October 18, 1977


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October 18, 1977 (RAF cycle)
Gerhard Richter , 1988
Museum of Modern Art, New York

Link to the picture
(please note copyrights )

October 18, 1977 is the title of a cycle of paintings by Gerhard Richter in the style of grisaille painting. The images are based on photographs that document the suicide of three leading members of the Baader-Meinhof Group in the Stammheim correctional facility after the hostages were freed in the Lufthansa Landshut plane, which was hijacked by Arab terrorists . The cycle also shows events over a period of several years: from the arrest of leading members to their funeral. The so-called youth portrait of Ulrike Meinhof has a special positionone. Richter's method of blurring the photographic reproductions follows the dialectical process of approaching through distancing. In Richter's oeuvre, the cycle of paintings completes the group of his photographic reproductions. His reception alternated between great praise and severe rejection. After a series of exhibition stops, the Museum of Modern Art acquired the work.

The painting cycle

Emergence

The eponymous date of the painting cycle fixes the day on which law enforcement officers found the imprisoned leadership of the Red Army Faction ( RAF ) in Stuttgart-Stammheim prison dead or with life-threatening injuries. The cycle was created between March and November 1988, ten years apart from the events. From the hundreds of photos he viewed, Richter selected twelve motifs that, in his words, were "very focused on death". Richter defined his procedure as "the dialectical mediation of approach and distancing, as a process of appropriating a repressed experience that follows the logic of remembering, repeating and working through". So he initially processed the photos into 18 paintings, but three of them he rejected again. The paintings were produced by projecting the photo templates with an episcope onto a canvas, on which Richter traced the depicted shapes with pencil. In the subsequent execution in oil, he used different shades of gray as well as black and white. Then he smudged the not yet dried paint with a broad brush.

Regarding his motivation and the selection of the photos, Richter explained:

"The death of the terrorists and all related incidents before and after describe an enormity that concerned me and, even if I suppressed it, has since occupied me like something I had not done."

“I still remember that I thought I absolutely had to avoid all these sensational photos, the hanged man, the shot man, etc. I collected a lot of material, including many banal, irrelevant photos, and then in the course of this work I came across exactly the pictures which I actually wanted to avoid, which brought the very diverse stories to the point. "

Image description

The cycle consists of 15 images that are created in oil after twelve different, predominantly documentary police and press photos in dull gray and black tones, the contours have been blurred. There is deliberately no first and last picture in the cycle; According to Hubertus Butin , therefore, the work can only "develop effectively for the viewer" in its entirety.

Ulrike Meinhof , Andreas Baader , Gudrun Ensslin and Holger Meins are shown in the oil paintings , but the people cannot be easily identified by their facial features or the title of the picture. The titles of the pictures are kept impersonal. The blurring of the motifs varies; only Meinhof and Ensslin can be recognized because of the less blurring, the other people only in comparison with the original photos.

Dead is the title of the three-part group of paintings (62 × 67 cm, 62 × 62 cm, 35 × 40 cm, catalog raisonné: 667 / 1-3) showing the head and shoulders of Ulrike Meinhof lying on her back after her suicide on Show May 9, 1976. In the photo, too, you cannot tell whether she is lying on the floor or on a stretcher. The blurring effect increases the smaller the picture becomes, and the section is also variable. From the threefold repetition of the motif, Hubertus Butin concludes "the indissoluble and desolate factuality of being dead".

The picture Hanged (200 × 140 cm, catalog raisonné: 668) shows the shadowy figure of Gudrun Ensslin , who hanged herself on the bars of her cell in Stammheim on October 18, 1977 . Richter dissolves the lower half of the body in a diffuse gray. Since a floor is also not recognizable, the lower third of the picture appears “as a dark abyss with a depth that cannot be explored”. There was a second version of this picture that Richter did not include in the cycle and painted over abstractly ( ceiling , catalog raisonné 680/3).

In the pictures shot man 1 and shot man 2 (both 100 × 140 cm, catalog raisonné: 669 / 1-2) you can see the corpse of Andreas Baader lying on the cell floor . Both pictures were taken from a police photo published in Stern in 1980 . Although Richter used only one template, the two images show clear differences: in the first, the corpse is recorded at a greater observer's distance than in the second; the second image is more blurred, which in turn increases the distance. To Gerhard Storck , it seems as if the clarity reproduced in the first picture is being withdrawn beyond recognition in the second. Both paintings were at the beginning and the end of the painting process.

Cell (200 × 140 cm, catalog raisonné: 670) shows Baader's cell after the suicides were discovered. The template was also a police photo published in Stern in 1980 . The right half of the picture is dominated by a bookcase, the vertical blurring is noticeable.

The paintings Opposite 1-3 (each 112 × 102 cm, catalog raisonné: 671 / 1-3) were created on the basis of press photos after the arrest of Gudrun Ensslin in the summer of 1972. Richter reduced the image detail to the upper body of the arrested The situation can only be guessed at by the shadow cast on the wall. The sequence of images, read from left to right, has similarities with a film sequence or with still photos of captured moments from the chronological sequence of a film.

The slightest blurring shows the youth portrait (67 × 62 cm, catalog raisonné: 672-1), which depicts the young Ulrike Meinhof . The model for the picture was probably made in 1970, but Meinhof looks much younger in the painting.

“No other picture shows his figure in such clarity. […] The gaze of the young Ulrike Meinhof, who looks from the black of the background encompassing her, into the viewer room appears to be foreboding, but unencumbered. Temporally ahead of the other motifs, the gaze signals dreamy confidence. As in no other picture, the figure asserts itself against the texture of the blurring and signals a remnant of immediacy; a directness that the cycle as a whole negates in its thematization of the mediatedness of history. "

- Martin Henatsch , Gerhard Richter. October 18, 1977. The blurred picture of history. P. 74.

Hubertus Butin ascribes a “blatant harmlessness” to the youth portrait, which makes us fear the “hidden possibilities” in all of us of violently imposing our will on others.

The record player (62 × 83 cm, catalog raisonné: 672-2) can also be seen relatively clearly . He has a special role in the cycle. With the tone arm on, he seems to fix a moment of silence, but in fact he is the "catalyst for the tragic outcome of the story"; for Baader's pistol was hidden in it, and to the left of the apparatus are the cables that Ensslin used as a deadly noose.

Funeral (200 × 320 cm, catalog raisonné: 673) is the largest picture in the cycle. It shows the burial of Andreas Baader , Gudrun Ensslin and Jan-Carl Raspe in the Dornhaldenfriedhof in Stuttgart on October 27, 1977. The three coffins can be seen in the picture diagonal, surrounded by the anonymous crowd of mourners. For Jan Thorn-Prikker it represents the “most unworthy funeral scene in German post-war history. The almost forbidden burial ”.

Arrest 1 and Arrest 2 (both 92 × 126 cm, catalog raisonné: 674 / 1-2) are based on police photos taken when Holger Meins , Andreas Baader and Jan-Carl Raspe were arrested on June 1, 1972 in Frankfurt am Main and published in Stern on June 8, 1972 . You can see a garage yard with several vehicles, including a police armored car; only Holger Meins of those arrested can be seen in the second picture.

The templates

In the 1980s Richter had researched the Hamburg archives of the weekly magazines Stern and Der Spiegel for photographs from the history of the RAF. He selected twelve documentary photos from the 1970s and early 1980s as templates for his paintings. Eight of the photographs were taken during the course of the police investigation after the deaths of Holger Meins (1974), Ulrike Meinhof (1976), Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin and Jan-Carl Raspe (1977). The templates for Richter's paintings Arrest 1 and Arrest 2 and Funeral are original stills from television films. Ulrike Meinhof's youth photo comes from an unknown press photographer and was dated to May 1970 by Rainer Röhl, the former husband.

Position in the complete works

In contrast to the pictures that Richter painted between 1962 and 1966 based on photos with often banal and unimportant subjects, the templates for the pictures in the cycle no longer appear to be arbitrarily selected, but rather have a socio-political explosiveness, which means that the representational value of the painting through the selected motifs comes to the fore.

On the other hand, early reviews overlooked the connection between the cycle and Richter's work based on black-and-white photographs from the 1960s, which the art historian Benjamin Buchloh , for example, viewed as apolitical. The assumption that Richter took up a political topic for the first time with the cycle was no longer shared by later research, but sharpened the focus on topics such as National Socialism and aerial warfare, which were already dealt with in individual pictures from the 1960s. Buchloh is most likely to consider the two groups of works Eight Learning Sisters from 1966 and the Forty- Eight Portraits from 1971/72 to be the forerunners of the cycle . But a first comparison already makes the distance and difference to him clear. The fact that Richter broke with two prohibitions, the "modernist ban on depicting historical subjects" and the "ban on remembering this particular episode of German post-war history", distinguishes these images from all of his earlier oeuvre.

In Richter's oeuvre the cycle closes the group of works of reproductions of black and white photographs. Richter himself understood it "as a form of a condensed summary that no longer allows any further". In contrast to his earlier reproductions, Richter used the gray color, traditionally associated with mourning, in addition to the gray, especially in the youth portrait . Ortrud Westheider sees it as a “reference to the history painting of Velázquez , Goya or Manet ”.

reception

Polarized spectrum of opinion

According to the art historian Hubertus Butin , no other work by a German artist has been discussed as intensely and controversially as Richter's cycle since 1989, with the reception in Germany and the USA ranging between great praise and vehement rejection. Below are some examples from the polarized spectrum of opinion:

Among the negative comments, that of the cultural theorist Bazon Brock stood out, who in 2003 specifically referred to Richter's cycle as “political pornography” and “rubbish” in the magazine . Richter's painter colleague Georg Baselitz also expresses himself very derogatory: "[...] when Gerhard Richter made Baader-Meinhof, I was ashamed, I was ashamed as a painter, because I think that as a living artist you cannot do such a 'highly embarrassing' Painting a historical picture […]. ” Walter Grasskamp and others criticized the pictorial“ absence of victims ”. Nonetheless, the cycle was largely received positively by art critics.

For example, by the Swiss art historian and museum director Jean-Christophe Ammann , for whom the cycle was “a memorial against the ideologies in Germany in this century par excellence”, and the US art critic Donald Kuspit , for whom the cycle was even next to Pablo Picasso's painting Guernica posed. In a review for the Kunstforum International, Alexander Braun also attributes the work the status of a singular masterpiece in the format of a Guernica .

The German art historian Benjamin Buchloh , who teaches in the USA, advocated an interpretation that Richter clearly rejected, stating that Richter's group of pictures initiate a “tolerant memory of those people and the ideas of these individuals”. Hubertus Butin opposes: Judges show the terrorists as human beings without defending, playing down or even glorifying them. He shows them as irretrievably dead, victims of their own ideology.

Modern history painting

Richter's series of paintings raised the question of whether the cycle should be assigned to the genre of a renewed and problematized history painting . History painting, once the noblest genre, had its heyday in the 19th century and has since been considered obsolete. Whether Richter's cycle is a kind of modern history painting is controversial among critics and art historians.

The American curator and art critic Robert Storr argues in the exhibition catalog of the Museum of Modern Art that Richter has recuperated the genre of history painting with the cycle . But with Richter it does not serve the heroic portrayal and glorification - on the contrary: mourning and saying goodbye. With the death of Marat , Jacques-Louis David was probably the first to depict martyrdom in a history painting. For Storr, the painting is a precedent for Richter's shot man 1 and shot man 2 . In the Manet pictures, The Shooting of Emperor Maximilian of Mexico, Storr taps another reference source for Richter's cycle. Like Manet, he does not portray heroes, but rather reminds of a specific event based on newspaper reports and photographs with emotional distance.

On the occasion of the first public exhibition in the Krefeld house Esters, Stefan Germer described the paintings in the catalog book as "history pictures that problematize the portrayal of the historical". While the referee of classic history painting was a fictional reality, the photographic model turns “an absent, past reality”, the “brutal reality” into the referee. This gives Richter's work an ambivalent character. The pictures shocked "their inability to glorify what happened, to give it meaning - in short: to achieve what traditionally made history painting so famous."

Hans Joachim Müller in der Welt commented on the exhibition in Hamburg's Bucerius Forum as follows: “Viewed from a great distance, these pictures, which are as far apart as possible, appear like the reinvention of the exploited genre of history painting”. Amine Haase sees the paintings, characterized as “modern dance of death” and “generally valid menetekel”, as a kind of “negative history painting”. Martin Henatsch places Richter's cycle in the tradition of Edouard Manet's painting The Execution of Emperor Maximilian of Mexico , which, with its painterly elements, already entered into a conflict of form and content with heroic history painting. He also lacks “heroism and pathos”. In contrast to Manet, Richter keeps the observer at a distance through “the confrontational and close-up composition”. The cycle also makes no claim to the comprehensive representation of a historical event such as traditional history painting. Kai-Uwe Hemken argues in his monograph that the cycle represents “less of a renewal of history painting”. but a criticism of the mass media that control collective memory and “produce history”.

Exhibitions

As long as the cycle was still in Richter's possession, out of piety towards the dead and out of consideration for their relatives , he forbade the publication of the personal images in the press and demanded that the usual opening ceremony be waived.

The cycle was first exhibited in 1989 under Gerhard Storck in the Museum Haus Esters in Krefeld. Jürgen Hohmeyer commented on the series of paintings on display in the Spiegel as "an unusual example of contemporary history painting that overturns all traditions of the genre and takes symbols of mourning from the medium of documentary photography". The cycle was then sent on a two-year, international exhibition tour. In the same year exhibitions followed at Portikus Frankfurt am Main, Institute of Contemporary Arts London and Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen Rotterdam. In Rotterdam it was shown together with abstract pictures from the 1980s. In 1990 the cycle was shown in the Saint Louis Art Museum , the Gray Art Gallery New York, the Musée des beaux-arts de Montréal and the Lannan Foundation Los Angeles (here again, as in Rotterdam, together with abstract paintings). In early 1991 the paintings were exhibited at the Institute of Contemporary Art in Boston.

In October 1989 Richter gave the cycle October 18, 1977 for 10 years as a permanent loan to the Museum of Modern Art in Frankfurt am Main , probably also because the RAF's initial event took place in the city with the department store arson . In June 1991 it was part of the opening exhibition of the museum, in 1998 it was shown for the last time in Frankfurt during scene change XIII . As early as 1995, and thus well before the loan period expired, Richter surprisingly sold the works to the Museum of Modern Art in New York , where they were shown for the first time in September 2000 as part of the Open Ends exhibition. After the comprehensive Gerhard Richter retrospective in 2002 at the MoMa under the title Gerhard Richter: Forty Years of Painting , the 2004 cycle was part of the exhibition “ The MoMA in Berlin ” in the Neue Nationalgalerie in Berlin. The cycle was shown in the Albertinum (Dresden) from March 19, 2005 to January 2, 2006. From February 5 to May 15, 2011 the Bucerius Kunst Forum in Hamburg showed it as part of the Gerhard Richter exhibition . Pictures from an era in which the paintings were documented with their templates from magazines and photo albums. From February 12 to May 13, 2012, the cycle was exhibited as a separate, second part in the Alte Nationalgalerie Berlin as part of the “Gerhard Richter: Panorama” retrospective conceived by the Neue Nationalgalerie . Dorothee Achenbach commented on it in Die Welt : “The trauma of the German autumn, it grips and warns you today - art cannot achieve more”. From May 18 to September 7, 2014 he was on view at the Fondation Beyeler in Riehen (Basel).

The official website of Gerhard Richter lists over thirty stations of the exhibition of the cycle until 2014.

This list does not include the exhibition On the Presentation of Terror: The RAF Exhibition , conceived by KW Institute for Contemporary Art, Berlin . a. ten panels from Richter's atlas were shown. Their aim was an exhibition in which the reflections on the Red Army Faction (RAF) in the media on the one hand and the artistic positions that deal directly or indirectly with the history of the RAF on the other hand, are presented together for the first time. The concept of the exhibition was controversial. It was only after controversial debates in the media that the founder of Kunst-Werke, Klaus Biesenbach , was able to open the exhibition one year later, in 2005, without public funding. After Berlin, the Neue Galerie Graz showed the exhibition. Gerhard Richter shows panels 470–479 from the atlas , which deal with the subject of the RAF. Some of them served Richter as models for his painting cycle, but are considered an independent work in which the tension between media reality and artistic perception emerges in both an objective and subjective sense.

Sale to the Museum of Modern Art

After the cycle had been exhibited on loan at the Frankfurt Museum of Modern Art for years without anyone showing any interest in acquiring it, it was sold to the New York Museum of Modern Art in 1995 for $ 3 million . In an interview with Hubertus Butin, Richter explained why he expected a kind of de-emotionalization of the reception through the sale to MoMa, which he considers the “best museum in the world”: “Perhaps because of their distance from the RAF, the Americans see that more General of the topic that affects almost every modern or unfashionable country: the general danger of belief in ideology, of fanaticism and madness. "

Catalog raisonné

literature

  • Museum of Modern Art and Portikus , Frankfurt am Main (ed.): Press reports on Gerhard Richter “18. October 1977 ". Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, Cologne 1989, ISBN 3-88375-123-5 .
  • Museum of Modern Art, Frankfurt am Main (Ed.): Gerhard Richter. October 18, 1977 . 2nd Edition. Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, Cologne 1991, ISBN 3-88375-105-7
  • Jean-Christophe Ammann : The work as a menetekel . In: Zyma , No. 5, November / December 1989, pp. 18-21. Reprinted in: Museum of Modern Art and Portikus, Frankfurt am Main (ed.): Press reports on Gerhard Richter “18. October 1977 ". Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, Cologne 1989, pp. 129–131.
  • Hubertus Butin : To Richter's October pictures. Writings on the collection of the Museum of Modern Art, Frankfurt am Main. Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, Cologne 1991, ISBN 3-88375-141-3 .
  • Hubertus Butin: Gerhard Richter's RAF cycle in art criticism . In: Kunstforum International. Volume 215 (2012), pp. 90-105.
  • Julia Gelshorn : The indelible memory of images. Gerhard Richter's cycle “18. October 1977 ". In: Uwe Fleckner (Ed.): Pictures make history. Historical events in the memory of art . De Greuyter, Verlin 2014, pp. 399-416.
  • Stefan Germer : Uninvited memory . In: Gerhard Richter. October 18, 1977. Exhibition catalog. Museum Haus Esters, Krefeld, and Portikus, Frankfurt am Main, Cologne 1989.
  • Kai-Uwe Hemken : Gerhard Richter. October 18, 1977 . Insel, Frankfurt am Main 1998, ISBN 3-458-33937-X .
  • Martin Henatsch : Gerhard Richter. October 18, 1977. The blurred picture of history . Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1998, ISBN 3-596-13626-1 .
  • Robert Storr : Gerhard Richter October 18, 1977. Hatje Cantz, Ostfildern-Ruit 2000, ISBN 3-7757-0976-2 .
  • Ortrud Westheider : An idea that goes to death. The cycle October 18, 1977. In: Gerhard Richter. Pictures of an era. Exhibition catalog, edited by Uwe M. Schneede. Hirmer, Munich 2011, pp. 154–193.
  • Ulf Erdmann Ziegler : How the soul leaves the body. Gerhard Richter's cycle “18. October 1977 ". the last chapter of West German post-war painting . In: Eckhart Gillen (Ed.): Pictures of Germany. Art from a divided country . Exhibition catalog. Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin 1997–1998, pp. 406–412.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Ortrud Westheider: An idea that goes to death. The cycle '18. October 1977 ' . In: Uwe W. Schneede: Gerhard Richter: Pictures of an Era . Exhibition catalog. Hirmer Verlag, Munich 2011, pp. 154–194, here: p. 155.
  2. Gerhard Richter in an interview with Sabine Schütz 1990, quoted from Ortrud Westheider: An idea that goes to death. The cycle October 18, 1977. In: Gerhard Richter. Pictures of an era. Exhibition catalog, edited by Uwe M. Schneede. Hirmer, Munich 2011, p. 177.
  3. ^ Stefan Germer: Uninvited memory . In: Museum of Modern Art, Frankfurt am Main (Ed.): Gerhard Richter. October 18, 1977 . 2nd Edition. Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, Cologne 1991, p. 51.
  4. Ortrud Westheider: An idea that goes to death. The cycle October 18, 1977. In: Gerhard Richter. Pictures of an era. Exhibition catalog, edited by Uwe M. Schneede. Hirmer, Munich 2011, p. 155.
  5. a b c Hubertus Butin: To Richter's October pictures . Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, Cologne 1991, p. 13.
  6. Gerhard Richter, quoted from Stefan Germer: Unbelievable memory . In: Gerhard Richter. October 18, 1977 . Exhibition catalog. Museum Haus Esters, Krefeld and Portikus, Frankfurt am Main, Cologne 1989, p. 51.
  7. Gerhard Richter, quoted from Über Pop, Ost-West and some of the picture sources. Uwe Schneede in conversation with Gerhard Richter . In: Gerhard Richter. Pictures of an era. Exhibition catalog, edited by Uwe M. Schneede. Hirmer, Munich 2011, p. 110.
  8. ^ Hubertus Butin: To Richter's October pictures . Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, Cologne 1991, p. 15.
  9. a b Hubertus Butin: To Richter's October pictures . Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, Cologne 1991, p. 16.
  10. ^ Hubertus Butin: To Richter's October pictures . Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, Cologne 1991, p. 18.
  11. ^ A b Gerhard Storck in: Museum for Modern Art, Frankfurt am Main (ed.): Gerhard Richter. October 18, 1977 . 2nd Edition. Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, Cologne 1991, p. 15.
  12. ^ Hubertus Butin: To Richter's October pictures . Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, Cologne 1991, p. 48.
  13. ^ Martin Henatsch, Gerhard Richter. October 18, 1977. The blurred picture of history . Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1998, p. 79.
  14. ^ Jan Thorn-Prikker: Gerhard Richter. October 18, 1977 . In: Parkett (magazine) , No. 19, March 1989, p. 125.
  15. a b Hubertus Butin: Gerhard Richter's RAF cycle in art criticism . In: Kunstforum International . Volume 215 (2012), p. 90.
  16. CM: A note on Richter's photographic models for October 18, 1977 . In: Robert Storr: Gerhard Richter October 18, 1977 . The Museum of Modern Art / Hatje Cantz 2000, p. 149.
  17. ^ Hubertus Butin: To Richter's October pictures. Writings on the collection of the Museum of Modern Art, Frankfurt am Main. Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, Cologne 1991, p. 23 f.
  18. Ortrud Westheider: An idea that goes to death. The cycle '18. October 1977 ' . In: Uwe W. Schneede: Gerhard Richter: Pictures of an Era . Exhibition catalog. Hirmer Verlag, Munich 2011, pp. 154–194, here: p. 161.
  19. Ortrud Westheider: An idea that goes to death. The cycle '18. October 1977 ' . In: Uwe W. Schneede: Gerhard Richter: Pictures of an Era . Exhibition catalog. Hirmer Verlag, Munich 2011, pp. 154–194, here: p. 161.
  20. ^ Benjamin HD Buchloh: Gerhard Richter: October 18, 1977 . In: Museum of Modern Art, Frankfurt am Main (Ed.): Gerhard Richter. October 18, 1977 . 2nd Edition. Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, Cologne 1991, p. 55.
  21. Quoted from Ortrud Westheider: An idea that goes to death. The cycle '18. October 1977 ' . In: Uwe W. Schneede: Gerhard Richter: Pictures of an Era . Exhibition catalog. Hirmer Verlag, Munich 2011, pp. 154–194, here: p. 161.
  22. Ortrud Westheider: An idea that goes to death. The cycle '18. October 1977 ' . In: Uwe W. Schneede: Gerhard Richter: Pictures of an Era . Exhibition catalog. Hirmer Verlag, Munich 2011, pp. 154–194, here: p. 158.
  23. ^ Bazon Brock: Kinderkramkunst. From the RAF myth to the art myth . In: specifically , No. 11, November 2003, p. 45.
  24. Quoted from Hubertus Butin: Gerhard Richter's RAF cycle in art criticism . In: Kunstforum International . Volume 215 (2012).
  25. Quoted from Hubertus Butin: Gerhard Richter's RAF cycle in art criticism . In: Kunstforum International . Volume 215 (2012).
  26. ^ Hubertus Butin: Gerhard Richter's RAF cycle in art criticism . In: Kunstforum International . Volume 215 (2012).
  27. ^ Jean-Christophe Ammann: The work as a menetekel . In: Zyma , No. 5, November / December 1989.
  28. ^ Donald Kuspit: All our Yesterdays . In: Artforum International . Vol. 28, No. 8 (April 1990), p. 132.
  29. Alexander Braun: Gerhard Richter. October 18, 1977 . In. Art Forum International . Volume 145 (1999).
  30. ^ Hubertus Butin: Gerhard Richter's RAF cycle in art criticism . In: Kunstforum International . Volume 215 (2012).
  31. ^ Robert Storr: Gerhard Richter October 18, 1977 . Hatje Cantz, 2000, p. 121.
  32. ^ Robert Storr: Gerhard Richter October 18, 1977 . Hatje Cantz, 2000, p. 123.
  33. ^ Robert Storr: Gerhard Richter October 18, 1977 . Hatje Cantz, 2000, p. 127.
  34. ^ Stefan Germer: Uninvited memory . In: Museum of Modern Art, Frankfurt am Main (Ed.): Gerhard Richter. October 18, 1977 . 2nd Edition. Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, Cologne 1991, p. 51 f.
  35. Hans Joachim Müller: The reinvention of history painting . In: DIE WELT of February 4, 2011 .
  36. Amine Haase: History painting in times of the Post-Histoire. For example Luc Tuymans and Gerhard Richter . In: Kulturforum International . Volume 214 (2012).
  37. ^ Martin Henatsch: Gerhard Richter. October 18, 1977. The blurred picture of history . Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1998, p. 49.
  38. ^ Martin Henatsch: Gerhard Richter. October 18, 1977. The blurred picture of history . Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1998, p. 53.
  39. ^ Martin Henatsch: Gerhard Richter. October 18, 1977. The blurred picture of history . Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1998, p. 54.
  40. ^ Kai-Uwe Hemken: Gerhard Richter. October 18, 1977 . Insel, Frankfurt am Main 1998, p. 147.
  41. Jürgen Hohmeyer: The end of the RAF, graciously painted away . In: Der Spiegel , edition 7/1989.
  42. ^ Hubertus Butin: To Richter's October pictures . Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, Cologne 1991, p. 5.
  43. Dresdner Bank, which supported the museum's friends' association in a special way, withdrew its financial commitment. She said the work would damage the memory of her chairman, Jürgen Ponto , who was murdered by the RAF .
  44. gerhard-richter.com
  45. Berliner Zeitung
  46. ^ Dorothee Achenbach: Stammheim over the sea of ​​fog . In: Die Welt from February 21, 2012
  47. ^ Dorothee Achenbach: Stammheim over the sea of ​​fog . In: Die Welt from February 21, 2012
  48. gerhard-richter.com
  49. gerhard-richter.com
  50. Der Spiegel from January 28, 2005.
  51. Press comments on the exhibition
  52. gerhard-richter.com: Atlas sheet 470-479
  53. New Gallery Graz
  54. Quoted from Richter's RAF cycle sold to New York: cultural gain or loss? A conversation with Hubertus Butin. In: Kulturforum International . Volume 132 (1995).
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on October 23, 2019 .