Radio tax

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In some states, public broadcasting companies finance themselves primarily through the broadcasting fee , which is paid as a sovereign fee by domestic operators of corresponding receivers (especially televisions and radios ). After 2010, the fee model was replaced in several countries by the contribution model that was independent of the actual use of a service .


Most European countries have public or similar broadcasting services, which in Denmark, Germany, France, Greece, Great Britain, Ireland, Iceland, Italy, Malta, Austria, Poland, Sweden, Slovenia and the Czech Republic are financed by license fees. The Swiss SRG is an association under private law in accordance with Swiss civil code, but has a public mandate to provide basic services.

Fee models

There are several fee collection models in Europe. In Germany, Great Britain and Denmark, for example, the collection process is carried out by the public service broadcaster (s) themselves. In Austria and Switzerland, companies commissioned to collect fees are responsible. The state only collects the fees in France (together with the housing tax).

In Greece, Italy and Turkey, the license fee is a surcharge on the electricity bill, the amount of which depends on the respective electricity consumption. No license fees are charged in Andorra, Belgium, Bulgaria, Estonia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain, Ukraine, Hungary and Cyprus - the public service broadcasters there receive the public funding that corresponds to the license fee on taxes from the state budget .

The Broadcasting Fee Association (BFA), an umbrella organization of license fee companies in eleven European countries as well as Israel and South Africa, compared the license fees of its members in 2007. Both the levied fees and the portion that goes to public broadcasting were collected. Accordingly, the amounts collected - as perceived by the consumer - are highest in Switzerland (approx. 377  euros ), ahead of those in Denmark (approx. 326 euros), Norway (approx. 255 euros) and Austria (approx. 244 euros) . In an international comparison of the fees paid by the consumer, the impression easily arises that one would not receive adequate consideration in these countries - compared to the fee level in other countries. However, not in all countries does the public broadcaster receive one hundred percent of the full amount collected (example: Austria approx. 66%, Denmark approx. 75%, Switzerland approx. 90%).


The radio contribution contributes to the financing of operations in the Broadcasting Treaty regulated contract to basic services by the public broadcasters in. Part of the premium income is u. a. used to finance the administrative apparatus of the supervisory authorities for private broadcasting (the state media authorities ).

The annual premium income of 8.324 billion euros is used to finance 22 television and 67 radio stations and a large number of online platforms with a total of more than 25,000 permanent employees. The German wave is, however, not financed by taxes, but directly from taxpayers' money because it is an instrument of foreign cultural policy and does not serve the basic needs of the interior.

The tax obligation arises from the State Treaty on Broadcasting Fees (RBeitrStV). The broadcasting fee of 17.50 euros per month (up to March 2015: 17.98 euros) is levied as a flat rate in accordance with Section 2 (1) RBeitrStV from each owner of an apartment who owes the contribution, regardless of whether and how many radio devices are available. A contribution obligation arises solely from the fact that there is any possibility of radio reception.

On January 1, 2013, the previous license fee was replaced by a device-independent license fee. As a result, there was criticism and numerous court cases (see main article ). Experts at the German KEF are assuming considerable additional income (as of September 2017, some of which have already been realized).


As a wholly owned subsidiary of ORF, GIS Kosten Info Service GmbH is authorized by the Broadcasting Fee Act to collect broadcasting fees .

Fee obligation

Anyone who operates radio reception equipment in buildings or has them ready for operation in Austria must pay fees in accordance with the Broadcasting Fee Act (RGG). Receiving devices within the meaning of the law are devices that can basically receive broadcasts. This includes televisions and radios , but also in the opinion of GIS - which, however, was rejected by the Administrative Court - computers with an Internet connection . According to the GIS website, a charge for computers with Internet access relates to the immediately perceptible radio programs and not to television programs, as these are not transmitted in a continuous live stream.

With the ruling of September 18, 2014, the Federal Administrative Court ruled that computers with an Internet connection are not broadcast reception facilities, since radio reception via Internet streaming is not broadcast in the technical sense. The GIS filed an appeal, but the administrative court that was called followed the arguments of the previous instance: the legislature did not want to include electronic presentations over the Internet in the constitutional definition of the term broadcasting.

In principle, the fee is only payable once for each location (building or apartment) at which radio reception equipment is operated or kept ready for operation. For companies that set up several devices in one company, special regulations apply (one fee per ten devices). Classrooms and offices, police stations, restaurants, homes and businesses that repair, sell or rent radio receivers are exempt from this special rule and also only have to pay the fees once per location.

Mobile receivers such as car radios or cell phones are exempt from the charge . De jure , fees would also have to be paid for such devices in some cases (namely if they are operated “in buildings” in accordance with the legal text), but in these cases the GIS does not collect the fees.

Under certain conditions, such as B. in the case of very low household income , receipt of study grants, receipt of a minimum pension or care allowance, an exemption from paying broadcasting fees can be granted.

Fee amount

The development of the fee level according to the GIS

In Austria , the license fee for a combined radio and television registration is made up of the following items:

  • Program fee: This is the amount that benefits Austrian Broadcasting, which finances its own productions, broadcasting systems, state studios, technical equipment and licenses, among other things. The amount of the amount is determined by the Board of Trustees of ORF and checked by the regulatory authority KommAustria for compliance with the legal requirements (cf. § 31 ORF-G). The program fee (around 600 million euros per year) accounts for around 60% of ORF's total sales.
  • Radio and television fee: Goes to the Federal Ministry of Finance (BMF) as a fee for the operation of the reception facilities. Since 2009, five million euros have gone into a media promotion fund for Austrian private radio and television broadcasters (from 2013: 15 million). 2.5 million euros (from 2013: 3 million) feed the non-commercial broadcasting fund for advertising-free community media.
  • Art grant : Goes to the federal and state governments.
  • State tax: Is included in the respective state budget; The federal states themselves determine the amount and purpose of use .
  • Collection fee : Benefit from the GIS Fee Info Service GmbH , which is an independent company responsible for collecting and distributing funds.
  • Procedure administration fee: Serves the relevant federal and state offices to cover the expenses for appeal procedures in connection with the license fee .
  • Sales tax : 10% of the program fee is levied and shared between the federal, state and local governments.

Since June 2012, television (incl. Radio) in Austria has had an average radio license fee of EUR 23.20 per month; radio alone (excluding television) has an average of EUR 6.76.

Broadcasting fees in the Austrian federal states in euros per month (television and radio) (from April 2017)
total Radio fee Television fee Program fee Art funding State tax VAT
Fee accrues BMF BMF ORF Federation / states countries
Vienna 26.33 0.36 1.16 18.93 0.48 5.40 1.72
Lower Austria 26.33 0.36 1.16 18.93 0.48 5.40 1.72
Burgenland 23.73 0.36 1.16 18.93 0.48 2.80 1.72
Upper Austria 20.93 0.36 1.16 18.93 0.48 0.00 1.72
Salzburg 25.63 0.36 1.16 18.93 0.48 4.70 1.72
Styria 26.73 0.36 1.16 18.93 0.48 5.80 1.72
Carinthia 26.03 0.36 1.16 18.93 0.48 5.10 1.72
Tyrol 24.63 0.36 1.16 18.93 0.48 3.70 1.72
Vorarlberg 20.93 0.36 1.16 18.93 0.48 0.00 1.72
Broadcasting fees in the Austrian federal states in euros per month (radio only) (as of April 2017)
total Radio fee Television fee Program fee Art funding State tax VAT
Fee accrues BMF BMF ORF Federation / states countries
Vienna 7.33 0.36 0.00 5.06 0.48 1.43 0.46
Lower Austria 7.30 0.36 0.00 5.06 0.48 1.40 0.46
Burgenland 6.60 0.36 0.00 5.06 0.48 0.70 0.46
Upper Austria 5.90 0.36 0.00 5.06 0.48 0.00 0.46
Salzburg 7.50 0.36 0.00 5.06 0.48 1.60 0.46
Styria 7.40 0.36 0.00 5.06 0.48 1.50 0.46
Carinthia 7.30 0.36 0.00 5.06 0.48 1.40 0.46
Tyrol 6.90 0.36 0.00 5.06 0.48 1.00 0.46
Vorarlberg 5.90 0.36 0.00 5.06 0.48 0.00 0.46


In Switzerland, a household tax of 365 francs per year and household (approx. 324 euros) has been levied since 2019 to finance radio and television services, which, like in Germany, is independent of the possession of radio and television sets. Households that do not have any technical means of receiving radio or television programs can, however, apply for exemption from the fee for the next five years. The fee is collected by the private Serafe AG on behalf of the federal government. A reduction in the tax to CHF 335 has been announced for 2021.


The license fee was abolished in Liechtenstein in 1999. The LRF law for the financing of Radio Liechtenstein from 2003 provides for a license fee. So far this has not been done. Starting in 2015, the introduction of a license fee should save the state contribution of 1.5 million CHF, which is financed from taxes and which is shared with Radio Liechtenstein and private media. A reprivatisation of the LRF was discussed several times and was most recently rejected by the government in November 2013 with reference to the statutory communication mandate. In July 2015, the introduction of a license fee was rejected again.


In Denmark, every household with a television set or an internet-enabled PC had to pay a television fee of DKK 2,527 (around EUR 338.40) a year, most recently (2018). The household fee includes the spouse and adult children, but not grandparents or flatmates. Devices in weekend homes or holiday homes are also covered.

In March 2018, the Rasmussen III government , a three-party coalition government, announced the abolition of the fee. Radio and television are to be financed from tax revenues from 2022. In September 2018, the General Secretary of Danmarks Radio (DR) announced that DR wanted to save around 56 million euros annually by cutting 400 (of around 2,400) jobs. Three of the six television channels so far are to be dropped and eight radio channels are to become five. As a first step, the 2019 annual fee was reduced to 1927 DKK (approx. 258 euros). In 2020 and 2021 the fee will be further reduced until it fully expires in 2022.


There is no state broadcasting tax. Likewise, no advertising is sent.


In Finland, the public broadcasters were financed through license fees until 2013. After that, it was switched to financing through a special tax. This is payable by people aged 18 and over who earn more than 14,000 euros a year. It is 2.5%, but is capped at 163 euros (as of 2019). Åland residents do not have to pay the tax.


The distribution of the revenue from the license fee in 2010
Income of public broadcasters in France - the budget of 3.6 billion euros according to the 2006 Tax Act consists of 64% fee income , 24% advertising and sponsorship income and 12% other public income

In France, until 2008 , the license fee (redevance audiovisuelle) was a tax paid in favor of the channels and services of the France Télévisions group ( France 2 (27%), France 3 (35%), France 5 (7%), Réseau France Outre- mer (10%) and France 4 ), TV5 Monde , France 24 , Canal France International , ARTE -France (13%), the broadcaster of the Radio France group (22% of 2004 revenue, split between France Inter , France Info ' France Culture , France Musique , France Inter Paris , France Bleu , Le Mouv' ), Radio France Internationale (RFI) and the Institut national de l'audiovisuel (INA), which is responsible for the preservation of the audiovisual archives .

In return for the fee income, the France Télévisions group waived commercial breaks for feature films (cinema and television ) shown on its channels.

In 2007 the fee accounted for € 2 billion, 74% of public audiovisual service revenues.

From 2005 to 2008 it was linked to property tax , which made fee exemptions and reductions, which in 2006 amounted to EUR 41.4 million, more difficult. Since 2008 only disabled people have been exempt from the fee.

In 2009, the fee was changed to the broadcasting fee (contribution à l'audiovisuel public), which is adjusted to inflation. From 118 euros a year (2009) it rose to 121 euros (2010), then to 123 (2011) and finally to 138 euros (2020). The statutory broadcasting fee is reduced for the overseas departments : In contrast to European territory, only 88 euros are to be paid there in 2020.

Receivers subject to charges French tax law stipulates that the license fee applies to all devices that enable the reception of television programs. Accordingly, u. a. VDUs (e.g. computer monitors ) and other display devices, video recorders , DVD and Blu-ray players and video projectors equipped with a receiver are also affected.

As of November 2008, the exemption from was multimedia - computers through several changes in the new, applicable from January 2009 Communications Act regulated restrictive. According to these changes, newer computers and Internet access are on an equal footing with television receivers and are therefore subject to a fee.

Before January 2009, households that only received television programs via computer did not have to pay fees, as can be seen from the parliamentary debates on the amendment of the regulation: “Art. 41 of the Tax Act 2005 has retained the previous requirement, namely the possession of a television or similar device that enables the reception of television programs. Accordingly, the exclusion of microcomputers that are suitable for receiving television programs from the scope of the license fee - which was the case before the reform and was decided again in the debates on the fee stipulated in Article 37 of the 2004 Finance Act - was again not called into question. Therefore, property taxpayers who have internet access including the reception of television programs are only liable for a fee if they have a television set. If the latter is not the case, they are not subject to a fee. "

Amendment 104 of 20 November 2008, proposed by MEP Dionis du Séjour, was not accepted by the joint joint commission. His proposal was aimed at making people who have signed a contract with an Internet provider for Internet access subject to charges. Art. 1605 of the General Tax Code in the version in force on October 12, 2009 was therefore not specified in this regard, although it was not clear with regard to the definition of “device suitable for television reception”. However, it is likely that such a change will be proposed again in the future as it would generate revenues of EUR 50 million, according to MP Dionis du Séjour.

The fee, although collected together with the property tax, is based on the tax return (ORA field). The form says, “If any of your places of residence (primary or secondary residence) do not have a television, tick the box.” This could lead one to believe that computers are still excluded from the fee.


The license fee in Greece is 36 euros per year and is collected with the electricity bill. Government agencies, religious institutions and cemeteries are exempt from the fee.


The radio tax in Ireland is 160 euros a year. People over 70 years of age are exempt. An exemption for social reasons is also possible.


In Iceland, legal and natural persons between 16 and 70 years of age will pay a broadcast tax (Útvarpsgjald) of 17 900 ISK (112.70 euros) in 2020, depending on an income limit and other individual characteristics.


The broadcasting tax in Italy is 90 euros (as of 2020) and is collected with the electricity bill in 10 installments from January to October. Quarterly and half-yearly payment is also offered. All taxpayers are liable for the fee, but only one per household. Those who do not have a television can apply for an exemption during the year in question until the end of January.


In Norway, the previous broadcasting fee of NOK 3,000 (approx. 280 euros) was replaced in 2020 by an income-related tax that amounts to a maximum of NOK 1,700 (approx. 160 euros).


The license fee in Poland is PLN 22.70 (approx. EUR 5.09) per month per household. Households with only one radio pay 7 PLN per month (approx. 1.57 euros). From the month following your 75th birthday you are exempt from the license fee.


The license fee, which last amounted to 17 euros per year, was abolished on January 1, 2017.


In Sweden, a television fee is charged by the tax office to finance Sveriges Television , Sveriges Radio and Sveriges Utbildningsradio . Every resident over the age of 18 has to pay 1% of the taxable income, regardless of whether they own a receiver, up to a maximum of 1347 Swedish kronor (approx. 130 euros) per year.


The license fee is 4.64 euros per month and is to be paid by every registered household customer of an electricity supplier (de facto as a household fee), as well as staggered by companies that employ at least three employees. For social reasons, the waiver or reimbursement of fees can be requested on a case-by-case basis.


The license fee in Slovenia is currently 12.75 euros (television and radio) or 3.77 euros (radio only) per month.


There is no state broadcasting tax.

Czech Republic

In the Czech Republic, television license fees are levied in accordance with Act No. 348/2005. The fee is only charged once per household and includes holiday homes and weekend homes. The fee is payable monthly and amounts to 135 CZK (approx. 5.14 euros). If you only have one radio, you pay 45 CZK per month (approx. 1.71 euros).

United Kingdom

The term TV Licensing encompasses companies which are contractually commissioned by the BBC to collect and enforce television fees in the United Kingdom .

A license is only required if a television is used for television reception. No license is required to merely own a television, and no license is required to own and use radio receivers.

For television reception in Great Britain one acquires a license which is valid for one year and which has to be renewed annually. Until July 2020, the license was free for the entire household from the 75th birthday of a resident and was financed from tax revenues. Since August 2020, only recipients of Pension Credit, a state pension subsidy for pensioners with low pensions, have been receiving a free television license from the age of 75. Blind and visually impaired people can apply for a 50 percent discount, which also covers all non-visually impaired people living in their household.

Not only television sets that differentiate between color and black and white sets are subject to a fee, but television reception itself. It does not matter how this comes about (cable / SAT, Internet), which devices are used for it (TV sets, laptop, PC, mobile phone, digital box, DVD recorder) or which programs are viewed. Radios have been excluded from the obligation to pay fees since 1971.

The annual cost of a television license for a color television set (set by the government) is £ 157.50  (approx. € 176 as of July 2020). A license for a black and white television set costs £ 53 (as of July 2020). This fee is only payable once per household, although television reception in a second home requires a second license as soon as a device is connected to the mains. For devices used for business purposes, the fee rates are graded according to the number of devices.

The Communications Act 2003 forms the legal basis.

Out of Europe


Since 1948 there has been a public service broadcaster in Israel, which was financed by a broadcast fee of around 70 euros a year per subscriber. In 2015, the abolition of the license fee was announced retrospectively at the beginning of the year.


In Japan , the public service broadcaster NHK is financed with a “reception fee ” ( 受 信 料 , jushinryō ) in order to “impart reliable information and a rich culture to everyone at any time, anywhere” ( 「い つ で も 、 ど こ で も 、 誰 、に で も も も 誰 、に で も も も 誰 、に で も 、に で も確 か な 情報 や 豊 か な 文化 を 分 け 隔 て な く 伝 え る 」 , " itsu demo, doko demo, dare ni demo, tashika na jōhō ya yutaka na bunka o wakehedate naku tsutaeru " ).

The legal basis for this is Article 64 of the "Broadcasting Act" ( 放送 法 , hōsō-hō ) announced in 1950 , which in paragraph 1 obliges everyone with a radio-capable receiver to enter into a contractual relationship with the broadcasting company (NHK) for radio reception, whereby Article 70 paragraph 4 and the NHK's terms of use stipulate a fee for this. In the event that a contractual relationship with the NHK is not entered into, d. H. a refusal to pay the fee, there are no legal regulations. As a result, there is a fairly high number of nondescripts. A survey by the NHK at the end of 2010 found that only 78% of households that have a radio receiver also pay fees, and only 73% of company locations with radio receivers.

Currently, the annual fee is 14,545 yen (117 euros) for households without satellite and 25,320 yen (203 euros) for households with satellite, in the Okinawa prefecture, however, 12,810 yen (103 euros) and 23,585 yen (189 euros). There is a discount of 550 or 555 yen (approx. 4 euros) for standing orders . In October 2012, for the first time since 1968, the fees were reduced by 750 or 870 yen, which was mainly due to the new digital distribution options.


In Canada , the tax-financed public service Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) dominates the broadcasting system, in which, in addition to the CBC and the private Canadian broadcasters, the US broadcasters that can be received via satellite and along the shared border also have a significant influence.


The device-dependent license fee in Namibia is N $ 204 per household per year (10.80 euros). People aged 60 and over, veterans and disabled people pay N $ 60 per year (3.20 euros). Companies (including private and public schools, ministries, clinics, bars, etc.) pay 220 N $ (11.60 euros) per year per television set; no license is required for radio alone. Furniture and television retailers, lodges, hotels, bed & breakfasts are charged a fee of N $ 440 per year (23.20 euros). Non-payers face a penalty fee that is almost ten times as high and if this fee is refused, imprisonment for up to 6 months.

South Korea

The license fee in South Korea is KRW 2,500 per television set per month (EUR 1.78). Private households only pay the fee once, regardless of the number of devices. The fee is paid on the electricity bill.

United States

In the United States, more than 700 legally independent public radio stations are members of National Public Radio . In the media landscape of the USA , the few (only 348) public television stations that are part of the Public Broadcasting Service only play a subordinate role. These non-commercial broadcasters are funded through voluntary subscriptions and donations as well as government grants.

Web links

Wiktionary: license fee  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations



Individual evidence

  1. ( Memento of the original from May 17, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  2. Annual fee for the broadcaster (in euros) ( Memento of October 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  3. ↑ Additional income from the license fee
  4. ^ Hans-Peter Siebenhaar : The television company . In: Handelsblatt . No. 18 , 25 January 2013, p. 54 f .
  5. Radio contribution makes it possible: 1.5 billion euros more for ARD and ZDF , Der Tagesspiegel. February 3, 2015. Retrieved February 4, 2015. 
  6. ARD and ZDF get significantly more money - broadcasters are silent on the use of the additional income , Heise Zeitschriften Verlag. 4th February 2015. 
  7. "Who is surprised ... The forecast of the VPRT from a year ago about the additional income of ARD and ZDF is apparently confirmed by the now published figure of 1.5 billion euros up to 2016". This means that the annual income of ARD and ZDF from the broadcasting fee amounts to around 8 billion euros. Overall, this corresponds roughly to the national budget of a small European state. ” VPRT estimate of additional public-law revenue confirmed - 1.5 billion margin should now be used to reduce advertising , Association of Private Broadcasting and Telemedia eV (VPRT). February 3, 2015. Retrieved February 4, 2015. 
  8. ORF fee subsidiary GIS specifies the obligation to pay fees for computers. In: June 20, 2006, accessed July 24, 2008 .
  9. Broadcasting fees: GIS for PC with Internet? In: June 21, 2006, accessed July 24, 2008 .
  10. Austria's broadband users should pay broadcasting fees. In: heise online. June 8, 2006, accessed July 24, 2008 .
  12. W157 2008826-1
  13. VwGH: No license fee for Internet PCs. July 20, 2015, accessed July 20, 2015 .
  14. Before the introduction of the RGG, when the fees were still regulated in the Telecommunications Fee Act, car radios and mobile televisions in the vehicle were still subject to fees unless the vehicle owner had obtained a "main broadcasting license" or "main television license " ; the respective main permit had to be carried in the vehicle.
  15. Federal Act on the Collection of Broadcasting Fees (Broadcasting Fees Act - RGG). (PDF) January 1, 2004, accessed on December 11, 2009 (in the current version): "Section 2. (1) Anyone who operates a radio reception facility within the meaning of Section 1 (1) in buildings (radio subscriber) has fees according to Section 3 to be paid. The operational readiness of a radio receiving device is to be kept equal. […] Section 6. (3) […] The company is entitled to issue residue certificates. "
  16. Mobile phone and ORF fees as "gray area". In: May 21, 2008. Retrieved July 24, 2008 .
  17. The basics of fee exemption ( Memento from December 7, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
  18. How the license fees are made up. ( Memento of January 8, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Composition
  19. ORF Annual Report 2011 ( Memento of the original dated August 14, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF file; 6.13 MB); Retrieved September 11, 2012. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  20. Media funding: positive first step, but not yet sufficient = from April 22, 2009; Retrieved December 11, 2009.
  21. ^ RTR - Rundfunk und Telekom Regulierungs-GmbH: private broadcasting fund ; Retrieved September 11, 2012.
  22. ^ RTR - Rundfunk und Telekom Regulierungs-GmbH: Non-commercial broadcasting fund ; Retrieved March 13, 2012.
  24. 4. What does the ORF do with the revenue from the license fee? ( Memento from April 1, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
  25. Table of fees, at, accessed on June 19, 2017.
  26. Monthly broadcasting fees in euros at, accessed on June 19, 2017.
  29. Martin Hasler: State budget restructured by 134 million, 97 million are still missing. Volksblatt, August 21, 2013.
  30. ^ Purchase offer for Radio Liechtenstein rejected. ( Memento of the original from December 30, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Liechtenstein Ministry of the Interior, Justice and Economy, 22 November 2013. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  31. ^ Vaduz: In the long term, no license fee in Liechtenstein. Radio L, July 7, 2015
  33. September 19, 2018: Danish and Christian
  36. A quoi sert la redevance? (What is the fee for?)
  37. ^ " Ce qui va changer en 2010 " (What will change in 2010), Le of December 31, 2009.
  39. ^ "Les ordinateurs soumis à la redevance TV (amendement)"  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. in Jean-Marc Morandini's blog, November 26, 2008.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /  
  40. ^ Journal officiel de la République française , March 28, 2006, p. 3425.
  42. Lois et règlements
  45. -5 / elliniki-radiofwnia-tileorasi-anwnumi-etaireia-ert
  54. ZÁKON o úhrade za služby verejnosti poskytované Rozhlasom a televíziou Slovenska ao zmene (THE LAW on Compensation for Public Services Provided by Radio and Television of Slovakia) of October 18, 2012
  55. -slovenije-za-leti-2008-in-2009-ur-l-rs-st-26-09 / 231
  56. "President Zeman criticizes the public television broadcaster ČT" , In: Český rozhlas of March 6, 2015, accessed on March 6, 2015.
  57. Telling us you don't need a TV license. TV Licensing, accessed September 16, 2013
  58. Aged 74 and over. TV Licensing, accessed January 9, 2013
  59. ^ By ending the free TV license, the Tories are closing a vital window on to the world. October 17, 2019
  60. title. TV Licensing (English)
  61. ^ Blind (severely sight impaired). TV Licensing, accessed January 9, 2013
  62. ^ A history of the license fee. The Guardian, October 11, 2005, accessed January 9, 2012
  63. title. TV Licensing (English)
  64. TV License types and costs on TV Licensing, accessed on December 6, 2012 (English)
  65. Part 4: Licensing of TV Reception in Chapter 21 of the Communications Act 2003 (English)
  67. 民 放 は 無 料 な の に 、 な ぜ NHK は 受 信 料 を と る の か . (No longer available online.) NHK, archived from the original on April 4, 2012 ; Retrieved March 21, 2012 (Japanese). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  68. Hōsō-hō ("Broadcasting Act") of May 2, 1950 in the amendment of June 24, 2011, 放送 法 (昭和 二十 五年 五月 二 日 法律 第 百 三十 二号) full text ( memento of the original from 15 February 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  69. NHK が 受 信 料 を と る 法 的 根 拠 は 何 か . (No longer available online.) NHK, archived from the original on April 5, 2012 ; Retrieved March 21, 2012 (Japanese). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  70. 受 信 料 収入 . (PDF) NHK, p. 4 , accessed on March 21, 2012 (Japanese).
  71. Receiving Fees. NHK, accessed on July 18, 2013 .
  72. 18. Nippon Hoso Kyokai. (No longer available online.) Institute for Media and Communication Policy, 2012, archived from the original on May 7, 2013 ; Retrieved July 18, 2012 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /