VEB Flugzeugwerke Dresden
4th December 1958
|Number of pieces:||
The 152 also type 152 or aircraft 152 , sometimes after its designer Brunolf Baade as Baade 152 named, was the first developed in the 1950s, German passenger jet aircraft and the most important project of aircraft in the German Democratic Republic (GDR). It was manufactured by VEB Flugzeugwerke Dresden (FWD). However, after the manufacture of three prototypes for flight testing and the start of series production, the project was discontinued in 1961 after the lack of orders from the Soviet Union and other countries due to a lack of economic efficiency and a lack of sales opportunities. The aircraft is also known in part as Baade B-152 , Dresden 152 , Type 152 , VEB 152 or VL-DDR 152 . The designation BB-152 or BB 152 for Baade / Bonin, which is sometimes used in the literature, is historically incorrect and has never been used officially.
A group of German aircraft engineers (including former Junkers employees) who had been forcibly recruited to the Soviet Union as part of the Ossawakim campaign after the Second World War had already in 1953 in Sawjelowo, north of Moscow , a twin- engine bomber with the designation ( EF) 150 (later the Alexejew 150 ) and started developing a jet airliner under the name Project 15.2 . The first version of the new aircraft was basically created by geometrically enlarging the (EF) 150 .
After their return to the GDR, they continued their work in the Dresden aircraft factory and improved the drafts of the 15.2 according to new knowledge. The new aircraft was then given the designation 152 as early as 1955 . This symbolized the last step in the development of the Junkers aircraft family, which came to an end with the "development aircraft" (EF) such as the aforementioned EF 150. As chief designer acted Brunolf Baade , who had until the end of the war led a development department at Junkers in Dessau and then to 1954 the development group in the Soviet Union.
At that time, work was being carried out on the successor 153 with a turboprop drive, which should have a greater range. A 1: 1 mock-up was built and a functional prototype no longer came about. For the larger and longer-range Model 154 , a draft was completed in November 1955, the project was discontinued a little later. Another project was worked out with the 155 until the early 1960s.
Start of construction and testing
After great difficulty in obtaining materials and by delays by the construction of the jet engines of the type Pirna 014 the first German passenger jet aircraft was on 30 April 1958 in the presence of the SED CHEFS Walter Ulbricht and under great public interest in Dresden-Klotzsche presented become. At the time of this early rollout , the machine had a degree of completion of around 30%; so the engine nacelles were still empty. The front glazing for the navigator and the tandem landing gear were particularly striking on the first prototype 152 / I V1 . The main landing gear was located directly under the central axis of the fuselage (see for comparison Boeing B-47 and Boeing B-52 ), so support wheels were required to prevent lateral tilting. This landing gear arrangement proved to be unfavorable for a traffic machine, the later machines 152 / II received a landing gear that could be retracted into the engine nacelle. The construction work required for this led to serious problems and delays in the production of further test and pre-series samples.
Since the availability of the planned Pirna 014 engines was delayed, Soviet afterburner engines of the Tumanski RD-9 B type from the military sector were used in the first test machine .
The first 35-minute test flight with the prototype 152 / I V1 with the aircraft registration DM-ZYA took place on December 4, 1958 with the crew of captain Willi Lehmann ( pilot ), Kurt Bemme ( copilot ) and Paul Heerling ( flight engineer ) on board. This test flight already took place to the exclusion of public awareness. At the beginning of the program, a first flight was aimed for in 1956. So it was already two years behind the initial planning.
Crash of the 152 / I V1
The second test flight was carried out on March 4, 1959 with the first machine built. A change to the flight program that had been planned for some time by Baade and the commander of the 152 / I V1 , Willi Lehmann, was implemented at short notice in order to make film and photo recordings of the 152 during a low flyby with the landing gear retracted. A request made by Captain Lehmann to increase the maximum speed from 500 to 600 km / h had previously been rejected. Baade planned to use these photos and films two days later for a lecture at the Leipzig Trade Fair. The machine was not yet approved for this risky maneuver. A demonstration flight over the exhibition grounds in Leipzig was also planned for the afternoon in order to impress Soviet party leader Khrushchev and thus improve sales opportunities.
The flight ended shortly before the low flyby after 55 minutes 5.7 kilometers from the runway at Ottendorf-Okrilla with a crash. The four crew members Captain Willi Lehmann, copilot Kurt Bemme, flight engineer Paul Heerling and flight test engineer Georg Eismann were killed. They were buried in a communal grave at the New Klotzsche Cemetery. The investigation into the cause of the crash was limited to just one week on the instructions of Ulbricht. The investigation report was immediately confiscated by the Ministry of State Security and the contents were kept silent. Only parts of the investigation report are known to date.
The aircraft crashed due to a stall due to too high an angle of attack . The primary cause of this flight condition could not be determined unequivocally during the investigation into the accident. In the investigation report, the crew was held responsible for the crash, having turned the aircraft too hard when intercepting it from a too steep descent with idling engines and at the same time increasing the thrust too late. In fact, it takes the RD-9 about 17 to 20 seconds to reach full load from idle. The flight profile reconstructed from at least three records found by the control devices and all witness statements do not contradict such a process.
During subsequent defuelling attempts (September 7, 1960) on the 152 / II V4 it was found that the ventilation of the tank system was inadequate. At least in the case of the 152 / II V4, this led to the fact that the tanks, which consisted of rubber bags hanging in the surfaces, contracted and partially tore from their fastenings. This meant that safe operation of the engines could no longer be guaranteed. To this day, the assumption is widespread that similar problems in the tank system caused the failure of all four engines in the first prototype and thus triggered the crash. An argument against such a sequence with engine failure is that it can be regarded as certain that all four engines were running about 20 seconds before the impact during the last radio contact and also at the moment of the 152 / I V1 impact . This variant of the explanation cannot therefore be reconciled with the few reliable findings about the course of the flight.
Increasing delays and end of the program
Initially, work on the completion of a second airworthy test vehicle 152 / II V4 was continued. This was called the second prototype series with 152 / II (the crashed first version was henceforth called 152 / I to distinguish it ). In contrast to the first prototype, the 152 / II had a three-legged landing gear; the bow glazing was omitted in favor of a radar and four newly developed pilot series Pirna-014 A-0 engines were now used. The 152 / II V4 took off on August 26 and September 4, 1960 with the registration number DM-ZYB for two more test flights of 22 and 20 minutes respectively.
A third prototype with the designation 152 / II V5 (registration DM-ZYC ) with Pirna-014 A-0 was completed on September 7, 1960. On the same day, defueling attempts were made with the 152 / II V4 , which revealed the aforementioned deficiencies in the fuel system. The 152 / II V5 was only used on the ground for quick attempts at taxiing up to 160 km / h and, contrary to the original plan, it was never flown.
At the time of the two flights of the 152 / II V4 , it was already more than three years behind the original plan. Due to the problems with the tank system, the 152 had lost its clearance certificate (flight permit) on November 1, 1960. As a result, a further year delay had to be expected. At the beginning of 1961 it was hoped to be able to resume flight tests at the end of the year. The originally modern design of the 152 became increasingly obsolete even in its improved version 152 / II due to the ever increasing delays. This reduced the already limited marketing opportunities even more. The type certification and delivery to Deutsche Lufthansa (Ost) had been delayed by about four years and were now scheduled for 1963. The 152 would have been put into service years too late as an out-of-date aircraft. In the meantime, contrary to the original promise to purchase around 100 copies of the 152 , the Soviet Union had repeatedly declared from the end of 1959 that it would not acquire any type 152 aircraft . In the meantime, after turning away from lucrative bomber construction, the Soviet aircraft industry had discovered the civil aircraft market for itself and pushed onto the market with in-house developments such as the Tupolev Tu-104 (first flight in 1955, commissioned in 1956) and Tu-124 (first flight in 1960, commissioned in 1962). Attempts to build sales of the 152 in South America and Africa failed. This left only the domestic requirements of Deutsche Lufthansa (GDR) and the NVA with fewer than 30 machines. As a result, profitable production of the 152 was no longer possible.
On February 28, 1961, the Politburo of the SED made the decision to stop aircraft construction in the GDR. The public was informed of this decision on March 17, 1961. On April 5, 1961, this decision was confirmed by the Central Committee of the SED.
On June 20, 1961, a last flight of a Pirna 014 engine took place on a test vehicle Ilyushin Il-28 R, which can be regarded as the end of the development program of the 152 .
On July 13, 1961, the GDR Council of Ministers finally resolved to dissolve the aviation industry, although in the summer of 1960 it had still been decided to have at least a series of 16 units built for domestic needs. Until the end of the project, the expenditures for the aircraft industry amounted to around two billion GDR marks.
Due to the time pressure, a limited series had been issued until the program was canceled, although the interrupted test flight program was still at the beginning. The machines with the construction numbers 08 (identification DM-SCA ) and 09 intended for the German Lufthansa (GDR) were largely completed at the time of the termination of the program and should also be used in the test program to speed up type approval. Other machines up to serial number 13 were in production.
Except for an insignificant remainder, the GDR's aircraft industry has now been smashed. Almost all type 152 machines that had already been completed or were in production were scrapped in a flash. In addition to some components and assemblies from the serial production that had started, hull No. 11 was preserved and restored from 1995. Today it is kept in a side hall of Dresden Airport.
On December 31, 1961, VVB Flugzeugbau was officially dissolved . As early as October 1, 1961, the Dresden part of the business, in which all of the 152 had been built, was given the name VEB Flugzeugwerft Dresden .
After the end of aircraft construction, Brunolf Baade was appointed director of the Institute for Lightweight Construction at TU Dresden , which took on 700 aircraft construction employees. His chief developer Hans Wocke , who was responsible for wing development at Junkers, brought out the HFB 320 Hansajet with the typical negative wing position in 1964 for the Hamburg aircraft construction company in Finkenwerder, a forerunner of the later Airbus industry .
In the following years, potato harvesting machines for agriculture were manufactured in the factory's factory halls at Dresden-Klotzsche Airport . Later, aerodynamically demanding sports equipment such as racing bobsleighs and racing bikes were developed and built for the national team of the GDR and other selected customers.
Since the end of 152 production, VEB Flugzeugwerft Dresden has been responsible for repair and maintenance of the Interflug aircraft of the Ilyushin Il-14 P type and maintenance for over 2000 Soviet fighter planes of the MiG series ( MiG-15 , -17 , -21 , -23 ) and 300 helicopters ( Mil Mi-2 , -4 , -8 , -24 ) for the air force of the NVA and members of the Warsaw Pact are the main activities of the company. Dresden is still an important location for German aircraft construction today. The Elbe Flugzeugwerke of the Airbus Group are now located in Dresden-Klotzsche on the site of the former Dresden aircraft factory . The Institute for Lightweight Construction (actually: Institute for Lightweight Construction and Economic Use of Materials , IfL) became the Central Institute for Economic Metal Use in 1988 and, after the fall of the Wall, the IMA Institute for Material Research and Application Technology GmbH (today IMA Material Research and Application Technology GmbH, IMA Dresden), who continue to operate a hall at the airport, in which aircraft structure examinations are carried out together with IABG .
Test aircraft and beginning series production
|152 / I||V1||DM-ZYA||December 4, 1958||Crash during the second flight on March 4th, 1959|
|V2||-||static test cell||1962–1984 training object for the fire brigade in Berlin-Schönefeld , scrapped|
|V3||Planned 2nd flying prototype, construction freeze in 1958|
|152 / II||V4||DM-ZYB||August 26, 1960||second / last flight 4.9.1960||Scrapped in 1961|
|V5||DM-ZYC||-||Completion September 7, 1960, only ground testing / roll tests up to 160 km / h due to flight ban|
|V6||static test cell|
|08||DM-SCA||for Deutsche Lufthansa (GDR) , almost completed||The trunk was scrapped in Marxwalde in 1988 , the trunk segment on display in Gellmersdorf|
|09||DM-SCB||for NVA air forces with fourth place for navigator, almost finished (without engines)||scrapped|
|10||for Deutsche Lufthansa (GDR), 60% completed|
|11||for German Lufthansa (GDR), fuselage||via Bautzen to Rothenburg , restored from 1995, exhibited at Dresden Airport|
|12||for NVA air forces, fuselage||scrapped|
|Parameter||Data 152 / I||Data 152 / II|
|height||9.53 m||9.00 m|
|Takeoff mass||43.6 t (60 passengers)||46.5 t (72 passengers)|
|Cruising speed||765 km / h||800 km / h|
|Takeoff route||1830 m|
|Range||2020 km (40 passengers)||2430 km (48 passengers)|
|Engines||4 × Tumanski RD-9 B with 30.9 kN thrust each||4 × Pirna 014 with 32.3 kN thrust each|
The whereabouts of the 152 / exhibitions
Today original parts of the 152 can still be viewed in three exhibitions.
In the Dresden Transport Museum are u. a. the Pirna 014 engine and the aircraft's landing gear on display.
The reconstructed fuselage of the series aircraft 11 is in a hall at Dresden-Klotzsche airport . The fuselage escaped destruction at the NVA airfield in Rothenburg and was used there until 1990 as a lounge for the pilots and as a warehouse.
A third exhibition is located near the Crussow airfield , here you can see a fuselage segment of the serial aircraft 08 (formerly NVA airfield Marxwalde in Neuhardenberg ). This exhibition in the Flugsportinformationszentrum (FIZ) in Gellmersdorf also shows a model of the 152 / I V1 on a scale of 1:33. The entire building (a former pigsty) was designed as 152, on a 1: 1 scale. Leading engineers Brunolf Baade (1904–1969), Fritz Freytag (1908–1975) and Johannes Haseloff (1898–1978) “stand” at the bow .
- List of aircraft types
- Parallel and successor developments of 152: 153 , 154 , 155 ; 160
Books and specialist journals as well as articles on the subject that have been published in various specialist journals are named.
- Heinz AF Schmidt (Hrsg.): Fliegerjahrbuch der GDR. Yearbooks 1958, 1959, 1960 and 1961, Berlin.
- Hans Ahner : Start the test flight. Berlin 1960.
- Helmut Erfurth : The great book of GDR aviation, civil aviation 1945 to 1990. GeraMond, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-7654-7216-6 .
- Holger Lorenz : The “152” passenger jet. Marienberg 2003.
- Holger Lorenz: License plate "Junkers". Marienberg 2005.
- Holger Lorenz: Variant I of the GDR jet “Baade 152”. Marienberg 2010, ISBN 978-3-931770-92-1 .
- Holger Lorenz: The causes of the crash of the GDR jet “Baade 152”. Marienberg 2011, ISBN 978-3-931770-93-8 .
- Holger Lorenz: The variant II of the GDR jet "Baade 152". Marienberg 2013, ISBN 978-3-9815849-0-5 .
- Klaus-Hermann Mewes: Pirna 014. Oberhaching 1997.
- Jürgen Michels / Jochen Werner : Luftfahrt Ost 1945–1990 (= Die deutsche Luftfahrt. Volume 22). Bonn 1994, ISBN 3-7637-6109-8 .
- Reinhard Müller : Brunolf Baade and the aviation industry of the GDR. The true story of the jet airliner 152. Erfurt 2010, ISBN 978-3-86680-721-1 .
- Karl-Dieter Seifert : way and crash of the Interflug. Berlin 1994, ISBN 3-89488-071-6 (Chapter: Our own industry and its products. Pp. 59–63).
- Lothar Brehmer (Ed.): Aviation in Saxony. A historical outline. Leipzig 1998, ISBN 3-932019-32-6 (Chapter: Development of an aircraft industry in Eastern Germany after 1945. pp. 47–114).
- Lothar Brehmer / Jochen Werner: Tragedy 152 - Construction and crash of the aviation industry in the GDR. Markkleeberg 2010, ISBN 978-3-86729-074-6 .
- Journals (and individual articles)
- Deutsche Flugtechnik, born 1957–1961, Dresden
- Grand piano of the homeland born 1956–1960, Berlin
- Aerosport, born 1960, Berlin
- Flieger-Revue, special issue No. 1 GDR aircraft construction , Berlin 1991
- Flugwelt 11/1956 A new turbo airliner
- Flugwelt 2/1959 Aircraft construction in the east
- Flugwelt 5 / 1961–11 / 1961 This is how the red Stratojet came about. (created in collaboration with Fritz Freytag)
- Between mosaic and unity. Magazines in the GDR Dearest, I'll be a pilot. (Author: Thomas Kramer)
- Modellbau & Basteln 3/1958 The 152nd (Author: Peter Stache)
- Urania Universe 1959 runway free for our 152nd (Author: Ulrich Queck)
- We are proud of aircraft manufacturers. (1958) (Author: Walter Kunzel)
- VDI-Nachrichten August 18th 1971 Baade B-152 / The forgotten jet. (Author: Hans H. Werner)
- Sächsische Zeitung 1990–1994: Various articles on the subject of aircraft construction in the GDR (Author: Hans Ahner)
- Aero International n.d. Metamorphosis of a bomber. (Author: Hans-Jürgen Becker)
- Aerokurier 9/1990 The 152nd (Author: Kurt Lamm)
- Aviation 7/1991 Baade B 152. (Author: Karl Morgenstern)
- Airplane 1/1992 The forgotten jet - the first German jet airliner. (Author: Frank Radzicki)
- AeroSpace 3/1998 The 152nd (Author: Karl Morgenstern)
- Rainer W. During: GDR jet type 152 . In: Flugzeug Classic . No. 2 , 2001, ISSN 1617-0725 .
- Aero International 12/2008, p. 84 ff (Author: Karl Morgenstern)
- Themed magazines
- Heinz Hartlepp: Development of the Pirna 014 turbojet engine and the 152 airliner. Munich 1991.
- Gerhard Barkleit and Heinz Hartlepp: On the history of the aviation industry in the GDR 1952–1961. Dresden 1995.
- Gerhard Barkleit: The role of the Ministry for State Security in building the aviation industry of the GDR reports and studies. Dresden 1995.
- People with Wings (GDR 1960, directed by Konrad Wolf )
- The Crash of the 152 , MDR documentary from the series Forgotten Disasters (1999)
- The 152.
- Beginning and end of the last Junkers aircraft (Ju) 152 in the GDR by Holger Lorenz
- The plane that never existed
- The crash of the red eagle
- Baade 152 promotional film from 1960
- ^ Tomb for the pilots Georg Eismann, Paul Heerling, Kurt Bemme and Willi Lehmann who died on March 4, 1959. Deutsche Fotothek, April 1992, accessed on February 21, 2016 .
- ^ GDR aircraft construction - rise and fall. In: FR-Extra, 1 / 199.1
- ↑ Holger Lorenz : The Passenger Jet 152. Self-published, 2007, ISBN 978-3-931770-69-3 .
- ↑ cf. the article by Morgenstern / Aero International
- ↑ First German Ziviljet Baade 152 ( Memento of 9 December 2008 at the Internet Archive ), Geschichte.aero
- ^ Website about the Hansajet
- ↑ Aircraft construction in Dresden: Know-how from decades ( Memento from February 3, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), Elbe Flugzeugwerke GmbH
- ↑ Company history. IMA Dresden, accessed on September 11, 2019 .
- ↑ Sebastian Steinke: First German passenger jet aircraft. In: Flugrevue.de. October 3, 2019, accessed October 7, 2019 .
- ↑ Jeanette Bederke: A house like an airplane: Flying with Willi in the Uckermark. In: Schweriner People's Newspaper . November 25, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2019 .