When climbing fuse is called in alpine climbing , sport climbing and mountaineering as well as in industrial rope access (industrial climbing height work Maststeigerei of roof rock fixation, etc.) and the tree climbing devices, measures and methods by which a crash is to be prevented. Ropes play a central role in this.
A basic distinction is made between:
- Self-locking (self-locking) , also with the help of fixed locks ( locks already permanently installed in the area or in a system)
- Companion protection (partner protection)
This refers to the securing of one or more (rope) partners when climbing . The most important belay device is the mountain or climbing rope , with which the climber is caught in a fall. The rope runs through fixed points in or above the wall; the connection to the climber is made by a climbing harness . This can be a hip belt (possibly in connection with a chest belt) or a complete belt.
The most common form of securing is partner securing, in which two climbers form a rope team . The actual climber attaches one end of the rope to his harness with a rope knot ; the belaying partner secures over the other end of the rope from a safe position with self-belay. It regulates the length of the rope and holds the climber in the fall. In order to hold the climber in the event of a fall, the rope runs through a belay device , which absorbs and reduces the impact force and increases the braking force of the belayer's hand. This can with the half hitch fuse , a figure eight or a tube take place, create friction on the rope, or a self-locking safety device, such as the Grigri or Sirius.
If the backup device attached to the harness of the locking, one speaks of a body fuse; With a fixed point belay system, the belay device is connected to the wall. The belayer should always pay attention to self-securing at another fixed point. When securing the body, the belayer must ensure that he is self-securing at the safe, fixed place (the stand ).
Depending on the procedure, a distinction is made between different types of backup:
- Ascent: Vorstiegssicherung , Nachstiegssicherung , Toprope assurance.
- Descent: Various safety measures for the controlled descent, when withdrawing (aborting the climbing tour), when abseiling or lowering,
- Rescue: Securing in all forms of rescue, from helping weakened comrades to rescuing others in emergencies.
- The leading climber : The leading climber is tied in at one end of the rope and carries the rope with him, which runs down from him to the securing climber. At as regular intervals as possible, the lead climber uses intermediate safety devices at fixed points or puts them himself (with clamping wedges , clamping devices , slings, etc.) in order to reduce the possible fall height.
- Belaying partner : The belaying partner stands on safe terrain at the start of the climbing route (or is fixed in a stand for multi-pitch routes (see self-belaying)). Usually some form of belay device such as a figure eight , screw carabiner or tube is used (often HMS for multi-pitch routes ). As the climber continues to climb, more and more rope is given out.
In the case of the belaying system , the rope is secured from above.
- Climber: The climber (second climber) is secured by the rope already hung over him by the lead climber.
- Belaying partner: The belaying partner (lead climber) is secured at the stand . He secures the climber by gradually taking the rope. Usually a belay device or a screw carabiner with HMS is used.
Furthermore, devices for securing can be permanently installed in the area. In this case, the climber is not firmly connected to the fixed rope , but moves along it. This principle is mainly used when belaying on the wire ropes of a via ferrata .
Self-locking is also possible with solo top rope climbing using a clamping device such as B. the shunt from Petzl possible. It is important that the rope tension is good so that the clamping device can run along the rope and only minimal impacts occur in the event of a fall. In mountaineering this is known as the fixed rope technique.
The climbing equipment used for belaying must meet certain safety standards. There are two important organizations worldwide:
In Europe, climbing equipment must meet the requirements of CEN in accordance with the Personal and Protective Equipment (PPE) Directive and be marked with the CE test seal. This is not as strict as the UIAA standards, but most products meet both standards.