White (United States)
White (English White people ), sometimes also Euro-American or Euro-Canadian , are commonly used names for North Americans with European ancestry .
In addition, White, or Caucasian, is used as the self- attribution category for any citizen who has ancestors in Europe , the Middle East, or North Africa in surveys by the United States Census Bureau . It groups together people who describe themselves as white or who make entries such as German-American , Italian-American , Albanian , Irish , British, Arab-American or Slavic-American.
The self-designation of the Latin American Latinos is unclear . Although most of them have European ancestry, they often don't call themselves white.
History and definitions
The conceptual connection to skin color was already made in the first US census in 1790. After the complete abandonment of the evaluative biological race theories - in which people of European descent were assigned to the alleged European great race - the census authority and the Office of Management and Budget ( OMB) of the US federal government for a neutral definition of race and ethnicity in the census, the United States Census :
“[…] The race categories contained in the Census questionnaire generally reflect a social definition of the term race used in this country and not the attempt to define race biologically, anthropologically or genetically. […] The OMB calls for five minimum categories: whites, blacks or African-American , Indians or indigenous people of Alaska , Asians and indigenous people of Hawaii or other inhabitants of Pacific islands . "
The definitions have been revised several times, most recently in the United States Census 2000 .
It is therefore a categorization according to which the residents of the United States classify themselves when filling out the census questionnaires. You can also select several of the “races” with which you identify most closely.
The Office of Management and Budget does not define the concept set out in the census as "scientific or anthropological", but takes into account "both social and cultural characteristics as well as origin", whereby "appropriate scientific methodologies" are taken into account, but not in "Primarily biological or genetic reference". “Race” and ethnicity are viewed as distinct and distinct characteristics.
- Ashley Jardina: White Identity Politics. Cambridge University, Cambridge 2019, ISBN 978-1-1084-6860-2 .
Original text of the US Census:
[The data on race were derived from answers to the question on race that was asked of individuals in the United States. The Census Bureau collects racial data in accordance with guidelines provided by the US Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and these data are based on self-identification.]
The racial categories included in the census questionnaire generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country and not an attempt to define race biologically, anthropologically, or genetically. [In addition, it is recognized that the categories of the race item include racial and national origin or sociocultural groups. People may choose to report more than one race to indicate their racial mixture, such as "American Indian" and "White". People who identify their origin as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish may be of any race.]
OMB requires five minimum categories: White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander.
- Euro-American in the merriam-webster.com dictionary, accessed September 19, 2017.
- Euro-Canadian. In: OxfordDictionaries.com. Retrieved September 19, 2017 (English).
- Caucasian. Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary. Retrieved October 21, 2017.
- Definition of Race Categories Used in the 2010 Census (PDF) United States Census Bureau. March 2011. Retrieved October 21, 2017.
- Index of Questions. In: Census.gov (English).
- What is race? under "About". In: Census.gov. Retrieved September 19, 2017 (English).
- Glossary: R. ( Memento of October 7, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) In: The American FactFinder. Retrieved February 18, 2008.
- American Anthropological Association: A Brief History of the OMB Directive 15, 1997. Retrieved February 18, 2008.