Dornier Do 228
|Dornier Do 228|
|Type:||STOL turboprop aircraft|
March 21, 1981
|Number of pieces:||
The Dornier 228 is a twin-engine, turbine - powered propeller aircraft with short take-off and landing capability (STOL) produced by the German aircraft manufacturer Dornier . It was from 1981 to 1998 in Bavaria Oberpfaffenhofen produced. Since 1986 aircraft have also been manufactured under license by Hindustan Aeronautics . In Germany, production of the modernized Do 228 NG (New Generation) version was started by RUAG Aviation in 2009 .
Development and testing
From the mid-1970s, Dornier developed a new wing design, the New Technology Wing . The TNT, so the abbreviation, was part of the LTA ( Light Transport Aircraft ) project, which was presented for the first time at the ILA 1978 in Hanover . The LTA should have a capacity of 19 to 25 passengers or 2500 kg payload and be powered by turboprop engines. Since the further development of this completely new and modern pattern would have incurred enormous costs, Dornier stopped further development of the LTA. It wasn't until about 15 years later that the LTA concept was taken up again with the development of the Dornier 328 . The TNT was tested on a modified Do 28 D-2 Skyservant, which first flew on June 14, 1979 under the designation Do 128-2 TNT. In addition to the TNT, the Do 128-2 TNT contained some other innovations that were later integrated into the Do 228. The costs of the TNT program amounted to a relatively low 19 million D-Marks until the Do 128-2 TNT was tested in flight. Due to financial support from the federal government, Dornier only had to bear 30% of these costs.
In order to be able to bring the developments to the market, Dornier developed a new hull based on the cross-section of the Do 28D. The rear of the Do 28D should be taken over without changes. In the basic variant, the hull should have a capacity of 15 passengers and not have a pressurized cabin . An extended variant for 19 passengers should also be offered. The Garrett AiResearch TPE-331 was selected as the engine . On November 7, 1979, the board of directors of Dornier finally gave the approval for the further development and series production of the new model. It was presented to the public on April 24, 1980 at the ILA 1980 in Hanover under the project names E-1 (later Do 228-100) and E-2 (later Do 228-200). After only 16 months, the first flight of the Do 228-100 ( IATA code D28 , ICAO code D228 ) took place on March 28, 1981 . The first flight of the extended variant -200 followed on May 9th. After a successful test program, the LBA issued the German traffic license for the shorter version on December 18, 1981. The crash of the prototype of the -100 variant on March 26, 1982 near Igenhausen brought a - albeit small - cut in the successful testing and certification program . The flight was a certification flight for the British CAA certification flight , which is a requirement for export to many countries. The evaluation of the accident resulted in an unplanned trim position at the maximum operating speed, which caused the aircraft to fall to the ground in an uncontrolled manner. In addition to the test pilot from the Dornier company, two members of the CAA were killed. The crash did not delay the LBA approval for the -200, which was granted on September 7, 1982, but the international approvals of the FAA and CAA for both variants of the Do 228 were not granted until April 17, 1984 (CAA) and 11 Issued May 1984 (FAA).
The first series machine (SN 7001) of the -100 variant was delivered in March 1982 - only twelve months after the first flight. Such rapid testing and approval had not been achieved by any other aircraft type in this class up to this point. First customer was the Norwegian air carrier Norving A / S . Despite the damp and salty North Sea climate, ice and snow and strong winds, the Do 228 impressed with its performance and brought in many more orders. Due to the crash of the E-1 prototype, this aircraft (SN 7001) was bought back by Dornier, as an aircraft was needed for the remainder of the certification tests. The Do-228 operation in Nigeria has already proven its worth since 1982. The first Do 228-100 D-IDOM (SN 7005) was flown under German registration until it was returned to Germany (due to an accident on the ground with a car). After the repair, this aircraft remained in Germany (it then flew for the Holiday Express and, after its conversion, later as a research aircraft for forest damage detection). The Dornier Do 228-200, which were then delivered to the Nigerian military and the Nigeria branch of Dornier (AIEP Ltd. Kaduna), were partly equipped with APU (additional turbine for air conditioning and power generation). These modifications were only available for the Nigerian deliveries. The APU was installed at the height of the wings in the center of gravity above the passenger cabin. As part of an Indian tender for a light transport aircraft, a demonstration tour led to Bhutan, among other places . At Paro Airport , located in the Himalayas at an altitude of around 2230 m above sea level, the Do 228 demonstrated an engine failure after take-off with an MTOW of 5700 kg. The outside temperature was 15 ° C above the ISA . The Do 228 was the only aircraft participating in the tender that achieved this performance. The positive effect of this demonstration was the order by the government of India for 150 Dornier Do 228s, which are manufactured under a license agreement at Hindustan Aeronautics in Kanpur , India to this day. The agreement was signed on November 29, 1983; the first flight of the first Do 228 manufactured in India took place on January 31, 1986. The aircraft manufactured in India are designated HAL 228 .
Cessation of production
After 17 years of production and several improved variants (see the Variants section ), Dornier stopped production of the Do 228 in Germany in 1998. The company, now trading as Fairchild Dornier , concentrated on the development and production of the Dornier Do 328 and later the Dornier 728 . After the company's insolvency in 2002, the Swiss technology group RUAG took over all rights to the Do 228 and continues to look after Do 228 customers from the old Dornier location in Oberpfaffenhofen.
In 2007 two aircraft were already assembled from spare parts and delivered to the Dutch coast guard.
Dornier 228 NG
In 2007, the further development of the Do 228 NG (New Generation) began. RUAG had announced the resumption of series production, as it saw opportunities in the market for a passenger version and in the area of “Specialized Tasks”. The framework agreement for a ten-year cooperation was signed between HAL and RUAG on May 27, 2008 at the International Air Show in Berlin. The machines are assembled and equipped by RUAG Aerospace at the Dornier main plant in Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany), while the structural parts of the fuselage, wings and tail unit are manufactured in India. In 2009 Hindustan Aeronautics delivered the first three component sets for final assembly to Oberpfaffenhofen. The first structural set arrived in mid-February and was assembled by summer. The first flight of the Do 228 NG took place on November 5, 2009 and was successful. The five-blade propeller from MT Propeller, a " glass cockpit " with modern avionics from Universal Avionics & Rockwell Collins and another 350 improvements are new. The sales price is between 5.2 and 5.9 million euros, depending on the equipment.
On November 12, 2009, the first Do 228 NG was presented to the public as part of a festive roll-out. The model platform then took off on its first flight at the assembly plant in Oberpfaffenhofen. This copy will be used for further flight tests.
The successful maiden flight of the first new series aircraft took place on July 30, 2010, the approval of the European Aviation Safety Agency (English. EASA ) took place on August 18, 2010. The first customer of the modernized aircraft type was the Japanese airline Shin Chūō Kōkū (English. New Central Airservice ) , which took over the first machine on September 23, 2010. Six aircraft were delivered from 2010 to 2013, after which production was discontinued until 2015. As of August 2015, eight aircraft had been sold to Air Transport from Norway, the Coast Guard and Navy in Germany, Bangladesh and Norway; the Aurigny Air Services is planning to purchase two machines. Because a supplier had delivered defective parts, there were problems with the commissioning of the aircraft from NCA and Aurigny. The parts for the aircraft are produced in India. Production was to be increased to four aircraft per year. Of the ten aircraft that should have been delivered to Venezuela, the third was not fully paid for. The remaining seven machines were therefore not delivered. RUAG was hoping for further sales with the flight of a machine belonging to a sales team through South American countries from February 2016.
New technology wing
The New Technology Wing (TNT for short) is very similar to the supercritical wing profile for aircraft with jet engines . It shows a new kind of aerodynamic wing profile, which was developed under the designation Do A-5 on the basis of the Whitcomb GA (W) -1 of NASA to a profile with less resistance and thus increasing lift. This is combined with a special shape, in which an improved edge curve in particular causes a reduction in the induced drag . The TNT also recorded considerable improvements in terms of maximum lift and glide ratio . Thanks to new manufacturing processes (including integral construction ), smooth wing structures could be manufactured cost-effectively. In addition, the structural weight has been reduced with a simultaneous increase in structural strength compared to conventional designs. The upper and lower shell of the wing with all reinforcements (stringers) is milled from one piece of aluminum. With the help of a targeted and controlled shot peening process, the surface is compacted, the strength is increased and the profile is bent into shape. This ensures a high profile accuracy and smooth surface without dents and annoying rivets - as occurs with sheet metal paneling - with the aforementioned lower structural weight, even under loads. In flight operations, the new technology wing brings about a performance improvement (lift) of around 25%. TNT was a Dornier-Werke patent and was first used on the Alpha Jet model . This form of production is state-of-the-art today and is used by all manufacturers in modern aircraft construction in the same or modified form.
The Do 228 is powered by two TPE 331-5 turboprop engines from the US manufacturer Garrett AiResearch (now Honeywell ), each with a takeoff power of 525 kW. From the Do 228-212 variant, more powerful TPE 331-5-252D and TPE 331-10 engines with a take-off power of 579 kW each were available. The TPE 331-10 will also be used by the Do 228 of the new generation.
- Thu 228-100
- Basic variant designed for 15 passengers with a total length of 15.04 m.
- Do 228-101
- A slightly improved version of the Do 228-100. The MTOW was raised to 5980 kg mainly by a reinforced fuselage floor and new wheels on the main landing gear. The LBA approval took place on August 31, 1984.
- Thu 228-200
- The (stretched) basic variant designed for 19 passengers with a total length of 16.56 m.
- Thu 228-201
- Changes are largely identical to those of Do 228-101. New MTOW 5980 kg. The LBA approval took place on August 31, 1984.
- Thu 228-201 (K)
- Retrofitted Do 228-201 that contains two small fins (keel fins) under the rear hull to improve the STOL properties.
- Thu 228-202
- Through further optimizations, the MTOW is increased to 6200 kg. The LBA approval was granted on August 6, 1986.
- Thu 228-202 (K)
- Retrofitted Do 228-202, which contains two small fins (keel fins) under the rear fuselage to improve the STOL properties.
- Thu 228-203F
- Designation for an unrealized freighter variant without a passenger window and with an additional pilot's door on the right-hand side.
- Thu 228-212
- The last major optimizations were incorporated into the -212 variant. In addition to the more powerful TPE 331-5-252D or TPE 331-10 engines, this variant received a reinforced landing gear, brakes made of carbon fiber material, standard keel fins and the latest avionics . The LBA approval took place on July 28, 1989. The MTOW was maximized to 6400 kg. Furthermore, on December 15, 1989, the LBA granted approval for operation up to a speed of 223 KIAS (previously 200 KIAS).
- Do 228 NG
- The version built from 2009 is based on the Do 228-212, which is equipped with contemporary flight and display instruments and a 5-blade propeller. This shortens the take-off and landing distance as well as a greater range.
HAL Hindustan Aeronautics Limited in Bangalore , India produces four versions of the Do 228 under license: the regional airliner HAL 228-201 as well as the military transporter of the 228-201 and the maritime surveillance version 228-101, equipped with a 360-degree search radar Marec 2, among other things under the fuselage, a Litton Omega navigation system and an infrared / ultraviolet scanner for environmental protection. In addition, a separate anti-ship version of the 228-201 is in use, which can carry anti-ship guided weapons. Together with Israel Aerospace Industries in Israel, HAL is planning a new sea patrol version that would be particularly inexpensive. The order for twelve new 228 patrol aircraft for the Navy was approved in late 2016. In November 2019, the sixth naval squadron was put into service.
Special names and variants
- Designation of the Italian army for the Do 228-212.
- Do 228 LM1 / Do 228 LM2
- Designation in the L uftüberwachung M eeresverschmutzung the German ministry for two modified Do 228-212. See also Dornier Do 228 LM .
- Maritime Patrol Version A
- Designation for a modified Do 228-202 with a MEL Marec II (360 ° scan antenna) and associated components.
- Maritime surveillance version B
- Designation for a modified Do 228-202 with a SLAR (Side Looking Airborne Radar) and associated components.
- Maritime Patrol Version C
- Designation for a modified Do 228-202 with a Bendix 360 ° radar system and associated components.
- POLAR 2 / POLAR 3 / POLAR 4
- Name for the two (originally three) Do 228 from the Alfred Wegener Institute , which have a ski chassis that enables take-offs and landings on snow and ice surfaces.
- SIGINT ( Sig Nals Int elligence)
- Name for a modified Do 228-202 with ELINT and COMINT antennas and associated components.
Use and whereabouts
The Do 228 has been used by civil and military operators on all continents since it was commissioned. Due to the good STOL properties, maintenance relatively easy to perform and independence from ground support equipment, the Do 228 today mainly in countries with underdeveloped or restricted air traffic - infrastructure used.
As with the Do 27 and Do 28 , Dornier attached great importance to the versatility of the pattern during development . In addition to the classic passenger and freight transport, the Do 228 can also be used for various research and monitoring tasks. The environmental monitoring fleet of the Federal Ministry of Transport (operated by the German Navy , recognizable by the label "Pollution Control") consists of two Do 228 LM that monitor the German North and Baltic Seas for oil pollution from the Nordholz Air Base (near Cuxhaven) . Further Do 228s are used for European environmental monitoring in Finland , the Netherlands and Great Britain , among others . It is used for maritime surveillance in other non-European countries.
The Do 228 played an important role as a feeder aircraft in German regional air traffic in the 1980s . From May 1984 a Do 228-100 (SN 7005) - supplemented a little later by a Do 228-200 - replaced the DHC-6 Twin Otter at Friedrichshafen Delta Air (later dba , then Air Berlin ). From then on, the Do 228 formed the backbone of regional air traffic from Friedrichshafen and Stuttgart . Up until the early 1990s, Delta Air flew the regular Dornier factory traffic with the Do 228, making two daily trips between the Friedrichshafen and Oberpfaffenhofen locations, which could also be used by other companies and private individuals. At NFD (Nürnberger Flugdienst, now part of Eurowings ) a Do 228-202 was in service from 1985 to 1992 and was mainly used on the Hof - Bayreuth - Frankfurt route. The RFG (Reise- und Industrieflug, later regional flight, now part of Eurowings) from Dortmund also used a Do 228-100 on a trial basis from October 1984 for a few months. The Holiday Express (previously part of the HADAG shipping company , later Hamburg Airlines ) used a Do 228-100 (SN 7005) and two Do 228-201 in the seaside resort traffic from Hamburg to Westerland / Sylt and Helgoland . The Do 228 is thus the largest aircraft that has ever been used on a regular flight connection to the Helgoland-Düne airfield . The Dortmund airline Walter (LGW) used several Do 228s in domestic German regional air traffic from 1992 to 2009.
There is a worldwide training simulator for the Dornier Do 228 that was developed by Simtec and is operated at the company's headquarters in Braunschweig. Simtec holds a technical approval according to JAR-STD for the simulator and is a so-called JAR-TRTO (Type Rating Training Organization) with the authorization to carry out type rating courses and check flights as part of the acquisition and extension of the type rating for the Dornier Do 228 .
- On February 24, 1985 fighters from the Polisario Front shot down a research aircraft on its way back from Antarctica. When the POLAR 3 crashed in the Western Sahara , the pilot Herbert Hampel, the copilot Richard Möbius and the mechanic Josef Schmid were killed.
- On May 2, 1997, a Dornier 228-201 from Olympic Aviation ( aircraft registration SX-BHG ) landed at Paros Airport (1982) shortly before the runway threshold, causing the landing gear to collapse. All 20 occupants survived the accident; the machine was totaled.
- On June 30, 2005, a Dornier 228-200 of the Nepalese Gorkha Airlines (9N-AEO) got off the runway when landing at Lukla Airport, which is difficult to approach . The aircraft was so badly damaged that it had to be written off. The twelve occupants (nine passengers and three crew members) survived but were slightly injured.
- On May 14, 2012, 15 people died when an Agni Air plane crashed in Jomsom . The plane started with 21 people at Jomsom Airport for a flight to Pokhara and returned to the airport due to technical problems. On approach, the aircraft crashed into a nearby mountain.
- On September 28, 2012, a Sita Air (9N-AHA) Dornier 228-200 crashed on its flight to Lukla after take-off about 500 meters from Kathmandu Airport. All 19 occupants died in the accident. A loss of thrust unnoticed by the pilots led to a loss of control and a crash.
- On June 1, 2013, a Dornier 228-200 from Sita Air (9N-AHB) hit the runway at Simikot Airport . The five passengers and two crew members were uninjured in the accident.
- On September 9, 2013, a Do 228-202K crashed during a transfer flight 7 kilometers off Viña del Mar (Chile) in poor visibility due to ground contact. Both pilots were killed.
- On March 24, 2015, a Do 228 of the Indian Navy manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics crashed into the sea about 20 kilometers off the coast of the state of Goa near the city of Margao . One of the pilots was rescued alive, the second pilot and an observer are missing.
- On November 24, 2019, a Dornier 228-200 of the airline Busy Bee Congo had an accident shortly after take-off from Goma Airport , Democratic Republic of the Congo. The plane crashed on buildings in the Birere district south of the airport and went up in flames. At least 18 people were killed.
|Parameter||Thu 228-100||Thu 228-200 (201)||Do 228-212 NG|
|Max. Number of seats||15th||19th|
|length||15.03 m||16.56 m|
|Cabin width||1.35 m|
|Cabin height||1.55 m|
|Cabin length||6.30 m||7.08 m|
|Empty mass||3235 kg||3379 kg|
|Max. Takeoff mass (MTOW)||5700 kg||5700 kg
|Max. payload||1917 kg||1783 kg
|Max. Cruising speed||370 km / h||435 km / h|
|Cruising altitude||3000 m||TBA|
(MTOW, Flaps Down)
|620 m||671 m|
|Landing route||500 m||450 m|
(15/19 Pass., 45 min Res.)
|1343 km||600 km
|845 km (at top speed)|
|Engines||2 Garrett TPE 331-5||2 Garrett TPE 331-10|
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