|Highest peak||Tirich Mir ( )|
Afghanistan , Pakistan ,
Xinjiang ( PR China )
The Hindu Kush ( Persian هندوکش) is a mountain range in Central Asia . In ancient times it was also referred to as Parapanisos. It is mostly in Afghanistan , the eastern part with the highest peaks is in Pakistan . In the far east it runs along the Pakistani- Chinese border. The highest mountain is the Tirich Mir ( ).
The origin of the name Hindu Kush ("Hindu murderer") is traced back by the explorer Ibn Battuta (1304-1377) to the numerous Hindu slaves who perished in these mountains on their way from India to Turkestan. Originally the name probably only referred to the mountain range north of Kabul.
The largest part of the Hindu Kush lies in Afghanistan and consists of dry, approx. 4000 to 5000 m high mountains. The main chain of the Hindu Kush in the border region to Pakistan , on the other hand, is a high mountain range comparable to the Himalaya with glaciers up to 20 km long. Occasionally the Hindu Kush is considered part of the Himalayas or the two mountains are combined to form the Hindu Kush Himalayan Region ( HKH ).
The extent of the Hindu Kush in east-west direction is around 800 km, in width it varies between 50 and 350 km. Although the Encyclopædia Britannica also mentions an extension of 800 km, it explains in its article below that a determination of the eastern and western borders of the Hindu Kush is difficult and ambiguous. It then lists the following subdivisions with limits:
- Eastern Hindu Kush: from the Karambar Pass in the far east to the Dorah Pass
- Middle Hindu Kush: from the Dorah Pass to the Shibar Pass northwest of Kabul
Western Hindu Kush: from the Shibar Pass to the city of Herat on the border with Iran and beyond.
This would include all of the fan-shaped mountain ranges in central Afghanistan such as the Koh-e Baba . Then the Hindu Kush would be 1,100 to 1,200 km long.
In the northeast, the Pamir Mountains are bounded by the Pyandj and its source river Wachandarja . The Taxkorgan Valley joins the Wakhjir Pass between Afghanistan and China . This is followed by the border downstream to the east to the inflow of an unknown river from the south, which represents the northeasternmost point of the Hindu Kush ( ) . The Karakoram Highway also runs upstream in this valley to the south - here as the Chinese national road G314 , which represents the extreme east of the Hindu Kush. The border follows the road to the Kunjirap pass ( ) , which is the transition to the Karakoram . The Hindu Kush-Karakoram border now continues westwards, following the highway, down the entire Kunjirap Valley until it joins the Kilik ( ) . Here the border leaves the road and goes up the Kilik valley. The border changes over the Kermin pass ( ) to the southern neighboring valley of the Chapursan . There further upstream to the Chillinji Pass ( ) . Then briefly down into the Karambar Valley. From here the southern border to the Hinduraj begins . This initially runs up the valley to the Karambar Pass ( ). To the west of it, the border follows the Yarkhun downstream until it flows into the Mastuj ( ) and this in turn flows into the Kunar (also "Chitral") ( ) . This crosses the border from Pakistan to Afghanistan until it finally flows into the Kabul River ( ) at Jalalabad . Jalalabad is located on the southernmost foothills of the Hindu Kush. The border continues upstream the Kabul River.
In the southwest, the Hindu Kush borders the mountain ranges of central Afghanistan, including the Koh-e Baba .
Effects of climate change
The global warming will affect the climate of the Hindu Kush. A study by Philippus Wester et al. from 2019, in which more than 350 researchers were involved, comes to the conclusion that even if the 1.5-degree target from the Paris Agreement is reached, around a third of the ice surface of the Himalayas and Hindu Kush will be lost. Since the water supply for almost two billion people is fed by the glacier systems, there could be serious consequences for the population if the climate model is valid. The climatologist Philippus Wester comments on his findings: “Global warming is in the process of turning the icy, glacier-covered peaks of the [Hindu Kush Himalayas], which stretch over eight countries, into bare rocks in a little less than a century . "
The highest mountains are up tohigh. A selection:
|Lunkho e Dosare||6901||AF, PK|
|Koh-e Keshni Khan||6743||AF|
|Sakar Sar||6272||AF, PK|
More mountains in Afghanistan
The following mountains are comparatively low, but have a meaning for the people of the country with Hindu beliefs.
- Koh-e Kuschkak, Taywara, Ghor
- Koh-e Kuschkak, Chishti Shariff, Herat
- Koh-e Kushk, Chaghcharan , Ghor
- Qaryah-ye Fil Kush , Farah
- Koh-e Koschah, Panjab, Bamiyan (Panjab = five waters like Punjab )
- Kohe Kuschkak, Sar-i Pul (Province)
- Koh-e Koschashi, Dawlat Shah, Laghman
- Koh e Hindaki , Kabul
- Koh e Buzkush , Badakhshan
- Kham e Hindu , Kabul
- Koh e Chehelsotun , Kabul
- Jahan Pahlavan Ghar , Ghar Pashto = mountain, Farsi = mountain cave, Paktia
- Kūh-e Hādschī-ye Koschte , Hazarsum, Samangan
- Sang e Rostam , Day Chopan , Zabul
- Koh e Hawz e Rostam , Parwan
- Koh e Takhte Rostam e Tscha Mar , Zabol , Iran Nimrus
- Koh e Asamai Kabul
- Koh e Hindu , Mir Bacha Kot, Kabul Province
- Koh-e Hindu, Ghorband, Parwan
- Koh e Deh e Hindu , Wardak
- Koh e Hindu (Farah) , Gulistan , Farah
- Kohe Hindukus, Chindschan, Baglan
- Kuh-e Urtemir, Nahrain, Baglan , see also ( Pamir , Kashmir , Tirich Mir )
- Kushmand Gar, Alingar, Laghman (ḠĀR or Ghar = mountain / mountain cave کش منډ غر)
- Kashtun Ghar , also Kushtun Gar, Waygal, Nuristan (کش تون غر)
- Kushtoz Ghar , Nuristan
Today the southeastern foothills of the Hindu Kush (such as the Spīn Ghar range or the Sulayman Mountains ) are the main refuge for the Taliban militias. With regard to this, the then Federal Minister of Defense Peter Struck said on December 4, 2002: " Germany's security is also being defended in the Hindu Kush ."
(Kotal e ...)
|Aqrabat pass||Aq Rabat||3600||()||AF|
|Dalan Sank Shatal||3560|
|Broghol Pass||Broghol||3798||()||AF, PK|
|Dorah Pass||Dorah||4300||()||AF, PK|
|Irshad pass||Irshad||4977||()||AF, PK|
|Wakhjir pass||Wakhjir||4923||()||AF, CN|
Ecological altitude levels
A distinction must be made between two areas in terms of ecological altitude levels : The north-western slope of the Hindu Kush (e.g. Ghorband Valley , Pandschir Valley ) is dry. The southeastern side (e.g. Nuristan , Laghman ) is humid and influenced by the monsoons.
|step||Western Hindu Kush||Southeast Hindu Kush|
|Subnival stage||4200-4800||open rubble corridors||4300-5200||Rubble corridors|
|Alpine stage||3600-4200||Debris corridors ( Leucopoa )||3500-4300||Alpine lawns , mats and rubble corridors , spring corridors|
|Subalpine level||2800-3600||Thorn cushion , mountain semi-desert||3000-3500||Krummholz - / spine pad tessellation; Tall perennials , spring corridors|
|Tree line||not visible||3000-3150||Conifers , Juniperus , Betula|
|Coniferous forest steps||2000-2800||hardly available (mostly mountain semi-desert , rarely open juniperus meadows )||2200-3000||Abies , Picea , Cedrus , Pinus (very different in individual valley communities)|
|Deciduous forest steps||1400-2000||hardly available, Pistacia vera in the north, other Pistacia species and amygdalus in central and southwestern Afghanistan (open tree corridors)||1000-2300||Quercus balout - hardwood forests (some other evergreen Quercus species up to 2800 m)|
|Valley areas||<1400||Semi-desert , desert , river oases (in the north: partly steppes )||700-1100||subtropical dry bush with foreland ~ thorn trees ( Reptonia , Stocksia )|
|<700||subtropical dry bush and semi-deserts ( Aerva , Rhazia , river oases )|
- Burchard Brentjes : The knot of Asia - Afghanistan and the peoples of the Hindu Kush. Tusch, Vienna 1984, ISBN 3-85063-143-5 .
- Eric Newby: A Walk in the Hindu Kush. Eichborn-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2002, ISBN 3-8218-4510-4 .
- Karl Jettmar u. a .: The religions of the Hindu Kush. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1975, ISBN 3-17-002092-7 .
- Karl Jettmar: Cultures of the Hindukush. Steiner, Wiesbaden 1974, ISBN 3-515-01217-6 .
- Heinrich FJ Junker; Bozorg Alavi: Dictionary Persian-German. Langenscheidt, Leipzig / Berlin / Munich / Vienna / Zurich / New York 1992.
- Ali Akbar Dehkhoda, Mohammad Moin, Jafar Shahidi u. a .: Loghat Nāmeh Dehkhodā. Dāneshgāh Tehrān (University of Tehran), 1991.
- Al Qanun al Masudi. 3 volumes, Hyderabad 1954, Vol. 1 pp. 4-5
- E. Sachau (Ed.): Ta 'rih al-Hind. London 1887.
- Closely. Translation by E. Sachau: Alberuni's Indi. London 1888 (vol. 1) and 1910 (vol. 2)
- M. Krause: Albiruni, an Iranian researcher. In: Islam. 26, no. 1 (1942), OCLC 431569581 , pp. 1-15.
- E. Wiedemann: Geography of al-Biruni. In: SBPMS. Erlangen, Articles 44/1912
- Habibo Brechna: The History of Afghanistan. The citadel of Kabul and the historical environment of Afghanistan over 1500 years. vdf Hochschulverlag AG at the ETH Zurich, Zurich 2005, ISBN 3-7281-2963-1 .
- Friedrich Rückert: Firdosi's Book of Kings (Schahname) Sage I-XIII. 1890. (Reprint: epubli, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-86931-356-6 , pp. 136-239)
- The Hindu Kush NASA Visible Earth
References and comments
- Ervin Grötzbach: Hindu kush. In: encyclopaedia iranica. 2003, accessed February 2, 2017 .
- Mapping the vulnerability hotspots over Hindu-Kush Himalaya region to flooding disasters. In: sciencedirect.com. Retrieved September 6, 2015 .
- Regional information. In: icimod.org. Retrieved September 6, 2015 .
- Development of an ASSESSment system to evaluate the ecological status of rivers in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region. (PDF) In: assess-hkh.at. Retrieved September 6, 2015 .
- Article Hindu Kush in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (BSE) , 3rd edition 1969–1978 (Russian)http: //vorlage_gse.test/1%3D010474~2a%3DHindukusch~2b%3DHindukusch
- Hindu-Kush , Encyclopædia Britannica Online, free access per IP limited.
- Philippus Wester , Arabinda Mishra , Aditi Mukherji , Arun Bhakta Shrestha (2019). The Hindu Kush Himalaya Assessment: Mountains, Climate Change, Sustainability and People. ISBN 978-3-319-92288-1 https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-92288-1
- Climate change is having an effect: Glaciers in the Himalayas are melting rapidly. February 5, 2019, accessed February 11, 2019 .
- Afghanistan ultra-prominent peaks . peaklist.org
- Siegmar-W. Breckle: flora, vegetation and ecology of the alpine-nival level of the Hindu Kush (Afghanistan) . In: S.-W. Breckle, Birgit Schweizer, A. Fangmeier (Ed.): Results of worldwide ecological studies. Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium of the AFW Schimper Foundation . Verlag Günter Heimbach, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-9805730-2-8 , Ecology Tab. 3, p. 112 (97-117) .