Sports medicine examines the influence of exercise, training and sport as well as lack of exercise on healthy and sick people of all ages in order to make the findings of prevention , therapy and rehabilitation useful for those who do sports. It comprises theoretical and practical medicine and can draw on theories that go back to antiquity.
This description by Wildor Hollmann (1958) was adopted as the official definition by the World Association for Sports Medicine (FIMS ) in 1977 and reads in the English version: "Sports medicine embodies theoretical and practical medicine which examines the influence of exercise, training and sports, as well the lack of exercise, on healthy and unhealthy people of all ages to produce results that are conclusive to prevention, therapy and rehabilitation as well as beneficial for the athlete himself ".
In contrast to most medical specialties, sports medicine is not diagnosis-related or organ-related, but rather examines the importance of physical activity for health and performance. The main concern is research into the effects of physical activity or lack of exercise on the organism. In addition, she deals with sport-specific diseases and possible therapies.
In general terms: Sports medicine deals with the medical issues of exercise and sport.
In Germany, "sports medicine" is taught as part of interdisciplinary additional medical training ( additional designation sports medicine ). Before the reunification of the two German states, the GDR had a specialization in sports medicine with the qualifications of state recognition as a sports doctor (after completing the relevant courses) and specialist in sports medicine (with four years of further training and examination), but this was not continued as area training .
Corresponding qualifications had already been obtained in the USSR ( Tallinn University ) and in the Czech Republic ( Prague and Bratislava ). Similar arrangements have been made in Italy and Norway . At present, 18 European countries have a specialist in sports medicine ( specialization ), and it is planned to introduce it in other countries. The specialist training lasts between 2 and 5 years. Sports medicine courses or further training opportunities ( subspecialization ) are offered in almost all European countries.
In Germany, it is possible to study specifically at several universities that have a sports medicine faculty (e.g. Cologne, Mainz and Munich). There is also the opportunity to study sports science with a focus on sports medicine.
Sport-specific clinical pictures
The sudden cardiac death in sports practice is often perceived as being caused by athletes disease. However, exercise only triggers cardiac death, which results from a heart disease or previous damage.
Other diseases, the names of which are often derived from the English language , are: athlete's foot , athlete's nodules , athletic triad, exercise induced anaphylaxis , "bikini bottom", jogger's kidney ( pseudonephritis athletica ), jogger's nipples , runner anemia , march hemoglobinuria, mogul skier's palm , runner's rump , swimmer's ear , tinea corporis ( gladiatorum ) and turf toe .
- H.-H. Dickhuth, F. Mayer, K. Röcker, A. Berg (eds.): Sports medicine for doctors . Deutscher Ärzte-Verlag, Cologne 2007, ISBN 978-3-7691-0472-1 . (Textbook based on the advanced training system of the German Society for Sports Medicine and Prevention).
- H. Deimel, G. Huber, K. Pfeifer, K. Schüle (eds.): New active ways in prevention and rehabilitation . Deutscher Ärzte-Verlag, Cologne 2007, ISBN 978-3-7691-0540-7 . (New facets of exercise and sports therapy).
- Jack W. Berryman, Roberta J. Park (Eds.): Sport and Exercise Science: Essays in the History of Sports Medicine. (= Sport and Society ). University of Illinois Press, 2000.
- W. Hollmann, K. Tittel: History of the German sports medicine. Druckhaus Gera, 2008, ISBN 978-3-9811758-2-0 .
- Joseph Keul, Daniel König, Hermann Scharnag: History of sports medicine: Freiburg and the development in Germany. Karl F. Haug Fachbuchverlag, Heidelberg 1999, ISBN 3-8304-2027-7 .
- Angelika Uhlmann: "Sport is the general practitioner at the sick bed of the German people" Wolfgang Kohlrausch (1888–1980) and the history of German sports medicine. Mabuse Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2005, ISBN 3-938304-13-8 .
- Marco Prümmer, Yvonne Schütze: New ways of sports medicine - more performance . Self-published, 2011, ISBN 978-3-00-033152-7 .
- Wildor Hollmann, Heiko K. Strüder: Sports medicine: Basics for physical activity, training and preventive medicine. 5th edition. Schattauer Verlag, 2009, ISBN 978-3-7945-2546-1 .
- Jarmo Ahonen, Tiina Lahtinen, Marita Sandström, Giuliano Pogliani: Sports medicine and training theory. 3. Edition. Schattauer Verlag, 2008, ISBN 978-3-7945-2643-7 .
- German Society for Sports Medicine and Prevention (German Association of Sports Physicians)
- Fédération Internationale de Médecine du Sport (FIMS)
- Society for Sports Medicine of the GDR
- Sports medicine service of the GDR
- Sports medicine institute of the Bundeswehr
- Sports Traumatology
- Sports hygiene
- Sports cardiology
- German Society for Sports Medicine and Prevention (Deutscher Sportärztebund) eV (DGSP)
- German magazine for sports medicine - online
- Arnd Krüger : History of movement therapy. In: Preventive Medicine. Springer Loseblatt Collection, Heidelberg 1999, 07.06, pp. 1–22.
- W. Hollmann, K. Tittel: History of German sports medicine. Druckhaus Gera, 2008, p. 7.
- Further training regulations of the Bavarian State Medical Association (pdf)
- HH Dickhuth: Sports medicine in Germany. In: Federal Health Gazette. 48, 2005, pp. 848-853.