Nuthe-Nieplitz Nature Park
|Nuthe-Nieplitz Nature Park|
|Location:||Brandenburg , Germany|
|Address:||Nature park administration
Beelitzer Str. 24
The Nuthe-Nieplitz Nature Park , located southwest of Berlin , was opened in August 1999. With an area of 623 km², the park occupies a middle place among the eleven nature parks in Brandenburg . The landscape is characterized by the humid lowlands of the Nuthe and Nieplitz rivers , forest and farmland with small Brandenburg villages.
1989 to 1999
After turning in was Berlin-Kreuzberg living biologist and wildlife photographer Karl Decruppe visiting relatives from Seddin . The visit found that his superior, the chief forester and district nature conservation officer Manfred Kroop , also shares his passion for nature and wildlife photography. In January 1990 there was a first encounter between Kroop and Decruppe. It culminated in years of collaboration with the aim of preserving the landscape of the Nuthe-Nieplitz lowland. Both saw a first danger in a planned golf course in Blankensee , the plans for which were presented in September 1990. In the same month, Decruppe created a concept for a nature conservation project that was approved by the Federal Research Institute for Nature Conservation and Landscape Ecology shortly before Christmas . Then set up with effect from 7 February 1991 based in Zauchwitz the landscaping development association Nuthe-Nieplitz lowland e. V. , who elected Manfred Kroop as chairman of the association at the first full members' meeting on May 8, 1990 and appointed Karl Decruppe as managing director. In 1992 the association received around 30 million DM from the federal and state governments for the environmentally friendly development of the lowland . The association carried out a biotope mapping and created a concept for the development of Blankensee. The club had acquired around 3,000 hectares of land there, was able to create a 14 hectare orchard meadow instead of the golf course and plant 1,100 fruit trees there a year later. The then Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety Klaus Töpfer took on a tree sponsorship. In the same year, the association opened the nature conservation center in pieces on May 15, 1993 and was thus able to intensify public relations work. A first educational trail in the region was created along the center, the Ortolan circular hiking trail . In the following year, the association was able to convince the Rolls-Royce Group to donate an annual amount of 50,000 DM over the next 10 years. The money was used to purchase land to help the threatened black stork .
In 1995, the Nuthe-Nieplitz-Niederung nature reserve was initially set at 5,500 hectares. For the first time, five nature guards are working in it, informing visitors about the area. In 1996 the association acquired the Riebener See and set up another orchard meadow near Stücken. In the same year he completed his concept for the integration of transport and tourism in the region. It plans to improve public transport in the project area in order to encourage motorists to switch to buses and trains. Furthermore, additional circular hiking trails should improve the attractiveness of the region. In 1997 an observation tower was built on the Blankensee; Another orchard was created between Stücken and Körzin and the forest school in Stücken expanded the educational offer for children and young people. In 1998 the association acquired both a former military training area in the Trebbin district of Glau and in Jüterbog . A second observation tower at the Pfefferfließ in Stangenhagen was built; the Pfeffergraben in Rieben was renatured . At the same time, a pig fattening facility on the banks of Lake Rieber was completely dismantled. The nature reserve Nuthetal - Beelitzer Sander was designated and thus laid the foundation for the establishment of the nature park, which was created in 1999: The opening ceremony took place on August 1, 1999 in the castle park in Blankensee and on the Nieplitzwiese behind the farmer's museum. In the same year, another facility for pork and cattle fattening was dismantled in Fresdorf , the area renatured, the Gröbener See acquired and the game reserve opened in Glau on the former site of the military training area.
2000 to 2009
In 2000 the association acquired the Grössinsee and the Blankensee and continued the renaturation of the polder in Stangenhagen. For this purpose, the pumping station on the Pfefferfließ was demolished and the access road removed. In 2001, and thus on the 10th anniversary of its existence, the association drew an initial balance sheet: Two thirds of the 3,000 hectares targeted have so far been secured and numerous bodies of water have been renatured. A total of DM 17 million has been used so far. In March of that year, a foundation board was constituted to accompany the further work. Annette Prochnow became CEO . In 2002, the association at Riebener See dismantled another facility in which duck birds were fattened during the GDR . In 2003, the association added a boardwalk to the existing hiking trail on the Pfefferfließ into a circular hiking trail. The renaturation of the Riebener See was pushed further by the creation of the original drain, and a weir was removed. At the Grössinsee, the association dismantled another duck fattening system. The 825 hectare area in Jüterbog, acquired in 1998, was donated to the Brandenburg Natural Landscapes Foundation . The major nature conservation project was completed in 2004. The area comprised 14 villages with 12,500 hectares, including 3,500 hectares of green space, arable land, forest and water. Around 20 kilometers of hedges were planted in the area, 20 hectares of arable land were converted into orchards and around 70 hectares of pine forest were further developed.
In 2005 a building complex in Schönhagen was dismantled. At the same time, the association created a concept for a wildlife and nature experience center in the Glauer Tal, the implementation of which will begin a year later. In the same year, craftsmen set up an observation footbridge on Lake Rieben. The visitor center in the Glauer Tal was opened on September 27, 2006 and was expanded into the nature park's visitor information center in the years to come. Karl Decruppe, meanwhile head of the Hoher Fläming Nature Park , was elected chairman of the friends' association. In 2008 the association was able to implement an EU Life project to promote the preservation of inland salt stations in the nature park. In 2009 the development of the Pfefferfließ was again the focus of the work. For this purpose, moorland areas were improved through better water retention and additional habitats for fauna and flora were created through extensive agriculture .
2010 to 2016
In 2010, the area around the Glauer Tal visitor center was designed on the basis of a student competition. According to plans by Anna Vogels and Franz Reschke , the Glauer fields were created , a miniaturized and condensed representation of the different habitats in the nature park. In the building itself, a natural park shop window with products from the region was set up. The first little owls were released into the wild in August of that year - they could not be detected in the region for over 25 years. From 2011 the project will be supported with public funding. In 2012 the association completed the first part of a project study for moor protection. In the same year, craftsmen rebuilt the former command tower in the Glauer Tal game reserve and set up an environmental education station in it. In 2013 the Glauer fields were opened to the public and the second part of the project study was completed. The club suffered a severe defeat on October 11, 2013, when Karl Decruppe died after a serious illness. In 2014, a total of five breeding pairs of the little owl were detected. At the same time, a seven-hectare area around Saarmund was renatured, which had previously been separated from the Federal Motorway 10 from the nature park. In 2015, the Glauer fields were expanded to include a playground. The elementary school in nearby Blankensee was also the first elementary school in the state of Brandenburg to be recognized as a NaturParkSchool . On the occasion of its 25th anniversary, the association published an information leaflet that summarizes the achievements to date. This includes the environmentally friendly use of more than 3,500 hectares, the regeneration of moorland on around 500 hectares, but also the dismantling of more than 50,000 tons of concrete.
Location and structural data
The park is located between Fläming , Teltow (landscape) and Zauche in the Baruther and Nuthe glacial valleys, southwest of Berlin and south of Potsdam . About half of it is in the Potsdam-Mittelmark district and the Teltow-Fläming district . Larger places in the park are Saarmund , Beelitz and Treuenbrietzen . Jüterbog , Kloster Zinna , Luckenwalde and Trebbin are practically on the border of the park , and the borderline around these cities makes an arc and leaves them out. The park is bounded in the north by the railway line between Saarmund and Ahrensdorf , on the eastern edge are Siethen , Thyrow and Löwendorf . The eastern border continues along the federal highway 101 until shortly before Jüterbog, the southwest border lies roughly on a line Jüterbog - Treuenbrietzen, the western border is formed by the towns of Nichel , Deutsch Bork , Alt Bork , Schäpe , Beelitz, Beelitz-Heilstätten, Seddin and Wildenbruch .
A significant part of the park area is allocated to the large community of Nuthe-Urstromtal . Fourteen of the twenty-three villages and around two fifths of the very extensive area of 335 km² of this municipality are located in the nature park. With 13,265 hectares, nature reserves take up 21% and with 41,700 hectares a landscape protection area a further 65% of the total area of the park (62,323 hectares). Of this, 25% is arable land, 28% is green, 41% is forest and 2% is water. As of 2003, the total population was around 30,000, which corresponds to a population density of 28 inhabitants / km². In comparison, the average in Germany is eight times higher at 231 inhabitants / km² and Berlin has 3,800 inhabitants / km².
Origin and characterization
The central area of the nature park, the Nuthe-Nieplitz-Niederung, was formed around 20,000 years ago at the end of the Vistula Ice Age as an interurge valley between the thawing glaciers. Between the terminal moraine Fläming and the upstream Baruther glacial valley and the Berlin glacial valley, the water masses and the moving glaciers left behind the high plateaus of Zauche on the western edge and Teltow on the eastern edge of the lowland as flat, undulating deposits of rubble , marl and sand , which are divided by the lowland. Remnants of terminal moraines form smaller elevations in the Schmelzwassertal, such as the highest mountain in the park, the 103 meter high Vorderen Löwendorfer Berg or the Glauer Berge striking in the flat landscape with a height of around 90 meters, which is a small "mountain range" over four kilometers Length between the Blankensee and the Nuthe at Kleinbeuthen. Deep, typically Brandenburg sand forms the surface of the pine-covered mountains.
The young moraine region is named after the Nuthe and Nieplitz rivers, which shape its characteristic landscape with moist meadows , swampy lowlands, shallow lakes and irrigation channels; Several smaller Elsbrüche such as the Siethener and Saarmunder Elsbruch offer the black alder their preferred moist habitat. Fields, orchards , smaller mountains and hills, flocks of sheep, water mills, villages and natural ash trees, together with a small-scale change of biotopes, form a varied and quiet cultural landscape.
Protected areas in the park
Nature reserves, overview
There are the following six nature reserves in the nature park, which together make up 21% of the total area of the nature park:
- NSG Nuthe-Nieplitz-Niederung, approx. 5,800 hectares (core area of the nature park with the confluence of the Nuthe and Nieplitz rivers),
- NSG Oberes Pfefferfließ , approx. 250 hectares,
- NSG Zarth, also approx. 250 hectares,
- NSG Forst Zinna Jüterbog-Keilberg, approx.8,130 hectares,
- NSG Rauhes Luch, approx. 42 hectares,
- NSG Bärluch, approx. 160 hectares.
- (NSG Dobbrikower Wiesen und Weinberg, around 50 hectares (estimated); the protection procedure was discontinued in 2007.)
The NSG Nuthe-Nieplitz-Niederung as the core area of the nature park is located on the upper reaches of the Nuthe and Nieplitz, which flow together at the Gröbener Kietz and form an open landscape interspersed with moist meadows and moors . Agriculturally used fields, forests and the natural standing water bodies mentioned below with their extensive reed belts complement the small-scale biotopes typical of the landscape, which ensure a great diversity of species. The Löwendorfer Berg and the Glauer Berge are located in this part of the park and loosen up the flat landscape. The NSG extends from Dobbrikow in the south to approximately the Berlin motorway ring , the A 10 in the north. In the east the area is bounded by the Pfefferfließ and the chain of lakes through which the Nieplitz flows. The western border is roughly on the Rieben - Kähnsdorf line . In addition to the largest lake in the nature park, the Blankensee , flat lakes such as Poschfenn , Katzwinkel or Fresdorfer See are part of the nature reserve. These small bodies of water lie in swampy lowlands on the Saarmunder terminal moraine arch , which closes the Zauche in the east to the Nuthe-Nieplitz lowland.
The nature reserve is also part of the European bird sanctuary Nuthe-Nieplitz-Niederung .
NSG Upper Pepper Flow
The heavily meandering Pfefferfließ in the upper reaches is a right tributary of the Nieplitz and forms the approx. 250 hectare NSG Oberes Pfefferfließ , which has been designated as a nature reserve since April 2003 . The measures of the corresponding ordinance of April 14, 2003 for the protection of the nature reserve, which naturally belongs to the «Luckenwalder Heide» and plays an important role in the regional biotope network, led to an already visible, near-natural river morphology with extensively used buffer zones. When the groundwater level is high, the creek flows on alluvial soil (flat bog peat on sand with groundwater nearby) through vast reeds and sedges. Remnants of a common oak , which is very rare in Brandenburg today, and hornbeam forest and dry grassland complement the current appearance of nature. The regulation is detailed in the article Pfefferfließ .
The NSG Zarth is of a completely different character than the Nuthe-Nieplitz-Niederung and the Pfefferfließ : an almost primeval forest-like, moist and dense forest area that is reminiscent of the Spreewald with its largely inaccessible quarry forest . The swampy area, whose name comes from the Slavic “chert” or “chort” = devil and could mean devil's forest , is located east of Treuenbrietzen directly below the headwaters of the northern Fläminghang in the Baruther glacial valley . Several leveling originate in the NSG and form ponds and small lakes.
The black alder and ash trees typical of the biotope can be found in the most humid places, and a pedunculate oak and hornbeam forest in somewhat higher elevations . Around 340 types of plants were counted, including five different types of orchid . The European pond turtle finds the necessary clear streams and the very rare black stork the preferred hiding place in the dense forest. The specially protected NSG Zarth can and may only be crossed on a path that connects Treuenbrietzen with the southeastern village of Bardenitz .
The NSG Zarth is to be subordinated to Natura 2000 , which designates a transnational system of protected areas within the European Union , consisting of the Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) of the Fauna-Flora-Habitat Directive (FFH-RL) of 1992 and the Special Protected Areas (SPA) of the Bird Protection Directive of 1979.
NSG Forst Zinna Jüterbog-Keilberg
The southeast corner of the nature park, the NSG Forst Zinna Jüterbog -Keilberg on a former military training area , is a restricted area with approx. 7200 hectares divided into three zones. This makes it the largest contiguous area of the foundation. Natural for years, a rare biotope has developed here; More than 600 different species of fern and flowering plants were found in 2004. There is also a nine-hectare shifting dune , which was still an active drifting sand dune in inland Germany until a few years ago . The foundation has identified a road network with a total length of 22 kilometers from Pechüle to Felgentreu and Frankenförde . Another hiking trail leads 7.4 kilometers on a circular trail to the Wurzelberg and on a smaller, 5.5 kilometer long circuit to the dune. Along with several information boards, the foundation has set up a wilderness-thought-corridor on the hiking trail , on which quotes from writers and philosophers are intended to encourage people to “let their eyes wander and unwind”.
NSG Rauhes Luch
The only 42 hectare large NSG Rauhes Luch is a rare intermediate moor for the lowlands of this region , which was created by the silting up of a valley basin. The holes of former peat cuttings are filled with water and, with the remains of the moor, are a habitat for specialists such as the typical intermoor plants fever clover and swamp blood-eye . The NSG is located between Trebbin and Luckenwalde west of the Nuthe and the village of Liebätz and south of Märtensmühle .
Formerly planned NSG Dobbrikower Wiesen und Weinberg
With an estimated 50 hectares, the NSG, which is also very small, is planned but not yet realized, with the vineyard southwest of Dobbrikow Front Lake and stretches along the west bank of the Bauernsee through the Nasse Heide towards Nettgendorf and then runs east into the Dobbrikower Wiesen, which is particularly protected as a bird breeding area are. While the 72-meter-high mountain, a typical deposit of the moving Ice Age glaciers on its barren sandy surface and dry soil, is home to heat-loving plants, a small Elsbruch of the black alder and the meadows offer the moisture-loving specialists described below their preferred habitat. The protection procedure for the Dobbrikower meadows and vineyards was discontinued on November 27, 2007.
LSG Nuthetal-Beelitzer Sander
In addition to the six nature reserves there is an LSG, the Nuthetal-Beelitzer Sander landscape protection area in the nature park, which with its area of 41,682 hectares (65% of the total park area) partially overlaps with the Nuthe-Nieplitz Niederung NSG. In addition to its wetlands, the pine forests of the barren and dry Beelitzer Sander shape the face of the LSG. The so-called Beelitzer Sander on the western Zauche plateau is shaped like a cone sand and is around 17 kilometers wide. To the north, the elongated sand wave forms the topographical threshold to the lower Havelland .
Nuthe and Nieplitz
The eponymous rivers arise in the headwaters of northern Fläming. The centuries-long attempts to drain the swamps of the lowlands were made through the establishment of extensive canal systems and the regulation of the rivers, which made history with them. The efforts to bring the land to the usable state demanded by Frederick the Great are described in more detail in the article Gröben . The contributions of Stangenhagen and Pfefferfließ deal with the ecosystems of rivers and rivers .
Bigger Lakes and New See Land
Natural still waters with extensive reed belts: Riebener See , Blankensee , Grössinsee , Schiaßer See , Gröbener See . With the exception of the Gröbener See, the Nieplitz flows through and connects these lakes.
Lakes with bathing facilities: Großer Seddiner See , Siethener See , Dobbrikower Vorderesee.
In addition, new, smaller shallow water lakes have been forming since the 1990s, such as the Swan Lake near Stangenhagen, near the bird observation tower on the Pfefferfließ. The formation of the new lake is based on the shutdown of the pumping stations that drained the moors and wetlands for the benefit of agriculture for decades . After switching off, the water very quickly flooded meadows and pastures .
Animals and plants in the park
Rarer and larger birds
- Lapwing , Ortolan , Red Kite , Black Kite , Marsh Harrier , Osprey , eagles , buzzards , Goshawk , Sparrowhawk , Hobby , Kestrel ,
- Crane (whose image adorns the park's logo), heron , white stork ( every village has its stork ) and occasionally the black stork, which is rare in Brandenburg .
- In autumn and spring resting area for approx. 45,000 passing wild geese , especially bean geese and, more rarely, white-tailed geese .
- Water birds and waders such as the mute swan , coot , mallard and cormorant .
The nature park is rich in moisture-loving plant species such as sherbet , snake knotweed , marsh iris and water marsh cress . In addition to carnations, heather and many other flowers, orchids , swan flowers , forest gold stars and butterbur can also be found here and there.
Villages and tourism
The following villages are of particular importance for the ecology, history or culture of the nature park and are briefly presented here with their most interesting aspects; detailed representations contain the respective village contributions.
Blankensee - place, castle and lake
The village of Blankensee with the lake of the same name is located in the heart of the nature park . The place has a smaller castle with a wonderful park, which is traversed by several branches of the Nieplitz. Curved bridges, Italian gardens, small temples and statues give the castle park a special touch. The castle, more like a mansion (building) , once belonged to the writer Hermann Sudermann . Also worth mentioning in Blankensee are the beekeeping right next to the castle and the farmer's museum, which is housed in a central hallway house built in 1649 in the Brandenburg region .
Stangenhagen - Mußpreußen and renaturation
The neighboring village of Stangenhagen is worth mentioning from a historical point of view as a former Saxon "enclave" in the middle of Prussia ( Mußpreußen ) and the term Thümenschen Winkel, coined by Theodor Fontane . From an ecological point of view, the village, which is located in the center of the nature park, plays an important role in reclaiming peatland on the Pfefferfließ. With a local sustainability strategy aimed at cautious tourism ( urban development planning) with the planned Stangenhagener See and an already installed bird observation tower and a circular path through the new formation of moorland, the village tries to compensate for the agricultural disadvantage of the meadows that have been flooded again.
Gröben - church book and Kietz
The village of Gröben is located on the northern edge of the nature park around six kilometers from the town of Ludwigsfelde , to which it is now a district. Gröben has the oldest surviving church book of the Mark Brandenburg (1575), which Theodor Fontane viewed several times and used in his works. The "open" church with foundation walls from the 12th century and rich wall paintings and ceiling ornaments looks back on an eventful architectural history. The Gröbener Kietz is one of the few "real", original Kietze. The intact cultural landscape of the nature park at the confluence of the Nuthe and Nieplitz rivers directly at the gates of Berlin led to a new economic orientation of the village after reunification with tourist offers.
Further offers and sights, regular events
Carriage rides are offered in various places ; there are a variety of riding stables and bridle paths; Hiking trails and bike paths are well signposted in large numbers. In the village of Kemnitz in the municipality of Nuthe-Urstromtal , a so-called Nuthe-Nieplitz house (formerly also Spiekerhus ), which is typical of this Brandenburg region, has been preserved and renovated, a farm whose house is made entirely of half-timbered houses and whose storage is placed on the gable of the residential building (see image).
In addition to the inviting landscape and natural monuments , the following should also be emphasized:
- Zinna Monastery (Cistercian Monastery),
- Historic town centers of Jüterbog , Luckenwalde , Beelitz and Treuenbrietzen
- Beelitz Heilstätten
- Asparagus museum in Schlunkendorf
- Glauer Tal game reserve
- Observation towers Blankensee and Stangenhagen (water birds, resting geese and cranes)
- Nature Conservation Center Stücken (with excursions, animal observation and hikes)
- In 2004 the Fläming-Walk , a Nordic walking route with several circular courses through the nature park, including a beginner route between Wittbrietzen, Rieben, Dobbrikow, Nettgendorf, Gottsdorf and Kemnitz, was set up.
Regular events take place in the nature park:
- Whitsunday: Equestrian Festival in Salzbrunn
- April - October: Blankensee music summer
- June: Asparagus festival in Beelitz and Sabinchen festival in Treuenbrietzen
- July: Brass music festival in pieces
- September: Museum Festival in Blankensee, Fontane Festival in Gröben and NaturParkFest in Glau
- Carsten Rasmus, Bettina Klaehne: Hiking and nature guides in the Nuthe-Nieplitz Nature Park. Hikes, bike rides and walks. KlaRas-Verlag, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-933135-11-7
- Carsten Rasmus, Bettina Klaehne: Adventure guide for nature parks in Brandenburg: excursions on foot and by bike through nature parks, biosphere reserves and the Lower Oder Valley National Park. KlaRas-Verlag, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-933135-05-2
- Christa and Johannes Jankowiak: On the way to Nuthe and Nieplitz. Portrait of a Brandenburg landscape. On old tracks and new paths . Stapp Verlag, Berlin 1995, ISBN 3-87776-061-9 .
- Theodor Fontane: Walks through the Mark Brandenburg . Part 4. Spreeland. Ullstein, Frankfurt / M. - Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-548-24381-9
- Landscape Development Association Nuthe-Nieplitz-Niederung: For people and nature - 25 years Landscape Development Association Nuthe-Nieplitz-Niederung eV 1991–2016 , 2016, p. 54
- Nuthe-Nieplitz Nature Park at the Ministry for Rural Development, Environment and Consumer Protection of the State of Brandenburg
- Nature park administration
- Landscape development association Nuthe-Nieplitz-Niederung eV
- Nature reserves in Brandenburg. (PDF) MLUL Brandenburg, December 2016, accessed on February 7, 2017 .
- Brandenburg Natural Landscapes Foundation: hiking trails on the Jüterbog foundation area , leaflet, no date
- Wurzelberg hiking trail , website of the Landschafts-Förderverein Nuthe-Nieplitz-Niederung eV, accessed on March 4, 2015.
- Official Journal for Brandenburg , No. 50 of December 19, 2007, p. 2610 (PDF; 2.6 MB). Thereafter, the protection procedure for the Dobbrikower meadows and vineyards was discontinued on November 27, 2007.