Rai - Radiotelevisione Italiana
|Rai - Radiotelevisione italiana SpA
|legal form||Società per azioni|
|Seat||Rome , Italy|
|Number of employees||12,811|
|sales||EUR 2.58 billion|
|As of December 31, 2018|
The Rai - Radiotelevisione italiana SpA (mostly just Rai , formerly RAI ) is Italy's public broadcaster . It is a radio and television company . The acronym originally stood for Radio Audizioni Italiane , but was retained when it was renamed in 1954.
In August 1924 the SA Radiofono of the Marconi Company and the Società Italiana Radio Audizioni Circolari (SIRAC) of the RCA merged to form the Unione Radiofonica Italiana (URI) . On October 6, 1924, the first URI broadcast from Rome, which received sole broadcasting rights. The Milan station followed in 1925, and the Naples station in 1926.
In November 1927, the URI was replaced by the Ente Italiano per le Audizioni Radiofoniche (EIAR) , whose shareholders included General Electric , Società Idroelettrica Piemontese (SIP) and Fiat . New stations emerged in Bolzano, Genoa, Turin, Palermo, Trieste, Florence and Bari. In 1930 the Prato Smeraldo shortwave station was opened. In 1933 a second transmitter network began to operate (Milan II and Turin II). From around 1935 there was a foreign language service, including news in German (discontinued in 2007). In 1935 responsibility for the radio programs was transferred to the Ministry of Press and Propaganda . In 1937 a third radio program and the experimental television station Monte Mario started .
In February 1945 the renaming of the EIAR in Radio Audizioni Italia (RAI) became effective. After the start of regular television on January 3, 1954, the name was changed to Radiotelevisione Italiana on April 10 of the same year . Two years later, the television signals reached the entire Italian state territory. However, due to the high purchase costs for a television set, there were only a few participants at that time (360,000). In 1961 and 1979 the second and third RAI television programs followed.
In 1976 the Constitutional Court lifted the RAI's monopoly in favor of local private broadcasters. In the following years there was a lack of legal regulations, so that de facto several national private television programs could be established.
As part of a restructuring of the Rai, Rai Uno was renamed Rai 1, Rai Due to Rai 2, Rai Tre to Rai 3, Rai Sport to Rai Sport 1 and Rai Sport Più to Rai Sport 2 on May 18, 2010. Two new channels were also introduced: Rai 5 and Rai Storia . The logos of the television programs have also been changed.
The Rai is organized as a state stock company. At the top is the Board of Directors ( Consiglio di Amministrazione , Board of Directors ) with a chairman. Some areas are directly assigned to the CEO ( Amministratore Delegato ), including reporting from the Presidential Palace (Rai Quirinale) and the Vatican (Rai Vaticano).
The administrative area ( Direzione Generale Corporate ) is divided into finance, technical infrastructure and real estate including regional and foreign offices ( Sedi Regionali ed Estere ) as well as other areas such as personnel administration ( Risorse Umane ) and the radio archive ( Rai Teche ).
The program area is divided into four areas:
- Radio: Radio 1 (with the newsrooms GR1, GR2, GR3 and GRP ), Radio 2 , Radio 3 and Isoradio
- Newsroom ( Testate ): TG1, TG2, TG3, Rai News, Rai Sport, Rai Parlamento and TGR ( Testata Giornalistica Regionale ) with Italian-speaking branches in each of the 20 regions of Italy as well as the editorial offices of the minority languages: a German and a Ladin editorial office in the province Bolzano and a Slovenian editorial office in the Friuli region ; the French editorial team in the Aosta region is assigned to the local Italian editorial team
- TV channels ( Rai 1 , Rai 2 , Rai 3 , Rai Ragazzi with Rai Gulp and others, Rai Cultura with Rai 5 and others, Rai Gold with Rai 4 and others, Rai Fiction) and television genres
- Television production with production centers in Rome , Milan , Naples and Turin .
The subsidiaries of the Rai include u. a. Rai Cinema , Rai Com (marketing), Rai Pubblicità (advertising concessionaire) and Rai Way (broadcast network).
Broadcasting Network for broadcasting the broadcast signal
operates the Rai Italia channels for America, Asia, Australia and Africa
broadcasts broadcasts from the Vatican
operates the GR Parlamento , Senato della Repubblica and Camera dei deputati channels
Rai Giornale Radio
the radio newsroom
Rai Teche the broadcast archive
broadcasts from the President's Quirinal Palace
Production company for films
promotes the marketing rights of the productions
the radio orchestra
Production company for feature films, TV films and the like
operates event and documentation channels
promoted the marketing rights of the productions from 1987 to 2011
RAI currently broadcasts on 14 terrestrial television channels ( Rai 1 , Rai 2 , Rai 3 , Rai 4 , Rai 5 , Rai Movie , Rai Premium , Rai Gulp , Rai Yoyo , Rai News 24 , Rai Storia , Rai Sport , Rai Scuola ) and three national radio channels in FM ( Rai Radio 1 , Rai Radio 2 , Rai Radio 3 ). Apart from Rai 1, Rai 2, Rai 3 and Rai News24, some of the other TV channels are not always available nationwide. The radio channels Rai Radio Tutta Italiana , Rai Radio 3 Classica , Rai Radio Techete ' , Rai Radio Live and Rai Radio Kids are broadcast using other technologies . The radio channel Rai Isoradio is only broadcast along the highways and in Rome. In addition, RAI is a member of the pan-European television station Euronews and transmits the politically oriented stations Camera dei deputati and Senato della Repubblica .
In Bolzano there are two other independent departments in addition to the Italian-language editorial team: Rai Südtirol produces German-language radio and television programs (such as the Tagesschau ) for South Tyrol , Rai Ladinia does the same in Ladin for Ladinia . The programs of Rai Südtirol and Rai Ladinia are broadcast on a common television and radio channel. There is a Slovenian editorial office in Trieste and a French one in the Aosta Valley
Since 2004, the digital television programs of the RAI have been broadcast terrestrially on an experimental basis (locally limited). The nationwide expansion of digital television was completed in 2012. Since 2008, Rai HD has been broadcasting terrestrial programs from other RAI channels in HD quality. Other RAI channels broadcast in HD are only available with satellite broadcasting.
RAI operates the international television service Rai Italia (Rai Italia America, Rai Italia Asia, Rai Italia Africa, Rai Italia Australia and Rai World Premium) worldwide via satellite . The radio broadcasts on shortwave were discontinued on September 30, 2007.
Overview of the programs
RAI TV programs
|Rai 1||Rai 2||Rai 3||Rai 4||Rai 5||Rai News 24|
|Rai Gulp||Rai Yoyo||Rai 4K||Rai Movie||Rai Scuola||Rai sport|
|Rai South Tyrol||Rai Ladinia||Rai 3 BIS (Slovenian)||Rai Premium||Rai Storia||Rai Sport + HD|
|Rai Italia||Senato della Repubblica||Camera dei Deputati|
RAI radio programs
|Rai Radio 1||Rai Radio 2||Rai Radio 3||Rai Isoradio||Rai South Tyrol / Ladinia|
|Rai Radio 1 Sport||Rai Radio 2 Indie||Rai Radio 3 Classica||Rai Gr Parlamento||Rai Radio Trst A|
|Rai Radio Kids||Rai Radio Live||Rai Radio Techete '||Rai Radio Tutta Italiana|
Former RAI TV programs
|RaiSat album||RaiSat Art||RaiSat fiction||RaiSat Smash||RaiSat Smash Girls||RaiSat show|
|RaiSat Ragazzi||RaiSat Gambero Rosso Channel||Rai Med||Yes Italia||Rai Nettuno Sat Uno||Rai Extra|
|Rai Test HD||Rai Futura||Rai Doc||Rai Edu 1||Rai Edu 2||Rai Edu Storia|
|Rai Edu Lab||Rai Edu Lab 1||Rai Edu Lab2||Rai Olimpia||Rai Utile||Rai Edu Scuola|
|Rai Nettuno Sat Due||Rai Sport piu||Rai HD||Rai Sport 2|
Former RAI radio programs
|Rai satellite radio||Notturno Italiano (1952–2011)||Radio Rai Sport||Rai Radio 8 Opera|
The annual budget of around 2.5 billion euros is mainly financed by license fees and advertising income. The fee regulation dates from 1938. Since a legal reform, the fees have been collected together with the electricity bill since 2016. As a result of this change in procedure, the fee volume could be increased significantly (by 500 million euros to 2.1 billion euros), although the fee due per household was simultaneously reduced from 113.50 to 100.00 euros per year. Previously, according to estimates, around 30 percent of Italians had not met their obligation to pay. In 2017, the statutory fee fell again to 90 euros.
|Surname||Taking office||End of office|
|Arturo Carlo Jemolo||April 20, 1945||August 9, 1946|
|Giuseppe Spataro||August 9, 1946||May 17, 1951|
|Cristiano Ridomi||May 17, 1951||March 11, 1954|
|Antonio Carrelli||June 3, 1954||4th January 1961|
|Novello Papafava||4th January 1961||March 25, 1964|
|Pietro Quaroni||May 29, 1964||April 12, 1969|
|Aldo Sandulli||April 23, 1969||18th February 1970|
|Umberto delle Fave||March 24, 1970||April 22, 1975|
|Beniamino Finocchiaro||May 23, 1975||20th January 1977|
|Paolo Grassi||20th January 1977||June 12, 1980|
|Sergio Zavoli||June 12, 1980||October 23, 1986|
|Enrico Manca||October 23, 1986||19th February 1992|
|Walter Pedullà||19th February 1992||July 13, 1993|
|Claudio Demattè||July 13, 1993||July 12, 1994|
|Letizia Moratti||July 12, 1994||April 24, 1996|
|Giuseppe Morello||April 24, 1996||July 10, 1996|
|Vincenzo Siciliano||July 10, 1996||January 21, 1998|
|Roberto Zaccaria||February 3, 1998||February 16, 2002|
|Vittorio Emiliani||February 16, 2002||February 22, 2002|
|Antonio Baldassarre||March 5, 2002||February 26, 2003|
|Paolo Mieli||March 7, 2003||March 13, 2003|
|Lucia Annunziata||March 13, 2003||May 4, 2004|
|Francesco Alberoni||May 5, 2004||May 31, 2005|
|Sandro Curzi||June 1, 2005||July 30, 2005|
|Claudio Petruccioli||July 31, 2005||March 25, 2009|
|Paolo Garimberti||March 26, 2009||June 8, 2012|
|Anna Maria Tarantola||June 8, 2012||5th August 2015|
|Monica Maggioni||August 6, 2015||25th September 2018|
|Marcello Foa||26th September 2018|
Controversy with the Berlusconi government
The then President of the RAI, Lucia Annunziata , resigned from her position on May 4, 2004. The journalist, who is close to opposition circles, protested against the “all-powerful influence” of the Berlusconi government on the RAI. She resigned after the television broadcaster's supervisory board had proposed several government-related managers to run RAI's subsidiaries.
- Monte Penice transmitter
- Portofino transmitter
- Santa Palomba transmitter (demolished)
- Marcianise transmitter (closed)
- Caltanissetta transmitter
- Rai website - Radiotelevisione italiana (Italian)
- Rai Südtirol (Italian, German, Ladin)
- Livestream Rai News 24 (Italian)
- Group portrait of the Institute for Media and Communication Policy on mediadb.eu
- Rai International has been broadcasting around the world for 72 years . ( Memento from June 11, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) raiinternational.rai.it (undated, German).
- RAI.IT - Organi di Amministrazione e Controllo
- Relazioni e bilancial December 31, 2018. Rai - Radiotelevisione italiana SpA, accessed on January 7, 2020 (Italian).
- Regio Decreto 14 dicembre 1924, n.2191 ( GU 15 gennaio 1925, n.11 )
- December 8, 1925; La stazione radiotrasmittente di Milano , Radio Orario 1925, n.48
- November 14, 1926; La stazione di Napoli della URI , Radiorario 1926, n.48
- July 12, 1928; La sagra di Bolzano , Radiorario 1928, n.30
- October 28, 1928; Inaugurazione della stazione di Genova , Radiorario 1928, n.45
- February 11, 1929; La stazione di Torino , Radiorario 1929, n.7
- June 14, 1931; La festa siciliana della radiofonia , Radiocorriere 1931, n.25
- October 28, 1931; EIAR Radio Trieste , Radiocorriere 1931, n.43
- April 21, 1932; Nella solennità del natale di Roma Firenze inaugura la sua trasmittente , Radiocorriere 1932, n.16
- September 6, 1932; La stazione radiofonica di Bari , Radiocorriere 1932, n.36
- Le prove della nuova stazione Torino II , Radiocorriere 1933, n.44
- Cronache italiane del turismo in German, English, Esperanto, French, Dutch and Spanish, founded by Achille Antonibon ( Annuario della stampa italiana 1959 p. 912 )
- Italradio portals: RAI International stops short waves and 26 languages
- Regio Decreto-Legge 26 September 1935, n. 1829 ( GU 27 ottobre 1935, n. 252 )
- 29 ottobre, inizio delle trasmissioni del terzo programma , Radiocorriere 1937, n.43
- La chiamarono radiovisione per non usare parole straniere , Radiocorriere 1967, n.50
- Decreto Legislativo Luogotenenziale 26 ottobre 1944, n. 457 ( GU 20 febbraio 1945, n. 22 )
- ECLI : IT: COST : 1976: 202
- Martin Geppert: European Broadcasting Area and National Broadcasting Authority . 1993, p. 21 f.
- Rai Digitale Terrestre ( Memento from May 22, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- ZDF concludes coproduction alliance with France Télévisions and RAI , accessed on October 22, 2019.
- rai.it: organizational chart
- see Legge 14 aprile 1975, n. 103 ( GU 17 aprile 1975, n. 102 ), Art. 19, lett. C)
- Regio Decreto-Legge 21 February 1938, n.246
- RAI license fee dodging down to 4%, in: ANSA English from February 9, 2017, accessed on May 24, 2017 (English)
- Canone Rai: l'importo tornerà sopra i 100 euro dal 2017, in: QuiFinanza of November 23, 2015, accessed on May 24, 2017 (Italian)
- Collection of the RAI television fee via the electricity bill in July, in: Vinschger Wind from July 8, 2016, accessed on May 24, 2017
- Canone Rai: tutti gli importi 2017, in: QuiFinanza from January 9, 2017, accessed on May 24, 2017 (Italian)