency" and was adopted from the title of Governor General of the Philippines during the Spanish and later American occupation.

The term "President of the Republic of the Philippines" is synonymous, but misleading in use, as it goes back to the time when President José P. Laurel in 1945 the difference between his government and the wanted to highlight the then Commonwealth (exile) government under President Manuel Quezon .

The re-establishment of the Commonwealth in 1945 and the subsequent independence of the Philippines ensured the reintroduction of the legally approved title of "President of the Philippines". This was true until President Ferdinand Marcos declared a state of emergency and once again wanted to highlight the differences between his government and those of his predecessors. At the determination of Marcos, the title "President of the Republic of the Philippines" was taken over again and notarized in the 1973 constitution of the Philippines . This constitution was replaced in 1987 by a new state order, which again fell back on the much more traditional designation "President of the Philippines".

Official residence

The Malacañang Palace

The Malacañan Palace, often referred to as the Malacañang Palace , is the official residence of the President of the Philippines. The palace is located on the north bank of the Pasig River in Manila . In the local Filipino language it is called Palasyo ng Malakanyang . He is referred to as Malacañang Palace when speaking of the official domicile of the President of the Philippines. The simplified form Malacañang is taken when referring to the office of the President, as well as when used in everyday language and in the media.

The Malacañang Palace is shown on the back of the currently valid 20 Peso note.

State of the Union speech

The State of the Nation (State of the Nation Address, abbreviated SONA ) is an annual event at which the President of the Republic of the Philippines gives a report on the status of the nation. This speech is usually scheduled to resume the joint meeting of Congress (House and Senate). This lecture is an obligation imposed on the President under Article VII, Section 23 of the Constitution of the Philippines (1987):

“The President has to address Congress at the opening of its regular meeting. He may appear before at any other time. "

The report is a good opportunity for the opposition parties to express their protests and objections to the government. In 2005 , President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo's State of the Union address was accompanied by protests by tens of thousands of people, who loudly demanded their resignation.

Succession planning

At the beginning of the term of office

In the event that the presidential election is invalid or fails, the elected vice-president will assume office until a valid presidential election has taken place.

If the elected presidential candidate dies at the beginning of the president's term of office or is unable to serve on a long-term basis, the elected vice-president is to be installed in the office.

If no President or Vice-President emerges from a regular election or does not meet the requirements for office, the Senate President or, in the event of his unsuitability, the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall assume the office of President until a President or Vice-President has been elected and fulfills the requirements for his respective office.

During the tenure

In the event of the President's death or long-term absence, impeachment or resignation, the Vice President shall assume the presidency until the end of the current term of office. In the event of death or long-term failure, impeachment or resignation of both incumbents, the President and the Vice-President, the Senate President or, in the event of his unsuitability, the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall assume the office of President until a new one President or Vice President is elected and meets the requirements for office.

The succession of presidents, as specified in the state constitution of 1987, thus provides for the vice-president, the president of the Senate and the speaker of the House of Representatives.

Congress has, under the law, to determine who will assume the presidency in the event of death, long-term loss or resignation of the incumbent president. He has to take the office until a new President or Vice-President has been elected and meets the requirements for the office.

The current presidential succession sequence is as follows:

# Surname position
1 Leni Robredo
Vice President
2 Franklin Drilon
Senate President
3 Feliciano Belmonte
Speaker of the House of Representatives

Contrary to popular belief, the Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court does not belong to the line of successors.


2004 Philippines presidential election

Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the date ruled the Philippines . Between 1565 and 1898, the island state was administered by a royal governor of the Philippines ( Gobernador-General de Filipinas ), who acted as the representative of the actual head of the Philippines, the King of Spain .

In 1898, the government under Emilio Aguinaldo declared independence, and in 1899 he became the president of the first Philippine republic , which, however, was not recognized by many states. Nevertheless, he is considered the first president by the Filipino people.

Between 1899 and 1935, during the American occupation, a governor-general administered and commanded the island nation on behalf of the President of the United States .

During the time of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1941, the American government installed a native president, who was only allowed to act under American sovereignty.

In 1941 the Japanese armed forces conquered the Philippines and the Japanese Empire established a government controlled by them, but also occupied by locals, in Manila. From today's perspective, however, the leadership of this era from 1941 to 1945, which was declared the Second Republic, is viewed as a puppet government of the Japanese occupying power.

While the Japanese set independence for the Philippines in 1941, July 4th, 1946, is the international day of independence.

Regardless of the differences between the counting in the constitution of the Philippines and that of the government, the presidential succession is continuous. The current incumbent Rodrigo Duterte is listed as the 16th President of the Philippines. Here, Emilio Aguinaldo designated as the first president of the island nation, although the period of the first Republic completely under his leadership in the supremacy of the United States after the end of the Philippine-American War falls. By contrast, the United States considers Manuel Quezon to be the first president and first incumbent to emerge from a democratic election.

Another peculiarity is the fact that the Philippines had two presidents during the Second World War who were the heads of two different governments at the same time. For one, Manuel Quezon was the leader of the Commonwealth government in exile who was considered ( de jure ), the other, ( de facto ), was J. P. Laurel, who headed the Japanese-backed government. Unlike Manuel Quezon, Laurel stayed in Manila.

Laurel's term was not recognized at all prior to President Diosdado Macapagal's reign . The recognition finally coincided with the moving of the Philippine Independence Day from July 4th to June 12th.

It should be borne in mind, however, that it would be incorrect to consider Laurel to succeed Osmeña or vice versa in the presidential succession. Laurel's Republic was no longer recognized after the end of World War II and no statutes or actions taken by him were considered legal or binding. The inclusion of Laurel in the line of office of the Philippine Presidents also poses some problems in determining the course of office. While the terms of office of Quezon, Osmeña and Roxas followed each other without gaps, Laurel was the first and only President of the Second Republic, where he had no predecessor and no successor.

List of presidents

The colors provide information about the political party or coalition membership of each president at the time of election day or during the term of office.

No party affiliation
Nacionalista Party (Philippines)
Liberal Party (Philippines)
Kilusang Bagong Lipunan
United Nationalists Democratic Organizations
Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats
Laban ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino
Partido Demokratiko Pilipino - Lakas ng Bayan
# president Taking office End of office Political party Vice President Term of office Official era
1 Emilio Aguinaldo January 23, 1899 April 1, 1901 None
(Magdalo faction of the Katipunan )
(The 1899 Constitution did not provide for a Vice President)
- First dictatorship
First republic
Period of leadership by the Governors of the Philippine Islands from April 1, 1901 to November 15, 1935 .
2 Manuel Quezon November 15, 1935 August 1, 1944 Nacionalista Party Sergio Osmeña 1 Commonwealth
3 José P. Laurel October 14, 1943 August 14, 1945 Kalibapi
(government administered under Japanese occupation)
(The 1943 Constitution did not provide for a Vice President)
- Second World War
4th Sergio Osmeña August 1, 1944 May 28, 1946 Nacionalista Party Vacant 2 Commonwealth
5 Manuel Roxas May 28, 1946 April 15, 1948 Liberal party Elpidio Quirino 3
Third Republic
6th Elpidio Quirino April 17, 1948 December 30, 1953 Liberal party Vacant
Fernando López 4th
7th Ramon Magsaysay December 30, 1953 March 17, 1957 Nacionalista Party Carlos P. Garcia 5
8th Carlos P. Garcia March 18, 1957 December 30, 1961 Vacant
Diosdado Macapagal 6th
9 Diosdado Macapagal December 30, 1961 December 30,  1965 Liberal party Emmanuel Pelaez 7th
10 Ferdinand Marcos December 30,  1965 February 25, 1986 Nacionalista Party Fernando López 8th
Kilusang Bagong Lipunan Vacant 10 Second dictatorship
"The New Society"
11 Fourth republic
Arturo Tolentino 12
11 Corazon Aquino February 25, 1986 June 30, 1992 United Nationalists Democratic Organizations Salvador Laurel
Fifth Republic
12 Fidel Ramos June 30, 1992 June 30, 1998 Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats Joseph Estrada 13
13 Joseph Estrada June 30, 1998 January 20, 2001 Laban ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino
(Partido ng Masang Pilipino coalition leadership)
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo 14th
14th Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo January 20, 2001 June 30, 2010 Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats Unoccupied
Teofisto Guingona
Koalisyon ng Katapatan at Karanasan sa Kinabukasan (Lakas-CMD coalition leadership
Noli de Castro 15th
15th Benigno Aquino III. June 30, 2010 June 30, 2016 Liberal party Jejomar Binay 16
16 Rodrigo Duterte June 30, 2016 officiating Partido Demokratiko Pilipino - Lakas ng Bayan Leni Robredo 17th


  • The longest ruling president: Ferdinand Marcos (5,259 days)
  • Shortest ruling president: Jose P. Laurel (479 days)

Web links

Commons : President of the Philippines  - Collection of Pictures, Videos, and Audio Files


  1. The term of office ended when Aguinaldo pledged his loyalty to the United States after his capture in Palanan (Isabela) .
  2. ^ Died of tuberculosis in Saranac Lake, New York.
  3. The term of office ended with the dissolution of the Philippine Republic as a result of the Japanese surrender to the American armed forces in World War II .
  4. Originally part of the Nacionalista, but elected by the National Assembly under Japanese control. All parties were intertwined under Japanese domination to form the Kalibapi, to which every official belonged.
  5. Died of a heart attack at Clark Air Base .
  6. Died in a plane crash on Mount Manunggal in Cebu Province
  7. Dismissed after the EDSA revolution of 1986.
  8. Assumption of the presidency by claiming victory in the controversial blitz election of 1986.
  9. Removal after the Supreme Court of the Philippines declared Estrada's resignation and declared the presidency vacant as a result of the EDSA revolution of 2001.