from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Trekking on the Hardangervidda plateau in Norway

Trekking (from English trek 'strenuous march ') is a common term for hikes lasting several days without permanent accommodation and with a tent, sometimes away from infrastructure such as roads or paths.

Trekking is walking as a long-distance hiking , as well as trail riding , the bicycle , the canoe , touring , cross-country skis or snowshoes possible.

Trekking far from civilization, sparsely populated areas is as wilderness (Engl. -Trekking wilderness trekking ), respectively. Difficult, mostly scientific projects, in the travel industry also for organized wilderness trips that have not yet been undertaken, are commonly referred to as expeditions .

Hiking (English hiking ), however, called civilization close day trips on trails.

Word origin

From Low German or Dutch trekken 'to pull something' (see also tractor ). English took the word trekking from Afrikaans , which then found its way into German as Anglicism .

Motivation and requirements

The motivation lies mostly in the experience of nature, the sporting spirit and the desire to encounter original cultures and nature. In addition to an average level of fitness , tour operators also require mental strength and knowledge of general wilderness skills . Sufficient knowledge and skills are for your own safety. Trekking, however, is not “ bush survival ”, however the knowledge and skills of both overlap.


River crossings are often risky and require caution and skill. Walking sticks or a rope can be very helpful

Trekking as a form of use of nature reserves is subject to the respective national do's and don'ts with regard to nature reserves and military restricted areas . In some cases, these permits are required to limit the number of people in an area at a certain point in time. Some areas can therefore practically only be visited with the help of tour operators. In Central Europe there are different regulations for entering private property, depending on the country. While everyone's right applies in Scotland and Scandinavia , entry is generally prohibited in the USA, Canada and Central Europe unless it is permitted. The principle of “leave nothing but your footprints and take nothing with you but your impressions” is law in many states in a more restrictive form and, like at Denali (Mount McKinley) , means that excrement has to be carried out with you.

Wilderness skills

General wilderness skills are knowledge and ability to use existing trekking equipment and to be able to provide first aid - see expedition skills .

Trekking equipment

A reasonable trekking equipment takes into account the climate with vegetation and the season and the need for the planned time in the wilderness meals. Missing equipment or equipment that does not meet the requirements can make rescue measures necessary. Decisive for the selection of trekking clothing and the sleeping bag is the heat retention capacity based on the lowest possible air temperature in the trekking area according to the climatic zone and season.

Vegetation zone climate zone season Air temperature Protective effect
Polar zone and tundra dry-cold winter <−20 ° C Cold and wind protection
boreal forest zone
deciduous deciduous forest
damp and cold to
damp and warm
winter = dry-cold summer <−5 ° C Wind and moisture protection,
conditional protection against the cold
Desert and savanna dry-hot winter = damp and cold summer <+15 ° C conditional cold and moisture protection
dry-hot summer > +25 ° C Protection from sun and heat
Rainforest moist and hot all year round > +30 ° C Protection against permanent moisture

The basic components are trekking or mountain boots , trekking clothing based on the onion principle with all-weather outer clothing made of PTFE impermeable, vapor-permeable membrane and mostly the trekking poles that are part of the basic equipment . There are major differences depending on the climate zones in trekking boots with trekking socks, trekking clothing, sleeping bags and tents. Requirements for a tent for the dry and cold climate zone are wind stability and aerodynamics as well as an inner tent coupled with the flysheet for quick assembly in bad weather; for the dry and hot climate zone removable outer tent, in order to use the mosquito net inner tent only as repellent protection; Self-supporting dome tent for mountain tours, as anchoring on rock with pegs is not possible.

The equipment carried in the rucksack - not less than 100 l on trekking expeditions in alpine style , otherwise around 80 l based on supply options - consists of a tent - in the damp and cold climate zone in summer also requires a tent sheet , in the mountains for a limited time a bivouac sack - Advantages and disadvantages and thus suitability for climatic zones result according to the different types of tent , as well as other equipment with sleeping bag , sleeping mat , stove and fuel as well as food.

Depending on the duration of the trekking tour, the climatic zone and technical requirements as well as the body weight in relation to the body length, the equipment weight per person is around 25 kg - significantly more on wilderness trekking tours . One kilogram of food is to be expected per trekking day. Depending on the number of participants, the duration of the trekking tour and the options available in the country, the equipment will also be transported by porters, pack animals or all-terrain support vehicles.

Substantially trekking is orientation in the terrain both after topographic map or ordnance map as map reading and marching compass - in consideration of declination and inclination - as well as in the mountains altimeter and with the calculation of power kilometers , and with a GNSS - satellite navigation systems such as the Global Positioning System in Connection to the UTMREF coordinate system or UTM coordinate system on the map, using a map protractor with map pointer as a means of navigation for terrestrial navigation . Other satellite navigation systems are the European Galileo or the Russian GLONASS . For different maps see scale in cartography . In areas with a high magnetic deviation, such as the polar regions, orientation can only be carried out with a sun compass according to astronomical navigation - as a makeshift according to the sun with sundial or the moon according to the phases of the moon.

In satellite radio, satellite communication devices such as the Iridium satellite telephone (communication system) and emergency beacon via the COSPAS-SARSAT emergency radio system, as well as for communication mostly in close range, use radio devices in voice radio as rescue and communication means in wilderness areas .

High mountains and glaciers make climbing equipment and climbing protection necessary.

Drinking water as part of the expedition catering is treated with a mobile water filter . Water bags or canteens are used for transport, and an insulated bottle for a hot drink . For greater requirements, such as for the dry and hot climate zone, 20 l water cans are necessary. In order to avoid infections , only treated water should be filled into all drinking water containers.

A stove is used to prepare food for the expedition . Alcohol stoves are common .

Expedition catering consists of basic food or freeze-dried trekking food. The latter only has a physiological calorific value of approx. 2,350 kJ (560 kcal) per single pack of 125 g. If this low calorific value is not observed, malnutrition in relation to the energy consumption can result. The energy requirement is calculated from the basic metabolic rate plus the output metabolic rate . In addition to anthropometric data and age, the performance turnover depends on the load and weather conditions. In principle, 12,500 - 25,000 kJ (3,000 - 6,000 kcal) per person and day are assumed for trekking expeditions.

A pepper spray - irritant sprayer is used in areas with polar bears , Kamchatka bears , grizzlies or Kodiak bears to repel animals. In Svalbard and Northeast Greenland , a firearm is mandatory as a long weapon , in northern Canada and Alaska it is taken by locals. In Siberian national parks and on Kamchatka, it is usually mandatory to be accompanied by armed national park rangers.

Ultralight hiking

Ultralight hiking is trekking while minimizing the weight of the equipment, emphasizing personal know-how and reducing the need for safety and comfort.

See also


  • Franz Berghold , Wolfgang Schaffert: Handbook of trekking and expedition medicine . Practice of altitude adjustment - therapy of altitude sickness. Ed .: DAV Summit Club GmbH. 7th edition. Mountaineering School of the German Alpine Club, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-00-025756-8 (guidelines of the Austrian Society for Alpine and Altitude Medicine and the German Society for Mountain and Expedition Medicine ).
  • Karl Schrag: mountain hiking - trekking . In: Alpine curriculum volume 1 . 7th edition. Blv Buchverlag, Munich 2006, ISBN 978-3-8354-0043-6 .
  • Matthias Hake: Expedition Manual. Planning, equipment, crisis management . 1st edition. Pietsch Verlag, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-613-50490-1 .
  • Matthias Hake: Expedition - Wilderness Trekking. Planning. Guide. Knowledge. Equipment. 1st edition. oA, Bochum 2015, ISBN 978-3-00-040012-4 .
  • Gunter Schramm: Trekking Manual . In: Travel Know-How: Practice . 2nd Edition. Reise Know-How Verlag Rump, Bielefeld 2004, ISBN 978-3-8317-1227-4 .
  • Andrea Eisenhut, Thomas Renner: Fit for the mountain: Training basics - endurance - flexibility and strength training - altitude training - acclimatization and nutrition . 1st edition. Bruckmann Verlag, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-7654-3864-2 .

Web links

Wiktionary: trekking  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations


  1. Category: climbing equipment

Individual evidence

  1. Energy demand calculator
  2. Nutrition when climbing. ( Memento from November 6, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  3. Kurt A. Moosburger: "Fat Burning" in Sport: Myth and Truth. ( Memento of the original from February 2, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 63 kB) In: Healthier LIFE. 05/2000 @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /