|Right ascension||06 h 00 m 30 s to 08 h 07 m 58 s|
|declination||+ 9 ° 48 ′ 35 ″ to + 35 ° 23 ′ 26 ″|
|Completely visible||90 ° N to 54.9 ° S|
|Observation time for Central Europe||winter|
|Number of stars brighter than 3 mag||4th|
|Brightest star (size)||Pollux (1.16)|
clockwise from north )
From around the end of August you can find the twins in the northeast morning sky. In the winter of the northern hemisphere it is high in the south, so that it can be seen completely in the evening sky for the last time in May.
Because the Gemini lie on the ecliptic , the sun , moon and planets move through the constellation. The sun currently passes through Gemini from June 21 through July 21. If you take today's constellation borders as a basis, the summer point was 15 BC. Until October 19, 1989 AD in this constellation.
The twins belong to the 48 constellations of ancient astronomy , which were already described by Claudius Ptolemy . The constellation is the origin of the zodiac sign Gemini . Due to the precession movement of the earth's axis , the passage of the sun has shifted compared to antiquity .
In 1930, the dwarf planet Pluto was discovered while evaluating photographic plates in the Gemini.
For details see article: Dioskuren
In Greek mythology , Castor and Polydeukes (lat. Pollux) were inseparable twin brothers. Her mother, Leda , received Castor from her husband, King Tyndareus of Sparta , and Polydeukes from Zeus , who approached her in the shape of a swan. Hence Castor was human and mortal, while Polydeukes was of divine origin and immortal. The brothers joined Jason and the Argonauts in their search for the golden fleece and experienced numerous adventures. Pollux emerged as the only survivor of a dispute with her companions, the twin brothers Lynkeus and Idas . He turned to his divine Father and asked him to share his own immortality with Castor. From then on the brothers spend their days alternately in Hades or on Mount Olympus . In addition, they were immortalized as a constellation in the sky.
The Arabs saw a lion lying in the constellation.
|B.||F.||Names or other designations||size||Lj||Spectral class|
|β||78||Pollux||1.16 m||34||K0 III|
|α||66||Castor||1.58 m||50||A1 V|
|γ||24||Alhena , Almeisan||1.93 m||105||A0 IV|
|μ||13||Tejat Posterior , Nuhatai, Calx||2.94 to 3.00 m||250||M3 III|
|ε||27||Mebsuta||3.06 m||900||G8 Ib|
|η||7th||Tejat Prior||3.24 to 3.96 m||250||M3 III|
|ξ||31||Alzir||3.4 m||64||F5 III|
|δ||55||Wasat||3.50 m||60||F2 IV|
|θ||34||3.6 m||150||A3 III|
|κ||77||3.57 m||150||G8 III|
|λ||54||3.58 m||80||A3 V|
|ζ||43||Mekbuda||3.7 to 4.2 m||1200||G0 + G1|
|ι||60||3.78 m||150||K0 III|
|υ||69||4.06 m||250||M0 III|
|ν||18th||4.13 m||300||B7 IV|
|ρ||62||4.16 m||60||F0 V|
|e||38||4.73 m||80||A9 + G5|
|ο||71||4.89 m||60||F0 V|
Despite its distance of about 900 light-years, Geminorum is strikingly bright. It is a giant star of the spectral class G5 with 150 times the diameter of our sun.
The Arabic name Mebsuta is derived from "the outstretched paw of the lion".
|α||1.9 / 2.9 m||4.3 "|
|ζ||4.0 / 7.6 m||101 "|
|38 gem||4.7 / sup> / 7.7 m||7.1 "|
Castor (α Geminorum) is a complex multiple system in which three main stars revolve around a common center of gravity. Each of the main stars is in turn orbited by a faint companion, which, however, is not visible in the telescope and can only be detected spectroscopically . The three main stars can already be observed with a smaller telescope.
|μ||2.94 to 3.00 m||irregularly variable|
|η||3.24 to 3.96 m||235 days, 3 days||semi-regular , variable coverage|
|ζ||3.7 to 4.2 m||10.15 days||Coverage variable|
η Geminorum is a red giant 190 light years away, the brightness of which fluctuates with a period of about 235 days. He is a semi-regularly variable (type SRc). In addition, it is an eclipsing star, as it is orbited by a faint companion that partially covers it about every three days.
Messier and NGC objects
|35||2168||5.5 m||Open star cluster|
|2129||7 m||Open star cluster|
|2158||9 m||Open star cluster|
|2266||9.5 m||Open star cluster|
|2331||9.5 m||Open star cluster|
|2356||9.7 m||Open star cluster|
|2392||9 m||Planetary nebula||Eskimo mist|
|2395||8 m||Open star cluster|
|2420||8.3 m||Open star cluster|
The Messier object M 35 is an open star cluster about 3,000 light years away. It can already be seen as a misty spot with the naked eye. It can be resolved into single stars with prism binoculars . At higher magnification in the telescope, more and more individual stars (around 200 in total) become visible.
NGC 2129 is an open star cluster in 6,000 light years that contains only a few stars.
Near the star δ Geminorum one finds NGC 2392 , a planetary nebula 2,500 light years away. This is the name given to a star that has shed its outer gas envelope at the end of its development. What remains is a white dwarf star . In the telescope, NGC 2392 appears as a foggy round spot. Structures that are reminiscent of a face framed by a fur hood become recognizable in long-exposure photographs. Hence the object was given the name Eskimonebel .