Northeast Greenland National Park
The Northeast Greenland National Park is the largest national park in the world. It is the only national park in Greenland and, with its 972,000 km², occupies almost 45% of the island's area. The national park was established on May 22, 1974 and in 1988 it was expanded by 272,000 km² in the north to its present size. It covers the entire northeastern coastline of Greenland and large inner parts of the island. In January 1977 it was declared an international biosphere reserve. To visit the national park, a permit with an SAR mountain insurance and appropriate expedition equipment is required.
Currently 31 people live permanently in the research stations and military posts in the national park:
Map with all coordinates: OSM | WikiMap
- Daneborg (12), headquarters of the Sirius patrol , which is responsible for the internal security of the region
74 ° 18 ′ 18 ″ N , 20 ° 14 ′ 27 ″ W.
- Ella Ø Station (0), summer headquarters of the Sirius patrol, originally headquarters, established in 1941
72 ° 52 ′ 37 ″ N , 25 ° 6 ′ 37 ″ W.
- Danmarkshavn (8), civil weather station
76 ° 46 ′ 8 ″ N , 18 ° 39 ′ 53 ″ W.
- Station North (5), military base with runway
81 ° 36 ′ 9 ″ N , 16 ° 40 ′ 12 ″ W.
- Mestersvig (2), military outpost with a runway
72 ° 14 ′ 1 ″ N , 23 ° 55 ′ 22 ″ W.
- Zackenberg (0), research station, only occupied in summer
74 ° 28 ′ 7 ″ N , 20 ° 34 ′ 12 ″ W.
- Summit Camp (4), research station on the inland ice
72 ° 34 ′ 49 ″ N , 38 ° 27 ′ 25 ″ W.
Between 5000 and 15,000 musk oxen live in the area of the national park, about 40% of the world population. In addition, numerous polar bears and walruses can be found in the coastal areas . Other land mammals are arctic wolf , arctic fox , ermine , lemmings and arctic hare . Reindeer have disappeared since 1900 . Wolves , which were originally found in the entire coastal area of the national park, were exterminated by Danish and Norwegian hunters in the 1920s and 1930s, mainly with the help of poisonous bait. From 1939 they were no longer observed in East Greenland south of the 80th parallel. Since 1979, however, individual animals have again migrated from North Greenland. The size of the population was estimated at around 23 animals in 2011.
Marine mammals are ringed seal , bearded seal , harp seal , collapsible cap , narwhal, and beluga . Of birds mainly come Eistaucher , Barnacle Goose , Pink-footed Goose , Common Eider , King Eider , gyrfalcon , snowy owl , Sanderling , ptarmigan and raven before.
Flora and geomorphology
The inner part of the national park consists of the inland ice sheet with mountains. The coastal region of the Greenland Sea consists of tundra and thus offers the barren habitat for the fauna.
At the Franz Josef Fjord
- Sirius Patrol - a long-distance spying dog sled unit of the Danish armed forces for police tasks in the area of the national park
- Benoît Sittler, Johannes Lang: North-east Greenland National Park - the largest national park in the world . In: Werner Konold, Reinhard Böcker, Ulrich Hampicke (eds.): Handbook of nature conservation and landscape maintenance . 18. Supplementary delivery. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim 2006, doi : 10.1002 / 9783527678471 ( PDF ; 14.3 MB).
- Anthony K. Higgins: Exploration history and place names of northern East Greenland (= Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin 21, 2010), ISBN 978-87-7871-292-9 .
- Peter Schmidt Mikkelsen: North-East Greenland 1908-60 - The Trapper Era (2008). ISBN 978-0-901021-06-9 .
- Greenland National Park on the official tourism website greenland.com/de (German)
- Official website of the national park
- United Nations National Park website
- ↑ Morten Meldgaard: The Greenland Caribou - Zoogeography, Taxonomy, and Population Dynamics . In: Meddelser om Grønland, Bioscience . tape 20 , 1986, pp. 59 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- ↑ Ulf Marquard-Petersen: Decline and Extermination of an Arctic Wolf Population in East Greenland, 1899–1939 (PDF; 564 kB). In: Arctic 65 (2), 2012, pp. 155–166
- ↑ Peter W. Dawes, Magnus Elander, Mats Ericson: The Wolf (Canis lupus) in Greenland: A Historical Review and Present Status ( Memento of the original from December 16, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 2.1 MB). In: Arctic 39 (2), 198, pp. 119-132
- ↑ Ulf Marquard-Petersen: Invasion of eastern Greenland by the high arctic wolf Canis lupus arctos . In: Wildlife Biology 17 (4), 2011, pp. 383-388, doi : 10.2981 / 11-032