Gerhard Richter (born February 9, 1932 in Dresden ) is a German painter , sculptor and photographer . From 1971 to 1993 he was professor of painting at the Düsseldorf Art Academy . His works are among the most expensive by a living artist on the art market.
Gerhard Richter grew up as the first-born son of Horst and Hildegard Richter in Reichenau and Waltersdorf ( Amtshauptmannschaft Zittau ) in Upper Lusatia . In 1948 he finished the higher commercial school in Zittau with the secondary school leaving certificate and was trained there from 1949 to 1951 as a writer as well as stage and advertising painter. In 1950 his application for admission to the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts was rejected. In 1951 he was finally able to begin his studies at the local art academy . His teachers were Karl von Appen and Heinz Lohmar . In 1955, Richter created a mural (Last Supper with Picasso) for the cafeteria of the Dresden Academy for his intermediate diploma . In 1956 another mural followed in the rooms of the Dresden Hygiene Museum ( joie de vivre ) for his diploma thesis. Both paintings were painted over after Richter's escape; After the reunification, the joy of life was exposed in two places and repainted. In 1957 Gerhard Richter and Marianne (Ema) Eufinger married. From 1957 to 1961 Richter worked as a master class student at the academy and took on government contracts from the GDR . During this time an extensive work of murals (e.g. workers' struggle ), oil paintings (portraits of Angelica Domröse and Richter's first wife Marianne, known as Ema) was created, Die Lesende from 1960 belongs to the barely preserved early work from Richter's time in Dresden. In an interview with early work expert Jeanne Anne Nugent from New York University, Richter is asked specifically about this one of his readers Ema and confirms the expert's assessment that this picture is one of the most intimate of his family pictures, as well as the cityscape of Dresden and drawings ( e.g. self-portraits).
At the end of February 1961, Gerhard Richter and his wife fled via West Berlin to West Germany, where Betty, their daughter, was born in 1966. He had to leave behind his works of art created in the GDR, some of which he is said to have burned before he left. Only a few of these pictures have survived and are not listed in his catalog raisonné. Other early pictures, such as the Rheinhausen ironworks , are also not on Richter's list of works. Volumes 3 and 4 of Richter's Catalog Raisonné ( Hatje Cantz , 2015) expressly exclude his entire early West German period.
From 1961 to 1964 Richter continued his art studies at the Düsseldorf Art Academy with Ferdinand Macketanz and Karl Otto Götz . His fellow students in the Götz class were Sigmar Polke , HA Schult , Kuno Gonschior , Franz Erhard Walther , Konrad Lueg and Gotthard Graubner .
After Gerhard Richter had worked as an art teacher in the late 1960s and was visiting lecturer at the Hamburg University of Fine Arts in 1967 , he was appointed professor of painting at the Düsseldorf Art Academy in 1971. He taught here until 1993. In 1972, along with Uwe Johnson , Heinrich Böll , David Hockney , Günther Uecker , Henry Moore , Richard Hamilton , Peter Handke and Martin Walser, he stood up for his colleague Joseph Beuys , who was then Minister for Education in North Rhine-Westphalia Johannes Rau 's teaching license had been withdrawn.
The marriage with Ema was divorced in 1982 and in the same year Richter and the sculptor Isa Genzken , his master student , got married, which ended in divorce after 11 years. Since 1995 Richter has been married to the painter Sabine Moritz (* 1969), the last student he accepted before his retirement. The couple have three children together. Richter has lived in Cologne since 1983 ; his studio is located in the Hahnwald district of Cologne .
In June 1964 Richter had under the title Gerd Richter. Photo pictures, portraits and families a first solo exhibition in the Friedrich & Dahlem gallery in Munich. In the second half of the year, solo exhibitions were opened with Alfred Schmela in Düsseldorf and René Block in Berlin. Richter was soon presented in many domestic and foreign galleries and museums . In 1972 he was represented in the German Pavilion at the Venice Biennale with the group of works 48 Portraits . In the 1978 summer semester he accepted a visiting professorship at the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design in Halifax, succeeding Kasper König and Benjamin Buchloh . As he did not have a studio here, he dealt with visual phenomena. He analytically photographed the painting Halifax in 4 cm × 4 cm segments and compiled them in a book 128 details from a picture (Halifax 1978) , which was published in the same year in the Press of the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design .
In 1984 he was represented at the exhibition From Here - Two Months of New German Art in Düsseldorf . In the early 1990s, the Speaker of the Berlin House of Representatives , Hanna-Renate Laurien , was able to win over the artist to make five of his paintings available for the ballroom of the House of Representatives.
Gerhard Richter's international artistic recognition increased in the following years, so that a comprehensive retrospective was dedicated to him in 1993/1994 with stops in Paris, Bonn, Stockholm and Madrid. In 2002 the Museum of Modern Art , New York celebrated him on the occasion of his 70th birthday with a comprehensive retrospective. With 188 exhibits, it was the largest exhibition ever dedicated to a living artist.
At the beginning of 2005, an extensive exhibition took place in the Düsseldorf art collection NRW K20 , in which, among other things, the pane pictures and the group of paintings eight gray . In the lower area was the 9 m × 9 m large work Strontium from 2004, consisting of 130 c-prints (for the de Young Museum San Francisco, USA ). The exhibition was then presented in the Münchner Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus as well as in Kanazawa and Sakura in Japan.
In 2006 the Gerhard Richter Archive was launched in Dresden , under the direction of Dietmar Elger . He is Richter's longtime assistant and biographer. In addition to researching the artist's life and work, it should also create a new catalog raisonné.
In 2004, through an article in the Berliner Tagesspiegel , which appeared against the background of Jürgen Schreiber's A Painter from Germany , a tragic aspect of Gerhard Richter's family history became known: his aunt Marianne Schönfelder was killed in 1945 as part of the second phase of the National Socialist euthanasia, Aktion Brandt , murdered by Nazi doctors. Richter's first father-in-law Heinrich Eufinger , "Ema's" father, was one of the perpetrators as SS-Obersturmbannführer and responsible for the forced sterilization in Dresden. Victims and perpetrators have been portrayed several times by Richter, apparently without knowing the background.
Today Gerhard Richter lives secluded in his house in Cologne.
Work and reception
Gerhard Richter began his painting practice in the West with a short phase in which he tried out practically all current forms of expression and styles of modern painting (between Antoni Tàpies and Francis Bacon ). These are works that Richter, as he himself reports, later burned in the courtyard of the State Art Academy in Düsseldorf.
The sometimes close collaboration with other artists may also have had an impact on his artistic positions. During the first half of the 1960s, for example, Richter cooperated in joint exhibitions with Sigmar Polke , Konrad Lueg and Manfred Kuttner . With them he created capitalist realism , which was supposed to ironize socialist realism , the official art doctrine of the socialist countries of the time , and to reflect critically on western consumer society. In 1968 he and Günther Uecker , his friend and fellow student, carried out an action in the Kunsthalle Baden-Baden. The building was occupied and Uecker declared: "Museums can also be places of residence."
Another episode in Richter's artistic career is the cooperation with Blinky Palermo . He became friends with him from 1962, which led to a joint gallery exhibition in 1970 and two diptychs together in 1971 . Richter also produced two sculptures for a room in Palermo , busts after plaster casts of Palermo's and Richter's heads. These sculptures intended for a gallery space in Cologne designed in a painterly manner by Palermo are unique in Gerhard Richter's work. (A reconstruction is now part of the Lenbachhaus in Munich .)
In 1962 Richter began his atlas , in which he collects newspaper clippings, photographs, photographic series , designs , color studies, landscapes , portraits , still lifes , historical fabrics , and collages. In many cases, these are templates for paintings that are often only taken up years later. In 1996, the Lenbachhaus in Munich was able to purchase the atlas, which had 583 works at the time, and since then Richter has continuously added additional items. In 1997 the atlas was shown at Documenta X in Kassel and documented in an illustrated book.
In December 2009 he and Alexander Kluge started working together . Those born in the same year (1932) met on New Year's Eve 2009 in the “Waldhaus” in Sils Maria (Engadin). A joint publication emerged from their cooperation: December (Suhrkamp Verlag). Richter contributed 39 color photographs of the Graubünden high mountains and Kluge 39 calendar stories. A second joint work - Message from Quiet Moments (Suhrkamp Verlag) - with pictures by Richter and other stories by Kluge was published in 2013.
|Ema (act on a staircase)|
|Gerhard Richter , 1966 (VMS 134)|
|Oil on canvas|
|200 × 130 cm|
|Museum Ludwig, Cologne|
At the beginning of the 1960s, Gerhard Richter first used photographs as templates for paintings, a process that he then took up regularly. These are incidental motifs from newspaper and magazine clippings (later also based on his own photos), which he enlarged by copying and mainly transferred to the canvas in gray and white, thereby exaggerating. Richter himself commented on this and similar works: "It demonstrates the innumerable aspects, it robs us of our security because it takes away the opinion and the name of a thing, it shows us the thing in its ambiguity and infinity, the one opinion and one View does not arise. " The 200 × 650 cm, five-part picture Alpen (1968), in which Richter does not blur the Alpine motif, but rather 'paints' it in a style reminiscent of later pictures by Cézanne, also belongs in this context .
This method, which is close to photorealism, is characterized by a blurred-looking blurring that alienates the realism of the originals. A typical example is No. 1 in the catalog raisonné, Tisch . With his painting Ema (Nude on a Staircase) from May 1966, which was based on a color photograph of his wife at the time, Richter quoted one of the most famous paintings of modern times, the Nude Descending a Staircase (1912) by Marcel Duchamp .
The art critic Helga Meister was the first to provide a concrete description of the copying process: “For years he has been looking for suitable photos in illustrated books, newspapers, photo albums and specialist books, cuts them out, places them under an episcope and projects the now greatly enlarged images onto an empty one Canvas. He draws charcoal on it and paints people like rooms with black, gray and white paint. [...] He paints over the still wet colors with a broad brush, pulls the contours into one another, equalizes the color differences. "
In many cases, Richter goes beyond the alienation technique of blurred depiction and creates furrows through the surface of the painting, a means that he later used again in expressively abstract paintings. Or else he reduces the copied photography to blurred views that can hardly be seen in relation to the reality photographed. These pictures make it clear how far Richter was from the current trends of Pop Art , Photo Realism or the Fluxus movement in the 1960s : currents that Gerhard Richter dealt with, but from which he distanced himself in his artistic practice - if one disregards the fact that the use of photographs may have been inspired by Pop Art. Richter explained that he owed Andy Warhol the recognition of the mechanical in his process of painting photographs. In doing so, he drove all idealistic and subjective moments out of painting. According to the art scholar Johannes Meinhardt, "the mechanical work of painting [...] excludes all conscious choice and decision, leaves no room for the creative imagination". The blurring of the photos reinforces the non-subjective and non-intentional character of the picture as well as the manual work and emphasizes the arbitrariness of the subject. The art historian and museum director Uwe M. Schneede ascribes a meaning to the photo for Richter analogous to the readymade by Marcel Duchamp . Stefan Germer points out that Richter uses his art “less to produce new images than to reflect on existing ones”.
In addition to the Abmalungen photos of common objects (such as toilet paper roll , kitchen chair , table or clothes dryer ) are Abmalungen of contemporary historical people or events "show my presence" to judge words; These include sports cars , motor boats and military aircraft , secretaries , the prostitute Helga Matura , the euthanasia perpetrator Werner Heyde , the related uncle Rudi in Wehrmacht uniform and the Kennedy assassin Oswald. For Uwe M. Schneede they are grouped - already through the blurring that is typical for Richter - to form “Pictures of an Era”, which reached their final climax in the so-called RAF cycle October 18, 1977 . He ended his work on images based on black and white photos, in his words: "in the form of a compressed summary that no longer allows any further". In 1986, in an interview with the art historian Benjamin Buchloh, he “definitely” admitted to the criteria for his choice of motifs , which he “may have denied” in the past. In doing so, Richter indirectly confirms the opinion of the art historian Eckhart Gillen , who understands Richter's statements that his photographic originals are accidental finds, arbitrary and meaningless, “on closer inspection as a camouflage”.
Still lifes, landscapes and seascapes as well as famous sights such as Niagara Falls are the subject of the reproductions. In contrast, the untitled cloud image created in 1978 as a commissioned work for the State Office for Data Processing and Statistics NRW , Düsseldorf, and landscape images from the 1980s, such as B. Davos from 1981, Eis (ebf. 1981 and almost in the tradition of Caspar David Friedrich ) or Occupied House 1989, which, however, cannot do without blurring. They are paintings that depict in their perfection, but at the same time portray the typical in an alienated manner. Richter's biographer Dietmar Elger calls it "illustrative material of a lost truth".
→ Main article: October 18, 1977
Other paintings are only revealed when the underlying police and press photos and newspaper reports are known. With the cycle of 15 paintings October 18, 1977 from 1988 with differently blurred images by the RAF terrorists Ulrike Meinhof , Andreas Baader , Gudrun Ensslin and Holger Meins , which are given the impersonal title Dead , Hanged and Shot , Richter sat down with one of the most explosive periods of (West) German history apart. Jean-Christophe Ammann, director of the Museum für Moderne Kunst Frankfurt from 1989 to 2001, was able to secure the cycle for the museum on loan for 10 years. In 1991, the group of works was part of the opening exhibition of the museum in Frankfurt and caused violent reactions from the press and the public. The New York Museum of Modern Art acquired the cycle in 1995 for $ 3 million.
On the occasion of the first exhibitions of the cycle, the German art historian and exhibition curator Hubertus Butin highlighted Richter's resistance to ideological thinking and acting, which protects him from all dogmatics. His entire work can be seen “as a project of postmodern sensitization for pluralism and difference in both artistic and non-artistic thinking and acting”.
|Gerhard Richter , 1968 (VMS 199)|
|Oil on canvas|
|86 × 91 cm|
Pictures with landscape motifs represent an independent group of works and claim a prominent position in Richter's oeuvre. Although individual landscape pictures were created as early as 1965 ( landscape , Niagara Falls , forest , Italian landscape ), the Corsica Views of 1968 (catalog raisonné 186-2, 199-201, 211, 212) based on Richter's own photographs open up an independent group of works for Dietmar Elger . The official website of Gerhard Richter lists a total of 124 landscape works that were created between 1965 and 2004. This is also used to paint someone else's or own photos, but what is new compared to black and white painting is the use of color. The frequently quoted statement of Richter fits in with this: "I wanted to paint something beautiful". It is also noteworthy that Richter openly imitates Caspar David Friedrich 's scheme ("laterally unlimited landscapes" - "low horizon, a high empty sky, an unstressed foreground"), but in contrast to this expressly paints so-called cultural landscapes, i.e. neither untouched , fictional or idealized world landscapes.
Abstraction was a hot word in both parts of Germany in the 1960s. In the east - Gerhard Richter studied at the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts from 1951 - abstraction was opposed as the elitist, aloof style of the west. In the West - Richter continued his studies at the Düsseldorf Academy in 1961 - it was already considered conservative because young art was being realized in new forms of expression and painting appeared obsolete. Richter seized upon the unpopular abstraction as a method to question painting in its possibilities anew. It also allowed him to connect with the traditions of modernism, which were ostracized under National Socialism, and to make painting sustainable.
The discontinuity of his work - critics speak of a “break in style as a stylistic principle” - is evident in its chronology. Parallel to the paintings, color plates were created in 1966 and 4 panes of glass in the same year . In 1967 he painted tubes , a gray-on-gray picture that - like other early paintings - can be considered a precursor to strontium from 2004. In between, however, there are the periods of painting, gray and cloud images, blurred abstract images. Finally, in the 1980s and 1990s, he painted large, expressively colored abstract paintings that received considerable public response, such as the series Abstract Image (809-1, -2, -3, -4) . They consist of several applications of paint, some of which are scratched off down to the surface, impulsive gestures and overpainting. These are paintings that clearly show the process of their creation and at the same time veil it (Richter makes use of technical methods of décollage for painting). According to the artist, these paintings are largely dependent on chance and in their final version often contradict initial intentions. A color-intensive large-format picture is the abstract picture El. L , exhibited at Documenta 7 , 1982 and from there acquired by Peter Iden for the collection of the Museum für Moderne Kunst Frankfurt.
For the south transept facade of the Cologne Cathedral , the atheist with a penchant for Catholicism , who left the Protestant church, designed a 113 m² window consisting of 11,500 squares of hand-blown, real antique glass in 72 different colors. The idea goes back to his work 4096 Colors from 1974. The arrangement of the individual colored areas was created using a random generator, the results of which Richter, however, partially edited. The dynamics of the color fields change due to the angle of incidence of the sunlight, which is broken over the course of the day. The design was a gift from Richter to Cologne Cathedral, and the production cost was around 400,000 euros. The window was inaugurated in 2007. The artist Gerhard Richter defended himself against the criticism of the Archbishop of Cologne Cardinal Meisner of the cathedral window he designed. Meisner had criticized the abstract stained glass window as fitting more into a mosque or prayer house . The cardinal would have preferred a motif that portrays the Christian martyrs of the 20th century. Richter emphasized that he had absolutely no relationship with Islam and had never worked for a mosque. He feels that he is a scion of Christianity, who “cannot live without belief in a higher power or something incomprehensible”.
At the end of 2019 it was announced that Gerhard Richter would design the three new altar windows for the Saarland Benedictine Abbey of St. Mauritius Tholey . The windows were made in Gustav Treek's glass painting and mosaic workshop in the middle of Munich . With the ceremonial reopening of the renovated abbey church, which is scheduled for September 2020, the Richter window should also be installed in Tholey.
In 2014 Richter produced the Birkenau cycle , which consists of abstract overpaintings of four drawings based on the photographs of Holocaust victims smuggled out of the camp in 1944 and the cremations of corpses in the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp . The cycle was initially shown untitled in the Dresden Albertinum . After the title and thus the real historical background of the pictures became known, Richter was criticized. The art critic Hanno Rauterberg, for example, complained that the fundamental openness and interpretability of the pictures made Birkenau a myth . Three volumes with essays and detailed views were also published for the cycle.
The reception of Richter's work emphasizes the extent to which Richter's oeuvre appears full of contradictions and discontinuities: between photorealistic representations of nature, the blurred paintings based on photographs and paintings of the highest abstraction to glass and mirror objects or installations . These elements are not found one after the other as the developmental strands of the work. Richter takes up these different approaches again and again. What holds this work together is Richter's researching and experimental examination of reality. It is about what is perceived with the eyes, what is photographed with the camera, what is mirrored, what is transcended in the glass and also the reality staged in a painterly way. It is precisely this diverse questioning of the media of modern art about reality that is viewed as the real core of Richter's oeuvre. In Gerhard Richter's mirror and glass objects z. B. the autonomous mechanical reality of mirroring (the irritating game of reversal, etc.). At the same time they integrate the viewer into the work and turn them into actors in the picture, pleading against the idea of the autonomous work of art. On the other hand, Richter connects z. B. with his sea views to positions of romanticism .
Position in the art market
In the Kunstkompass , a “world ranking list of living artists”, which appeared in Capital magazine from 1970 to 2007 and in Manager Magazin from 2008 to 2014 and has appeared in Weltkunst magazine since 2015 , Gerhard Richter was ranked from 2004 to 2008 and from 2010 first place until 2018. According to a ranking by Artnet, Gerhard Richter is one of the world's most expensive living contemporary artists, ahead of Jeff Koons and Damien Hirst . Its market volume in auctions in previous years was the equivalent of 558 million euros. The Manager magazine put him since 2010 every year on the list of major artists and he is considered one of the 500 richest Germans.
As early as November 2000, Christie's group picture Der Kongress (Professor Zander) from 1965 achieved auction results of $ 4.95 million. In the years that followed, the artist's commercial success continued at international auctions. The painting Two Lovers (1966) was sold at Christie's for around 9.77 million euros, while the picture Candle (1983) at Sotheby’s in February 2008 even brought in 10.57 million euros. This made Gerhard Richter the most expensive living painter in Germany. When a further work with the same title and from the same series was auctioned at Christie's in October 2011, the hammer price was 11.98 million euros. In May 2013, Richter's Cathedral Square, Milan from 1968, achieved the highest price ever paid for a work by a living artist at the spring auctions of Sotheby's New York of 29 million euros (37.1 million dollars). Another abstract painting (1986, oil on canvas, 300 cm × 250 cm, catalog raisonné 599) was knocked down at Sotheby's for 41 million euros in February 2015. It was auctioned off at Sotheby's in 1998 and raised $ 600,000 at the time.
In the early years Richter's financial success was rather modest. Since the 1990s at the latest, Richter's boom began abroad, especially in the United States. In the mid-1980s, the London gallery owner Anthony d'Offay and in the 1990s the gallery owner Marian Goodman in New York became his gallery representatives, which significantly built up his career. Nowadays, paintings are almost exclusively available on the auction market , as most of them found their way into private collections or were collected by museums.
- 2010: Alexander Kluge, Gerhard Richter: December - 39 stories. 39 images . Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 2010, ISBN 978-3-518-22460-1 .
- 2011: ice cream . Bookstore Walther König, Cologne 2011, ISBN 978-3-86560-924-3 .
- 2013: Alexander Kluge, Gerhard Richter: News of quiet moments. 89 stories. 64 images . Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 2013, ISBN 978-3-518-22477-9
- 2015: 93 details from my painting “Birkenau” . Bookstore Walther König, Cologne 2015.
- 2016. Birkenau . With contributions by Helmut Friedel and Georges Didi-Huberman, Catalog Museum Frieder Burda, Baden-Baden, Bookstore Walther König, Cologne 2016.
Richter took part in the documenta in Kassel: 1972 documenta 5 , 1977 documenta 6 , 1982 documenta 7 , 1987 documenta 8 , 1992 documenta IX , 1997 documenta X , 2007 documenta 12 and 2017 documenta 14 .
- 1963: Möbelhaus Berges, Düsseldorf: Living with Pop - a demonstration for capitalist realism (with Konrad Lueg )
- 1964: Galerie René Block , Berlin
- 1964: Galerie Alfred Schmela , Düsseldorf
- 1965: Museum Haus Lange , Krefeld
- 1969: Guggenheim Museum , New York: Nine Young Artists ,
- 1970: Palais des Beaux Arts : Richter, Palermo, Uecker , Brussels, Belgium
- 1971: Art Association for the Rhineland and Westphalia , Düsseldorf: Works 1962–1971
- 1972: 36th Venice Biennale : 48 portraits (German pavilion)
- 1973: Municipal gallery in the Lenbachhaus and Kunstbau Munich: Gerhard Richter - paintings
- 1977: Musée National d'Art Moderne-Center Georges Pompidou , Paris
- 1978: Van Abbemuseum , Eindhoven, Netherlands
- 1984: From here - two months of new German art in Düsseldorf
- 1986: Kunsthalle Düsseldorf : Pictures 1962–1985 (then in Berlin, Bern and Vienna)
- 1989: Museum Haus Esters , Krefeld: October 18, 1977 (afterwards in Frankfurt a. M., Rotterdam, London, Berlin, New York and Dresden)
- 1991: Tate Gallery , London
- 1993: Musée d'art moderne de la Ville de Paris (then in Bonn, Stockholm and Madrid)
- 1995: Israel Museum , Jerusalem
- 1999: Museu Serralves , Porto: Circa 1968 (opening exhibition and acquisition in collection)
- 1999: Kunstmuseum Winterthur : "Drawings and watercolors" (then in Dresden, Tilburg, Krefeld)
- 2002: Museum of Modern Art , New York: 40 Years of Painting (then in Chicago, San Francisco and Washington, DC)
- 2004: Kunstmuseum Bonn : Printed! (then in Salzburg, Tübingen, Emden and Lucerne)
- 2005: Art Collection North Rhine-Westphalia / K20, Düsseldorf (then Munich, Kanazawa and Sakura, Japan)
- 2005: Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus / Kunstbau and Lenbachhaus, Munich: Atlas and Gerhard Richter - 100 paintings
- 2005: Louisiana Museum of Modern Art , Humlebaek, Denmark: Image after Image
- 2005: Dresden State Art Collections - New Masters Gallery
- 2008: Museum Frieder Burda , Baden-Baden: Pictures from private collections (afterwards Museum Küppersmühle , Duisburg)
- 2008: National Art Museum of China , Beijing: Paintings 1963–2007
- 2008: Museum Ludwig , Cologne: 4900 colors and designs for the Cologne cathedral window
- 2009: Albertina Museum , Vienna: retrospective
- 2009: National Portrait Gallery , London: portraits
- 2009: House of Art , Munich: Abstract Images
- 2011: Bucerius Kunst Forum , Hamburg: Pictures of an Era
- 2011/2012: Tate Modern , London. Gerhard Richter: Panorama. ( Retrospective ) (afterwards Neue Nationalgalerie , Berlin; Musée national d'art modern Center Georges Pompidou , Paris, France)
- 2013/2014: Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus , Munich: Atlas Mikromega
- 2013/2014: Tate Gallery of Modern Art , London. Artist Rooms: Gerhard Richter - London.
- 2014: Christie’s , Polke / Richter - Richter / Polke , April 25 - July 7, 2014, Bond Street, London.
- 2014: Gerhard Richter. Pictures / series , Fondation Beyeler , Riehen, Switzerland, catalog.
- 2016: Museum Frieder Burda , Baden-Baden: Gerhard Richter. Birkenau
- 2017: Museum Ludwig , Cologne: Gerhard Richter. New pictures .
- 2017: National Gallery Prague : Gerhard Richter , April 26th - September 3rd.
- 2017: Museum Folkwang , Essen: Gerhard Richter. The editions.
- 2017: Kunstmuseum Bonn : Gerhard Richter. About painting - early pictures.
- 2017: Queensland Gallery of Modern Art, Brisbane , Australia: Gerhard Richter: The Life of Images , October 14, 2017 - February 4, 2018
- 2018: Museum Wiesbaden : Gerhard Richter - Early Pictures , March 16, 2018 - June 17, 2018
- 2018: Museum Barberini : Gerhard Richter. Abstraction , June 30, 2018 - October 21, 2018
- 2020: The Met Breuer, New York: Gerhard Richter. Painting After All.
- 2020: Art Station Sankt Peter Cologne St. Peter (Cologne) : Gerhard Richter. Grauer Spiegel , May 14 - November 1, 2020
- 1967 Young West Art Prize , Recklinghausen
- 1982 Arnold Bode Prize , Kassel
- 1985 Oskar Kokoschka Prize , Vienna
- 1988 visiting professor at the Städelschule , Frankfurt am Main
- 1988 Kaiserring , Goslar
- 1995 Wolf Prize from the Wolf Foundation, Jerusalem
- 1997 Golden Lion of the Biennale , Venice
- 1997 Praemium Imperiale , Tokyo
- 1998 Foreign Honorary Membership. The American Academy of Arts and Letters , New York
- 1998 Wexner Prize , Ohio
- 2000 State Prize of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia , Düsseldorf
- 2001 honorary doctorate , Catholic University of Leuven
- 2001 Entry in the Golden Book of the City of Cologne
- 2004 Catholic Art Prize , Cologne
- 2004 Foreign Honorary Membership. The American Academy of Arts and Sciences
- 2007 honorary citizenship of the city of Cologne
- 2012 member of the American Philosophical Society
- 2018 European Culture Prize Taurus
- Jürgen Harten (Ed.): Gerhard Richter: Pictures 1962–1985. With the catalog raisonné by Dietmar Elger 1962–1985, Dumont, Cologne 1986, ISBN 3-7701-1772-7 .
- Susanne Küper: Konrad Lueg and Gerhard Richter: Living with Pop - A Demonstration for Capitalist Realism. In: West German Yearbook for Art History. Volume LIII. Dumont, Cologne 1992, pp. 289-306.
- Angelika Thill: Catalog raisonné from 1962. In: Art and Exhibition Hall of the Federal Republic of Germany (Ed.): Gerhard Richter. Ostfildern-Ruit 1993, ISBN 3-89322-554-4 , ISBN 3-89322-574-9 (contains the currently valid catalog raisonné from 1963 to 1993, without the works before 1962 and after 1993)
- Gerhard Richter - 128 photos from a picture 1978 . Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, Cologne 1998, ISBN 3-88375-338-6
- Dieter Schwarz: Gerhard Richter: Drawings 1964–1999 . Catalog raisonné. Kunstmuseum Winterthur, Richter Verlag, Düsseldorf 1999
- Gerhard Richter: Aquarelle / Watercolors 1964–1997 . Published by / Edited by Dieter Schwarz. Richter Verlag, Düsseldorf 1999
- Gerhard Richter: Overview , with comments by Dieter Schwarz. Institute for Foreign Relations, Stuttgart. Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, Cologne 2000
- Eckhart Gillen: Gerhard Richter: Mr. Heyde or the murderers are among us. Dealing with the trauma of suppressed history in West Germany. In: Eckhart Gillen: Difficulties in searching for the truth. Berlin 2002, pp. 186–191. (PDF; 2.8 MB)
- Dietmar Elger : Gerhard Richter, painter. Dumont, Cologne 2002, ISBN 3-8321-5848-0 . (Biography)
- Hubertus Butin : Gerhard Richter, early prints 1965–1974. Graphics publishing house, Frankfurt 1992, ISBN 3-9802488-5-2 .
- Robert Storr : Gerhard Richter: October 18, 1977 . Museum of Modern Art, New York, and Hatje Cantz 2000, ISBN 3-7757-0976-2
- Robert Storr: Gerhard Richter: Painting. Cantz, Ostfildern-Ruit 2002, ISBN 3-7757-1169-4 .
- Hanno Rauterberg : A bourgeois rebel. In: Die Zeit , No. 7/2002
- Dietmar Elger: Gerhard Richter: Landscapes . Hatje Cantz, Ostfildern-Ruit 2002, ISBN 3-7757-9101-9 .
- Robert Storr: Gerhard Richter: Forty Years of Painting . Zzdap Publishing 2002, ISBN 978-1891024375
- Robert Storr: Gerhard Richter: Doubt and Belief in Painting . Museum of Modern Art, New York 2003, ISBN 978-0870703553
- Hubertus Butin, Stefan Gronert: Gerhard Richter, Editions 1965–2004: catalog raisonné . Cantz, Ostfildern-Ruit 2003, 2004, ISBN 3-7757-1430-8 .
- Jürgen Schilling : Gerhard Richter: A private collection. Richter, Düsseldorf 2004, ISBN 3-937572-00-7 .
- Hans-Ulrich Obrist : Gerhard Richter: 100 pictures. Cantz, Ostfildern-Ruit 2005, ISBN 3-89322-851-9 .
- Gerhard Richter published by the Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen with an essay by Armin Second and the catalog raisonné 1993–2004 . Exhibition catalog. Richter Verlag, Düsseldorf 2005, ISBN 3-926154-76-4 and 3-937572-20-1.
- Jürgen Schreiber : A painter from Germany: Gerhard Richter: The drama of a family. Pendo, Munich / Zurich 2005, ISBN 3-86612-058-3 .
- Helmut Friedel, Robert Storr: Gerhard Richter: Red - Yellow - Blue. Prestel, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-7913-3859-0 .
- Gerhard Richter: Elbe. 31 monotypes, 1957 . Text Dieter Schwarz. Gerhard Richter Archive // Cologne: Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, Dresden 2009 (Writings of the Gerhard Richter Archive Dresden, Vol. 4)
- Alexander Kluge (texts), Gerhard Richter (photos): December: 39 stories. 39 images. Library Suhrkamp, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-518-22460-1 .
- Dietmar Elger, Hubertus Butin, Oskar Bätschmann: Gerhard Richter. Landscapes , ed. by Dietmar Elger . Stuttgart 2011, ISBN 978-3-7757-2639-9 .
- Gerhard Richter: November . Text by Dieter Schwarz. Heni Publishing, London 2012
- Hans Ulrich Obrist , Dieter Schwarz: Gerhard Richter: Books . Gerhard Richter Archive, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Dresden 2013 (Writings of the Gerhard Richter Archive Dresden, Vol. 11)
- Gerhard Richter: Strips & Glass . With contributions by Dieter Schwarz and Robert Storr. Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-86335-453-4 .
- Florian Klinger: Theory of Form. Gerhard Richter and the art of the pragmatic age . Hanser, Munich 2013, ISBN 978-3-446-24133-6 .
- Hans Ulrich Obrist : Gerhard Richter - Pictures / Series. , Catalog for the exhibition of the Fondation Beyeler May 18 to September 7, 2014. Hatje Cantz, Ostfildern 2014, ISBN 978-3-7757-3804-0 .
- Benjamin HD Buchloh: Gerhard Richter's Birkenau painting. Amnesia and anamnesis , Walther König, Cologne 2016, ISBN 978-3-86335-886-0 .
- Georges Didi-Huberman: Where it was. Four letters to Gerhard Richter. Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König: Cologne 2018 (Writings from the Gerhard Richter Archive, Vol. 15; on the Birkenau cycle)
- Klaus Honnef : Gerhard Richter. Taschen, Cologne 2019, ISBN 978-3-8365-7526-3 .
- Armin Second : Gerhard Richter. Life and work. In painting, thinking is painting. Schirmer and Mosel, Munich 2019, ISBN 9783829607582 .
- Dietmar Elger: Gerhard Richter Catalog Raisonné. Volume 5 Nos. 806-899-8 1994-2006. Hatje Cantz, Berlin 2020, ISBN 978-3-7757-3230-7 .
Films about judges
- 1966: Elmar Hügler: Art and Ketchup. TV film by Südwestfunk , December 14, 1966, 45 min.
- 1969: Gerhard Richter - In the workshop. Orbis-Film, director: Hannes Reinhardt, 13 minutes, Goethe-Institut Inter Nationes
- 1989: Viktoria von Flemming: Moments - Gerhard Richter: October 18, 1977. 14 minutes
- 1992: Gerhard Richter: My pictures are smarter than me. 55 minutes.
- 1994: Henning Lohner: Gerhard Richter Painting 1962–1993. 42 minutes.
- 1999: Christine Haberlik: The early Dresden work. Aspects , ZDF , June 4, 1999
- 2003: Gerhard Richter - Forty Years of Painting . For the exhibition at the New York MoMA , 3sat , April 26, 2003, table of contents by 3sat
- 2006: Lars Friedrich: 'Aunt Marianne' goes under the hammer. The tragic family history of Gerhard Richter and how it is reflected in an autobiographical masterpiece. ttt - title, theses, temperaments , documentation, WDR , first broadcast: June 18, 2006
- 2007: Corinna Belz: The Richter Window. ARTE , August 26, 2007, table of contents at ARTE
- 2011: Corinna Belz: Gerhard Richter - Painting . Documentation, 97 minutes. (Theatrical release September 8, 2011)
- 2018: Werk ohne Autor is a German feature film by Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck. The main character of Kurt Barnert is based on the life story of Gerhard Richter. The book "A painter from Germany. Gerhard Richter. The drama of a family" by Jürgen Schreiber served as a template. Richter accused the director in the US magazine New Yorker of "misusing and badly distorting his biography".
- Literature by and about Gerhard Richter in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Gerhard Richter in the German Digital Library
- Search for Gerhard Richter in the SPK digital portal of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation
- Gerhard Richter in the catalog of the Art Library in Cologne
- Website by Gerhard Richter
- Gerhard Richter Archive State Art Collections Dresden
- Detailed biography and bibliography (IFA database)
- Materials by and about Gerhard Richter in the documenta archive
- DLF (Deutschlandfunk) cultural issues. Debates and documents from December 25, 2015: Being a political artist is very far from me , Stefan Koldehoff in conversation with the painter Gerhard Richter “The collectors only buy entertainment nonsense”
- Works by Gerhard Richter in the Europeana
- Art collection NRW. In crystal lattices - Gerhard Richter in Düsseldorf . In: FAZ , February 23, 2005
- Heinrich Wefing: The artist and the city: Gerhard Richter in Dresden . In: FAZ , August 20, 2004
- gerhard-richter.com: Chronology
- Sven Goldmann, Nicola Kuhn: The rejected image. In: Der Tagesspiegel , accessed on November 10, 2013.
- Bernhard Schulz: I paint my world. In: Tagesspiegel , July 21, 2015.
- Axel Griesch, “Garbage artist HA Schult: I want immortality. And it is not for sale ” , finanzen.net , 13 May 2012.
- Oliver Kornhoff and Barbara Nierhoff write about Götz's professorship: “His first students are Gotthard Graubner, HA Schult and Kuno Gonschior. In 1961 Gerhard Richter, Sigmar Polke and Franz Erhard Walther follow. ”See Oliver Kornhoff and Barbara Nierhoff: Karl Otto Götz: In anticipation of lightning-fast miracles , exhib.-cat. Arp Museum Remagen 2010, p. 114.
- compArt : Karl Otto Götz .
- artinwords.de: Gerhard Richter: Biography
- Cornelius Tittel : "And then I'll go with the dog." In: Die Welt , December 5, 2012 (accessed April 10, 2016).
- Wkvz. 432-5, Kaiser Wilhelm Museum, Krefeld
- Dietmar Elger: Gerhard Richter, painter. Dumont, Cologne 2002, ISBN 3-8321-5848-0 , p. 270
- Brigitte Grunert: Granata with courage. In: Der Tagesspiegel , April 15, 2008.
- Luke Harding : Picasso of the 21st century 'donates works to home town museum. In: The Guardian , July 6, 2004 (accessed December 21, 2010).
- Jürgen Schreiber : The great secret of the painter Gerhard Richter. In: Der Tagesspiegel , August 23, 2004 (accessed December 21, 2010).
- Gerhard Richter edited by the Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen with an essay by Armin Second and the catalog raisonné 1993-2004 . Exhibition catalog. Richter Verlag, Düsseldorf 2005.
- Gerhard Richter, 2012, Aunt Marianne (Tante Marianne) (accessed February 1, 2017).
- idowa, Straubing Germany: candles as a consolation: Gerhard Richter lives in crisis isolated - idowa. Retrieved April 9, 2020 .
- Graphic of capitalist realism KP Brehmer , Karl Horst Hödicke , Sigmar Polke , Gerhard Richter, Wolf Vostell , prints until 1971
- Municipal gallery in the Lenbachhaus: Gerhard Richter Atlas , 2013
- Gerhard Richter designs artist edition of "Welt" In: Focus , September 20, 2012.
- Ulrich Krempel, Man and Landscape in Contemporary Painting and Graphics , Art Association for the Rhineland and Westphalia, Düsseldorf 1983, p. 62. OCLC 886898657.
- Alps - Change of scenery XVII - Exhibitions - Gerhard Richter. Retrieved February 7, 2020 .
- Rolf Lauter, publication for the topping-out ceremony on July 13, 1988, Museum für Moderne Kunst Frankfurt. WorldCat.org, 1988, pp. 40-41 , accessed February 7, 2020 .
- Helga Meister: Pictures from window glass and blurred oil photos . In: Düsseldorfer Nachrichten 1967. Quoted from: Dietmar Rübel: Cut and Paint. The pictures of the popular press and the photo painting of the sixties . In: Uwe W. Schneede: Gerhard Richter: Pictures of an Era . Exhibition catalog. Hirmer Verlag, Munich 2011, pp. 92-103, here: p. 92.
- Johannes Meinhardt: End of painting and painting after the end of painting . Cantz, Ostfildern 1997, p. 179.
- Johannes Meinhardt: End of painting and painting after the end of painting . Cantz, Ostfildern 1997, p. 180.
- Uwe W. Schneede: Gerhard Richter: Pictures of an Epoch . Exhibition catalog. Hirmer Verlag, Munich 2011, p. 20.
- Stefan Germer: Uninvited memory . In: Museum of Modern Art, Frankfurt am Main (Ed.): Gerhard Richter. October 18, 1977 . 2nd Edition. Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, Cologne 1991, p. 52.
- Quoted from Uwe W. Schneede: Gerhard Richter: Pictures of an Epoch . Exhibition catalog. Hirmer Verlag, Munich 2011, p. 23.
- This is the title of the exhibition curated by Uwe M. Schneede in 2011 at the Bucerius Kunst Forum in Hamburg .
- Quoted from Ortrud Westheider: An idea that goes to death. The cycle '18. October 1977 ' . In: Uwe W. Schneede: Gerhard Richter: Pictures of an Era . Exhibition catalog. Hirmer Verlag, Munich 2011, pp. 154–194, here: p. 161.
- Dietmar Elger (Ed.): Gerhard Richter. Landscapes . Exhibition catalog of the Sprengel Museum Hannover. 2nd Edition. Hatje Cantz, Ostfildern 2002. P. 9 f.
- Eckhart Gillen: A devout doubter . In: Weltkunst from February 9, 2017
- Hubertus Butin: To Richter's October pictures, Museum of Modern Art Frankfurt, W. König, Cologne 1991, ISBN 3-88375-141-3
- Hubertus Butin: To Richter's October pictures . Verlag der Buchhandlungs Walther König, Cologne 1991, p. 55.
- Ulrich Krempel : Foreword . In: Dietmar Elger (Ed.): Gerhard Richter. Landscapes . Sprengel Museum Hannover . Hatje Crantz, Ostfildern 1999, p. 6.
- Dietmar Elger: Landscape as a model . In the S. (Ed.): Gerhard Richter. Landscapes . Sprengel Museum Hannover . Hatje Crantz, Ostfildern 1999, p. 10.
- Quoted here from Oskar Bätschmann : Landscapes in Blur . In: Dietmar Elger (Ed.): Gerhard Richter. Landscapes . Sprengel Museum Hannover . Hatje Crantz, Ostfildern 1999, p. 28.
- Oskar Bätschmann : Landscapes in Blur . In: Dietmar Elger (Ed.): Gerhard Richter. Landscapes . Sprengel Museum Hannover . Hatje Crantz, Ostfildern 1999, p. 28.
- Ortrud Westheider: Through the history of art. Abstraction by Gerhard Richter . Ed .: Museum Barberini Potsdam. Prestel, Munich / London / New York 2018, ISBN 978-3-7913-5744-7 , pp. 9-21 .
- Armin Second : Seeing, Reflecting, Appearing. Notes on the work of Gerhard Rocher . In: Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen (Ed.): Gerhard Richter . Exhibition catalog 2005, p. 50.
- The initials refer to the Russian artist El Lissitzky .
- El. L  - Art - Gerhard Richter. Retrieved February 7, 2020 .
- Peter Iden , Rolf Lauter , Pictures for Frankfurt: Inventory catalog of the Museum of Modern Art , Munich, Prestel 1985, ISBN 978-3-7913-0702-2 . Pp. 126-127.
- The cardinal has to work. In: Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger , August 30, 2007.
- Gerhard Richter digitizes Cologne Cathedral. Der Spiegel , August 25, 2007.
- Cardinal Meissner and modern art. ( Memento of October 17, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) In: Vatican Radio , September 1, 2007 (audio, rm / mp3 ).
- Gerhard Richter rejects Meisner's criticism. In: Die Welt , August 31, 2007.
- Die Richter-Fenster von Tholey (article published on September 5, 2019 on kathisch.de)
- Drafts for Richter windows in the Tholey Monastery revealed (article published on September 4, 2019 in Monopol-Magazin)
- Hanno Rauterberg: final painting. In: Die Zeit from January 28, 2016, p. 45.
- Gerhard Richter: 93 details from my picture “Birkenau”. Walther König, Cologne 2015; the same: Birkenau. With contributions by Helmut Friedel and Georges Didi-Huberman . Walther König, Cologne 2016; Benjamin HD Buchloh: Gerhard Richter's Birkenau pictures. Walther König, Cologne 2016.
- Gerhard Richter breaks the next record. In: Handelsblatt , July 8, 2014.
- Hans Onkelbach: They are the richest people of Düsseldorf. In: Rheinische Post , October 12, 2011.
- Christie's Sale 9576 / Lot 32 "The Congress (Professor Zander)" In: Christie's (English, accessed on July 2, 2011).
- Christie's Sale 7565 / Lot 17 “Two couples in love” In: Christie's (English).
- Sotheby's Evening Auction of Contemporary Art achieves £ 95,030,000. In: shareholder.com , February 27, 2008 (English, PDF; 126 kB).
- Richter's “Domplatz, Milan” achieves 29 million. In: Spiegel Online , May 15, 2013.
- Hanno Rauterberg : “It's all about the price” In: Die Zeit , March 22, 2015 (interview).
- s. Gerhard Richter Archive
- Tim Adams: Portrait of the perfect dealer. In: The Guardian , May 2, 2008 (English).
- Irene Netta, Ursula Keltz: 75 years of the Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus and Kunstbau Munich . Ed .: Helmut Friedel. Self-published by the Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus and Kunstbau, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-88645-157-7 , p. 207 .
- Dossier on the exhibition in Beijing ( Memento from October 12, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) with statements by four Chinese artists on Gerhard Richter's influence in China
- Announcement on the exhibition , accessed on August 2, 2014
- A look into the emptiness and vastness of art in FAZ of October 23, 2013, page 30
- Announcement on the exhibition ( Memento from August 10, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on August 7, 2014
- Richter and Polke: Exhibition in London. In: Focus , May 4, 2014.
- Gerhard Richter: Pictures / Series. In: Fondation Beyeler .
- Národní gallery Praha. Retrieved December 29, 2019 .
- "Exhibition - Gerhard Richter: The Life of Images " , Goethe Institute
- "Exhibition: Gerhard Richter - Early Pictures " , Museum Wiesbaden
- Gerhard Richter. Abstraction. Retrieved August 22, 2019 .
- Gerhard Richter. Gray mirror. Retrieved May 6, 2020 .
- Member History: Gerhard Richter. American Philosophical Society, accessed February 6, 2019 .
- Diana Goodyear: Profiles - Blurres Lines . In: The New Yorker, January 21, 2019, pp. 32–41
- Quoted from the art magazine Monopol on January 19, 2019. - Retrieved on May 4, 2019
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German painter|
|DATE OF BIRTH||February 9, 1932|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Dresden|