al-Hakam II

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al-Hakam II, monument in Cordoba

Abū l-ʿĀs al-Mustansir bi-llāh al-Hakam ibn ʿAbd ar-Rahmān ( Arabic أبو العاص المستنصر بالله الحكم بن عبد الرحمن, DMG Abū l-ʿĀṣ al-Mustanṣir bi-llāh al-Ḥakam b. ʿAbd ar-Raḥmān , Spanish Alhakén or Alhaquén ), known as al-Hakam II (* 915 ; † October 1, 976 ), was the second caliph of Córdoba (961–976).

After the death of Abd ar-Rahman III. (961) his son al-Hakam II led the caliphate of Cordoba . The peace with the Christian empires in northern Spain was largely secured. Al-Hakam II used the peace period to promote agriculture through the expansion of irrigation systems. Economic development was also further supported by the construction of roads and the establishment of markets. The promotion of art and culture was of great importance to al-Hakam II. Among other things, a library with allegedly over 100,000 volumes was built in Córdoba . In addition, among many other buildings, the main mosque of Cordoba was expanded (962–966). The palace city of Medina Azahara (976) was also completed, the Abd ar-Rahman III. 936 had started.

While the internal administration was largely left to the vizier al-Muschafi, General Ghalib gained considerable influence as leader of the army. He was mainly occupied with repelling the last Norman attacks (966, 971) and the fighting with the Fatimids and Zirids in northern Morocco. The Fatimids also had sympathizers in the Umayyad Empire itself. One of them named Abu l-Chair was executed during the reign of al-Hakam II for disbelief and heresy ( ilḥād ). The Zirids were defeated by Ghalib in northern Morocco in 974 . Al-Hakam II was able to maintain the supremacy of the caliphate against the Christian empires of Navarre , Castile and León .

The homosexuality of the caliph al-Hakam II, who had only had same-sex love relationships in his youth, was a problem due to the question of succession. He was only able to father offspring after a Basque female slave named Subh had been dressed as a concubine in men's clothes and given the male name Jafar . Like his son Hisham II , Caliph al-Hakam had a male harem .

Al-Hakam II died on October 1, 976. He was succeeded by his underage son Hisham II, for whom his mother Subh initially reigned.


Individual evidence

  1. ^ Gotthard Strohmaier: Avicenna. Beck, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-406-41946-1 , p. 27.
  2. ^ Maribel Fierro Bello: La Heterodoxia en Al-Andalus durante el periodo Omeya . Instituto Hispano-Arabe de Cultura, Madrid 1987, ISBN 84-7472-077-X , pp. 149-155.
  3. ^ Louis Crompton: Homosexuality and Civilization . Harvard University Press, Harvard 2006, ISBN 0-674-02233-5 , pp. 166–167 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  4. ^ Daniel Eisenberg: Homosexuality . In: E. Michael Gerli (Ed.): Medieval Iberia: An Encyclopedia . Routledge, New York 2003, ISBN 0-415-93918-6 , pp. 398–399 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
predecessor Office successor
Abd ar-Rahman III. Caliph of Cordoba
Hisham II