Because of the city
|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Stuttgart|
|Height :||406 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||43.14 km 2|
|Residents:||19,205 (Dec. 31, 2018)|
|Population density :||445 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||71263|
|Area code :||07033|
|License plate :||BB, LEO|
|Community key :||08 1 15 050|
|City structure:||5 districts|
City administration address :
71263 Because of the city
|Mayor :||Thilo Schreiber ( CDU )|
|Location of the city of Weil der Stadt in the Boeblingen district|
Because the city is the fifth largest city in the Boeblingen district . It is known as the birthplace of the natural philosopher and astronomer Johannes Kepler and the reformer of Württemberg , Johannes Brenz . The cityscape of the former imperial city is dominated by the church of St. Peter and Paul .
Because the city is located - 23 km west of Stuttgart , 20 km southeast of Pforzheim and 30 km northwest of Tübingen - in the Heckengäu , a transitional landscape between the Neckar region and the northern Black Forest . The Würm flows through the city boundary from southeast to northwest , on whose banks four of the city's five districts (all except for Münklingen) are located. The highest point is in the northwest at about (northwest of the "Möttlinger" Köpfle), the lowest point in the north at about (Frohnmühle).
Geology and flora
The flooring consists of shell limestone and clay and is mostly stony. The vegetation of the hilly landscape with sloe hedges is characteristic , otherwise pine and spruce trees and fields predominate, and there are scattered orchards . In the Würmtal there are nature-protected swamp meadows. The pine and spruce stand typical of the Black Forest already begins on the western edge of the district .
Weil der Stadt consists of the five districts Weil der Stadt, Hausen an der Würm , Merklingen , Münklingen and Schafhausen . The districts were independent communities of the same name until the 1970s. The official designation of the incorporated districts is given by the name of the city in front of it and followed by the name of the district, connected by a hyphen, they also form residential districts in the sense of the Baden-Württemberg municipal code .
The Hausen an der Würm district includes the village of Hausen an der Würm and the Frohnmühle and Obere Sägmühle houses, as well as an abandoned castle and the abandoned villages of Oberhausen and Seltenbach. The Merklingen district includes the village of Merklingen, the Grenzhof and Heidehöfe farms and the Riemenmühle house as well as the abandoned villages of Berghof and Kröwelsau Castle. Only the village of Münklingen belongs to the Münklingen district. The Schafhausen district includes the village of Schafhausen, the courtyards Fuhrmannshöfe, Seitenhöfe and Stubenberghöfe and the house Ölmühle. The Weil der Stadt district includes the town of Weil der Stadt, the Güthlerhof homestead and the Planmühle house, as well as the abandoned villages of Blanda, Greckenbach and Talacker.
- In the district of Calw (southwest and west): Ostelsheim , Simmozheim , Bad Liebenzell .
- In the Enzkreis (northwest and north): Neuhausen , Tiefenbronn , Heimsheim .
- In the district of Böblingen (northeast, east and south): Renningen , Magstadt , Grafenau .
The place name (Middle High German Wile , New High German Weil ) was extended to differentiate it from other places in the area called Weil such as Weil im Dorf or Weil im Schönbuch with the addition of “the city”. Since place names are used much more often in the dative than in the nominative, for example "in Weil, der Stadt", the dative form prevailed, initially in the form Weilerstatt, based on the dialect (ze Wil 'er Statt), and finally in the middle of 19th century Because the city was established as the city name. As an adjective derived from the city name, Weil der Städter is usually used; In the neighboring towns there are both “ Weil der Städtter ” and “ Weilderstädter ” streets.
The later city of Weil der Stadt emerged as a village settlement probably in the 6th century - probably on the site of a Roman country estate (= villa rustica) - and was given the name Wila (Wile), which later became Weil. The first documentary mention was made in 1075 in a document from King Henry IV.
Between 1223 and 1242, the village of Weil, which had previously been owned by the Counts of Calw and the Hirsau monastery , was granted city rights by Emperor Friedrich II . Weil became an imperial city as early as 1275 , the exact year is unknown.
In 1373 Weil was granted jurisdiction and customs law by Emperor Charles IV. In 1489 the city gained a permanent seat in the Reichstag , which represents the imperial estates . During the second half of the 15th century it was under Baden influence.
Early modern times to the mediatization of the imperial city
The Reformation found supporters in Weil der Stadt since 1522. The Augustinian monastery therefore almost died out; the convent of the Franciscan Sisters died. By 1552, almost half of the citizens had become Protestant, including the family of the astronomer Johannes Kepler, who was born in Weil der Stadt. The Counter-Reformation that began in 1590 by the Emperor and the Bishops of Speyer led, after decades of disputes, to the victory of the Catholic party in 1628, so that Weil der Stadt became a Catholic enclave in the area surrounding the Lutheran Duchy of Württemberg. During the time of the witch hunts between 1615 and 1629, 38 people were accused, tortured and burned in witch trials with a population of 200 families at that time .
Shortly before the end of the Thirty Years War in 1648, Weil's town was sacked and set on fire by French troops, which destroyed large parts of the old town. The city fire of 1648, along with the battle of Döffingen in 1388, is considered the most ominous event in the city's history.
In 1803, because of the mediatization of the city, it lost its imperial freedom and fell to Württemberg . Initially, the city was the seat of its own Württemberg staff office. When the new administrative structure was implemented in the Kingdom of Württemberg , which was founded in 1806 , Weil der Stadt was assigned to the Oberamt Leonberg in 1808 . In 1869 the city was connected to the Württemberg railway network by the Black Forest Railway ( Stuttgart - Calw ) . During the district reform in Württemberg during the Nazi era , Weil became part of the Leonberg district in 1938 .
post war period
In 1945 the city fell into the American zone of occupation and then belonged to the newly founded state of Württemberg-Baden , which was incorporated into the current state of Baden-Württemberg in 1952. In 1973 the district reform took place in Baden-Württemberg , when the city became part of the Böblingen district.
In 1996, the Baden-Württemberg Home Days took place in Weil der Stadt .
- December 1, 1971: Incorporation of Hausen an der Würm to Merklingen
- July 1, 1972: Union of Weil der Stadt and Merklingen to form the new town of Weil der Stadt
- August 1, 1973: incorporation of Schafhausen
- January 1, 1975: Incorporation of Münklingen
Merklingen was first mentioned in 1075 as "Marchilingen" in a deed of ownership from the Hirsau monastery. The owners of the place changed several times. After the Counts of Calw, Merklingen passed to the Counts of Eberstein and Zweibrücken around 1260. In 1276 it came to the Rhineland Count Palatine Ludwig as a fief. In 1296 the Herrenalb monastery acquired court, bailiff and lower jurisdiction and in 1469 it was owned by the whole town. In 1496, Duke Eberhard von Württemberg forced the monastery subjects, including the Merklingen Oberamt, to recognize the Württemberg sovereign.
The area around Hausen an der Würm was probably populated as early as 600 to 700 AD. The earliest mention of Hausen was only made in 1327 in a document from the Herrenalb monastery. In 1420 two nephews of the last Lord von Hausen, who died in 1405, renounced their rights in the village. In 1432 Hausen went to Hans von Steinegg and in 1439/40 to the Herrenalb monastery. After the rule of the monastery collapsed in the Thirty Years War , Hausen fell to the Duke of Württemberg.
The place was first mentioned in a document in 1075 as "Munchelingen". Hirsau Monastery had already acquired goods here in the 9th century. The local nobility, the lords of Malmsheim, therefore had to share their property with the Hirsau monastery and later also with the Herrenalb monastery. When the lords of Weil inherited parts of the place in 1385, Württemberg was already entitled to the share of the Herrenalb monastery, and from 1424–1448 it also acquired their feudal rights. In 1500 Münklingen finally became part of Württemberg.
Schafhausen was founded around the year 700, but was first mentioned in 1272 as "Scafhusen". The first noble gentlemen were the Counts of Calw alongside the Lords of Beutelspach. Around 1110 Conrad von Beutelspach gave away some of his goods to the Hirsau Monastery, which expanded its property in the following centuries. In 1468 the whole place finally belonged to the monastery. Since the Counts of Württemberg had the bailiff's rights over the Hirsau monastery, the bailiff of Böblingen was also the guardian of the monastery of Schafhausen.
These are population numbers according to the respective territorial status. The numbers are census results (¹) or official updates from the Baden-Württemberg State Statistical Office (only main residences ).
Of the 19,485 residents (main and secondary residences) recorded in Weil der Stadt's population register, 6,799 (34.89%) belong to a Protestant Church and 4,769 (24.48%) belong to the Roman Catholic Church. 7,917 (40.63%) residents are of no or another denomination (as of 12/2016).
The area around Weil der Stadt originally belonged to the Roman Catholic diocese of Speyer and was assigned to the Archdiaconate Trinity , which in turn was divided into the district chapters Weil der Stadt , Grüningen and Vaihingen an der Enz . After the Reformation had found numerous followers in Weil der Stadt in the course of the 16th century, the Counter-Reformation began in 1590 , which led to the victory of Catholicism in 1628, so that the imperial city became a Catholic island in the midst of the Evangelical-influenced Württemberg region.
Various churches are currently represented in the city and its districts. The strong position of the Roman Catholic Church in Weil der Stadt is remarkable . The Catholic community belongs to the Böblingen deanery in the Rottenburg-Stuttgart diocese . The incorporated old Württemberg districts of Merklingen, Münklingen, Hausen and Schafhausen have been consistently Protestant since the Reformation . The Protestant parishes belong to the Leonberg parish in the Evangelical Regional Church .
The ecumenical coexistence of the two large churches is traditionally friendly. In Weil der Stadt there is also the Christ Church, an evangelical free church in the Mülheim association of free-church evangelical congregations . There is also a church belonging to the parish of St. John the Baptist of the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch . The New Apostolic Church Community uses the church building in the south of the Merklingen suburb.
In Weil der Stadt, the municipal council is elected using the spurious sub-district election. The number of local councils can change due to overhang mandates . The municipal council in Weil der Stadt has 27 members after the last election (previously 23). The local elections on May 26, 2019 led to the following final result. The municipal council consists of the elected voluntary councilors and the mayor as chairman. The mayor is entitled to vote in the municipal council.
|Parties and constituencies||%
|CDU||Christian Democratic Union of Germany||25.17||7th||30.53||7th|
|FW||Free voter association Weil der Stadt e. V.||25.08||7th||27.90||7th|
|GREEN||Alliance 90 / The Greens||28.64||7th||22.24||5|
|SPD||Social Democratic Party of Germany||10.18||3||13.59||3|
|FDP||Free Democratic Party||7.10||2||5.74||1|
|AfD||Alternative for Germany||3.83||1||-||-|
The blazon of the coat of arms reads: "In a split shield above in gold the red armored and red-tongued black imperial eagle, split in red below, a blue oblique left bar in front, covered with the golden capital letters SPQR, behind two obliquely crossed golden keys with beards pointing upwards and are directed outside. "
The black eagle in the upper coat of arms is the symbol of the German emperors and was awarded to the imperial city as confirmation of its imperial immediacy . The Latin lettering SPQR (= S enatus P opulus q ue R omanus, Senate and People of Rome) in the lower left (heraldic: right) coat of arms indicates the origins of Weil der Stadts from a Roman country seat (villa), but mainly refers on his imperial-city-republican constitution based on Roman law . Finally, the two crossed keys in the lower right (heraldic: left) field stand for the apostle Peter , one of the patrons of the Roman Catholic town church Saint Peter and Paul.
Economy and Infrastructure
The Because the town's station is located on the Wurttemberg Black Forest Railway and train S-line with the S6 (about Leonberg , Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen , Stuttgart main station to Stuttgart Schwabstraße ) to the route network of the S-Bahn Stuttgart connected. Passenger trains also ran on the now closed rail link to Calw until 1983 - a reactivation of this so-called " Hermann-Hesse-Bahn " by the district of Calw is planned from December 2020. Local public transport is guaranteed by the Stuttgart Transport and Tariff Association (VVS). From Weil der Stadt there are buses to Böblingen , Calw, Bad Liebenzell and Pforzheim .
On the national road 295 (Stuttgart Calw) Because the city is linked to the national road and motorway network.
The wool blanket factory Weil der Stadt was an important company in Weil der Stadt until bankruptcy in 1996.
Founded in Stuttgart, Fortuna Spezialmaschinen GmbH is based there today .
The Nussbaum Medien Verlagsgruppe has one of its locations in Weil der Stadt.
Wolftechnik is a Europe-wide operating company for filter systems and is based in Weil der Stadt.
The Konditorei & Café Renz is a multiple award-winning bakery. The bakery was part of the first season of “Germany's Best Bakers”.
The city has educational institutions where all school degrees can be obtained.
- four elementary schools
- a primary and secondary school
- a community school
- a special school
- secondary school
- Johannes-Kepler-Gymnasium Weil der Stadt
In addition, they work
- Municipal music school
- Branch of the Volkshochschule Leonberg
- State Academy for Youth Education e. V. (sponsored by the state of Baden-Württemberg, the district of Böblingen and numerous youth associations)
Culture and sights
- city Museum
- Kepler Museum
- Fools museum
- Doll museum
There are historical buildings, fountains and sculptures in all five districts of the city.
The old town of Weil der Stadt consists of three parts. In the lower area on the left bank of the Würm, the Renninger suburb , which dates back to the 14th century , there are medieval and early modern craftsmen's houses and shops as well as the hospital with the hospital chapel and its late Gothic figure altar of the Holy Tribe of Mary (around 1480), the baroque apostle - and the Altar of the Holy Helper (both around 1750) and the Arma Christ fresco (from the 14th century, rediscovered in 1977). The partially accessible city wall with four defense towers - the stork tower is particularly beautiful - and the Königstor almost completely surrounds the Renninger suburb, which was largely spared by the city fire in 1648. The focal point is the cattle market with a fountain and cinema center (Badtorstrasse). On the right bank of the Würm is the city cemetery with the St. Michael chapel (oldest preserved tombstone from 1506).
The historic city center , located on a hilltop - the nucleus of the former imperial city and inhabited since the 6th century - is immediately to the west. Particularly worth seeing are the picturesque Stuttgarter Straße and the market square with the town hall from the Renaissance period (1582), the old town hall, the Speidel house, the city museum, the Kepler museum and the Kepler monument (1870 by August von Kreling ), which is in a central location reminds of the city's greatest son, the astronomer and mathematician Johannes Kepler . The Narrenbrunnen on Speidelsberg refers to the carnival tradition, and the former Augustinian monastery (1294–1803) with the Marienbrunnen and the dolphin fountain are well worth a visit. The most important architectural monument of Weil der Stadt rises above the city center, the Catholic city church of St. Peter and Paul , built from the 15th century as the successor to a Romanesque basilica , a late Gothic hall building made of red sandstone typical of the region with three towers, mannerist sacraments (1611), baroque high altar ( 1700), a magnificent pulpit (1742) and remarkable sacred art of the 20th century. The north-western end of the old town is the Holy Cross Chapel (1739), the western part is another section of the city wall with the Judentor (1534). Outside the historic city walls is the neo-Gothic Protestant Brenz Church (1889), named to honor of Weil der Stadt Württemberg reformer Johannes Brenz .
To the south is the smallest and youngest part of the old town, the Furter suburb on the Talackerbach , with the Wendelinskapelle (15th century) used as a gallery and event location and the Floriansbrunnen.
There are also interesting monuments in the city districts. In Merklingen the Remigius Church and the early Gothic stone house stand in the middle of a fortified church surrounded by moats and a bridge gate. The Cyriakus Church in Schafhausen has a valuable rococo pulpit, in the highest district of Münklingen the Jakobsbrunnen, a historical resting place on the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela, has been preserved. The old five-arch red sandstone bridge over the Würm can be viewed in Hausen.
- City Church of St. Peter and Paul
- Hospital chapel and hospital
- Johannes Brenz Church
- Marktplatz and Stuttgarter Strasse
- Kepler Monument
- Augustinian monastery
- City wall, stork tower and Judentor
- Fortified church (Merklingen)
- Würmbrücke (Hausen)
The Kepler Society e. V. is an association that is committed to Johannes Kepler's legacy and wants to promote scientific education. The association maintains the Kepler museum, the Kepler archive in the city archive and the Johannes Kepler observatory on the roof of the Johannes Kepler high school. He conducts public relations work by offering public lectures, awarding the Kepler Prize in Kepler high schools in the European Union and supervising a youth group. The universities of Tübingen and Stuttgart are cooperation partners of the Kepler Society.
On June 2, 2012, Weil opened a planetary path named after Johannes Kepler in cooperation with the association . The planet path runs between Weil der Stadt and the suburb of Mühlhausen belonging to the neighboring municipality of Tiefenbronn.
The sports association (Spvgg) Weil der Stadt is the local sports association. It was founded in 1861 and has more than 1900 members. The Spvgg has the following departments: popular sports, fistball, soccer, athletics, swimming, tennis, table tennis and gymnastics.
In Weil der Stadt, the Swabian-Alemannic Fastnacht (Fasnet) is celebrated every year before Ash Wednesday . The carnival tradition, which dates back to the Middle Ages, was first revived in 1656 when the magistrate allowed carnival games, music and dancing. After a ban on "Mummerey" in the 18th century, the fooling industry flourished again at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1863 the first Carnival parade was held in 1930, the first Narrensprung the hamlet Narrenzunft "AHA". Nowadays, over 1000 mask wearers from all over the region take part in the carnival parade organized by the fool's guild every year on Shrove Sunday . Visitor numbers between 10,000 and 40,000 are counted.
Since the city belonged to the diocese of Speyer until 1821 and is located near the northern border of the Swabian dialect area, the hamlet of Fasnet, which is in the Swabian-Alemannic tradition, also shows some influences from the form of the Rhenish carnival, which is native to the Palatinate, - similar to the carnival in Neuhausen auf den Fildern , which was also a Catholic enclave belonging to Speyer in the Protestant Württemberg for centuries .
Sons and daughters
- Heinrich Steinhöwel (1412–1482 or 1483), humanist and translator
- Paul Scriptoris (around 1460–1505), Franciscan and theologian
- Johannes Brenz (1499–1570), Lutheran reformer of Württemberg
- Johannes Kepler (1571–1630), astronomer and mathematician, revolutionized the heliocentric view of the world by introducing elliptical orbits of planets
- Joseph Anton Gall (1748–1807), Catholic theologian, educator and bishop of Linz in Upper Austria
- Ernst Christian von Walz (1802–1857), born in Münklingen, professor of classical philology at the University of Tübingen
- Leo Schöninger (1811–1879), painter, lithographer and graphic artist
- Anton von Beyerle (1824–1886), Senate President at the Imperial Court
- Ernst Valentin von Strebel (1846–1927), crop scientist and agricultural economist
- Viktor Hohenstein (1888–1974), geologist and paleontologist
- Hans Häcker (1901–1986), lawyer and politician, District Administrator in Esslingen
- Jan Sievers (* 1967), football player
- Marcel Wagner (* 1982), radio and television presenter
- Antonia Knupfer (* 1992), soccer player
People related to the city
- Katharina Kepler (around 1547–1621), grew up in Weil der Stadt and gave birth to her most famous son, Johannes Kepler, along with her other children. She was accused in one of the most famous witch trials of modern times.
- Carlo Schmid (1896–1979), lawyer and politician, one of the fathers of the Basic Law, Vice President of the German Bundestag, attended school in Weil der Stadt.
- Hans Gerhard Ganter (* 1945), 1991–2010 judge on the IX. Civil Senate of the BGH, of which 2008–2010 its chairman, lives in Weil der Stadt.
- Bernd Riexinger (* 1955), chairman of the DIE LINKE party since 2012, grew up in Münklingen and founded a left-wing shared apartment together with others in Besengasse 1 in the 1970s.
- Markus Frohnmaier (* 1991), member of the AfD Bundestag since 2017, grew up in Weil der Stadt.
- Saskia Esken (* 1961), Federal Chairwoman of the SPD since December 2019, graduated from the Johannes-Kepler-Gymnasium in Weil der Stadt in 1981.
- Otto Borst, Joachim Feist: Because of the city. Konrad Theiss, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-8062-0579-5 .
- Benno Forstner, Johannes Gienger, Volker Würthwein: Because the city was in the time of National Socialism. State Center for Political Education Baden-Württemberg, Stuttgart 1982.
- Felix Hammer: Because of the city. Hospital and chapel. Schnell & Steiner, Regensburg 1998, ISBN 3-7954-5242-2 .
- Werner Hubig: Conflicts in Weil der Stadt during the 17th and 18th centuries. Constitutional development of a small imperial city from 1648 to 1803. European university publications, series 3, vol. 602, Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main / Berlin / Bern / New York / Paris / Vienna 1994, ISBN 3-631-47332-X .
- Matthias Köhler, Felix Hammer, Franz-Josef Stiele-Werdermann: Because of the city. Catholic city church St. Peter and Paul. Schnell & Steiner, Regensburg 1992, ISBN 3-7954-4698-8 .
- Siegfried Schütz: The carnival in Weil der Stadt. Reports and communications from the Heimatverein Weil der Stadt, No. 1, 1967.
- Siegfried Schütz: The new city because of the city. A synoptic overview of their common history. Publishing house Oswald Nussbaum, Weil der Stadt 1975.
- Siegfried Schütz, Wolfgang Schütz: The old Weil. A foray with ink and pen through the former imperial city. Erwin Scharpf, Weil der Stadt 1983.
- Wolfgang Schütz: St. Peter and Paul because of the city. Ed .: Katholische Kirchengemeinde Weil der Stadt, Erwin Scharpf, Weil der Stadt 1989.
- Wolfgang Schütz: The historic old town of Weil der Stadt. Guide to a city tour. Ed .: City of Weil der Stadt, Geiger-Verlag, Horb am Neckar 1996.
- Wolfgang Schütz: The Galgenberg calls. Chronicle of the Johannes-Kepler-Gymnasium Weil der Stadt and its predecessor schools. Hädecke-Verlag, Weil der Stadt 2007, ISBN 978-3-7750-0708-5 .
- Louis Speidel: Original things from Weil der Stadt. Verses and rhymes about the Würmtal metropolis. Hädecke-Verlag, Weil der Stadt 2001, ISBN 3-7750-0374-6 .
- Weil's, der Stadt, small chronicle / Gehres, Siegmund Friedrich, 1808 digitized version of the Badische Landesbibliothek
- Official website of the city of Weil der Stadt
- State Statistical Office Baden-Württemberg - Population by nationality and gender on December 31, 2018 (CSV file) ( help on this ).
- Main statute of the city of Weil der Stadt from May 27, 2008 (PDF file; 34 kB)
- The state of Baden-Württemberg. Official description by district and municipality. Volume III: Stuttgart District, Middle Neckar Regional Association. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1978, ISBN 3-17-004758-2 . Pp. 129-134
- Baschwitz, Kurt: Hexen und Hexenverbindungen, Bertelsmann Verlag, Munich, 1990, p. 252
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality register for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 452 .
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality register for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 459 f .
- Population development in Baden-Württemberg from 1871 to 2012 ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Churches. In: City life. From Weil-der-Stadt.de, accessed on December 7, 2019.
- Election information for the municipal data center
- Report on the expansion plans of the wolftechnik company. Retrieved July 8, 2020 .
- YouTube. Retrieved July 8, 2020 .
- Website of the Kepler Society e. V.
- Rafael Binkowski: Riexinger in the Seventies: Wild Teens. In: Stuttgarter-Zeitung.de. July 29, 2014, accessed December 7, 2019 .
- Rafael Binkowski: Riexinger in the Seventies: Theater against the Establishment. In: Stuttgarter-Zeitung.de. July 29, 2014, accessed December 7, 2019 .
- Dirk Banse, Michael Ginsburg, Uwe Müller, Lars-Marten Nagel: AfD young star: Berlin promotes radical Islam. In: Welt.de. April 25, 2016, accessed December 7, 2019 .
- Biography: Saskia Esken, SPD. German Bundestag, accessed December 7, 2019 .