As art gallery or art gallery one is Kunstmuseum referred mainly works of painting ( painting exhibits). Usually it is a permanent exhibition .
The oldest evidence of picture galleries comes from India, where three types of galleries ( chitrasalas ) were distinguished: palace galleries, public and private galleries.
The term Pinakothek ( ancient Greek πινακοθήκη pinakothḗkē "picture room, painting collection") referred to the room of a temple or house in which pinakes or panel paintings were kept. A well-known antique art gallery was the Heraion of Samos . According to Vitruvius , such rooms should be large and facing north because of the light and accessible from the peristyle . Other rooms, on the other hand, that were used to store representative paintings, such as the Lesche der Knidier in Delphi or the Stoa Poikile in Athens, were not referred to as art galleries.
The usual name Pinakothek for the north wing of the Propylaea on the Athens Acropolis , in which votive gifts were kept, is not ancient.
In the Uffizi Gallery in Florence , a galleria on the upper floor was used to display pictures as early as the 16th century . One of the first independent gallery buildings for the exhibition of art was created with the Gemäldegalerie Düsseldorf, which was built between 1709 and 1712 . The oldest preserved princely gallery and museum building in Germany is the Sanssouci picture gallery , built between 1755 and 1764 . In the 17th and 18th centuries, a long, heavily windowed wing was so named in the palace, which was particularly suitable for the presentation of paintings . The Grand Gallery of the Louvre , where important paintings from the Italian and French schools were shown to the public for the first time, shaped the further history of the term . From then on, museums in particular were referred to as galleries that were set up specifically to present paintings.
The use of the term Pinakothek for a picture gallery goes back to King Ludwig I of Bavaria , who founded the Alte and Neue Pinakothek in Munich .
- Alte Pinakothek , Neue Pinakothek , Pinakothek der Moderne , Munich
- Anhaltische Gemäldegalerie , Dessau
- Picture gallery (Sanssouci) , Potsdam
- Galerie Neue Meister , Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister , Dresden
- Gemäldegalerie , Berlin
- Picture gallery , Dachau
- Gemäldegalerie , Düsseldorf
- Old Masters Picture Gallery , Kassel
- Staatsgalerie Neuburg , Neuburg an der Donau
- Brukenthal painting collection , Sibiu, Romania
- Dulwich Picture Gallery , London, UK
- Fondation Beyeler , Riehen, Switzerland
- Picture gallery of the Academy of Fine Arts , Vienna, Austria
- Louisiana Museum of Modern Art , Humlebæk, Denmark
- National Museum Kiev Art Gallery , Kiev, Ukraine
- Pinacoteca Ambrosiana , Milan, Italy
- Pinacoteca di Brera , Milan, Italy
- Pinacoteca do Estado de Sao Paulo , Brazil
- Pinacoteca Giovanni e Marella Agnelli , Turin, Italy
- Residenzgalerie , Salzburg, Austria
- Vatican Pinacoteca (part of the Vatican Museums ), Vatican City, Italy
Former picture galleries
- Pinacothèque de Paris (closed), France
- Orléans Collection (historical), Paris, France
- Painting collection of the Ravené family , Berlin
- W. Ehrlich: Greek panel painting and the creation of the Pinakothek. In: Altertum 23 (1977), pp. 110-119
- Walter Hatto Gross : Pinacotheca. In: The Little Pauly (KlP). Volume 4, Stuttgart 1972, column 855.
- Christoph Höcker : Metzler Lexicon of Ancient Architecture. 2nd edition Metzler, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-476-02294-3 . P. 196
- ↑ Gemäldegalerie, the . On duden.de
- ↑ C. Sivaramamurthy: Chitrasalas: Ancient Indian Art Galleries . In: K. Ramakoteshwara Rao (ed.): Triveni: Journal of Indian Renaissance . Sept.-Oct. 1934 (  ).
- ↑ Strabo : Geographika, 14637.
- ^ Vitruv: De architectura , 6.3.8.
- ^ Vitruvius: D e architectura, 1.2.7, 6.4.2, 7.3.