Ilyushin Il-28

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Ilyushin Il-28
Ilyushin Il-28
Ilyushin Il-28R
Type: Medium weight bomber
Design country:

Soviet Union 1923Soviet Union Soviet Union



First flight:

July 8, 1948



Production time:

1950 to the late 1960s

Number of pieces:

over 6700

Monument with Ilyushin Il-28 in Tokmok , Kyrgyzstan

The Ilyushin Il-28 ( Russian Ильюшин Ил-28 , NATO code name : Beagle ) was a Soviet twin- engined front - bomb aircraft of the Cold War era . From the design office Ilyushin developed, it was used by the state aircraft factory in Moscow , Irkutsk , Omsk and Voronezh produced in large numbers. Outside the Soviet Union, the Il-28 was in service in Afghanistan , Egypt , Albania , the ČSSR , the GDR , Finland , Indonesia , Nigeria , Poland , Romania and Hungary . In China it was also manufactured under license in large numbers as the Harbin H-5 from 1971 . This pattern is in the Air Force of North Korea is still in use, in Romania the planes until 2001 in use. A further development called the Il-30 was discontinued before its maiden flight.


The first drafts existed since the spring of 1947. The predecessor model was the Il-24, which in turn was based on the Il-22 . The first prototype took off on July 8, 1948, flown by Vladimir Kokkinaki , for its maiden flight and was equipped with two British Rolls-Royce Nene turbines. After the factory and state trials, series production began in 1949. The first copies still received the RD-45F engine, which was soon replaced by the more powerful Klimow WK-1 . On July 8, 1951, the Il-28 was presented to the public at the air parade at Tuschino airfield . The Soviet Union used this type for about 15 years in a wide variety of variants. In the GDR, the Pirna 014 engines of the first German post-war passenger aircraft 152 were tested with this type . The turbine was located under the fuselage and the three aircraft used for it had a civilian license plate.


School version Il-28U

The Il-28 is a cantilever all-metal aircraft with a circular fuselage cross-section. There are five self-sealing fuel tanks behind the pilot's seat. The navigator and the pilot are equipped with ejection seats, the rear gunner not. The unswept wings are connected to the fuselage in a shoulder- wing arrangement and have a negative arrow shape on the trailing edge of the wing. The tail unit is also cantilevered, but swept. The nose wheel has double tires and is pulled into the fuselage, while the single-tyred main wheels with a track width of 7.40 m move into the engine nacelles after a 90 ° turn. The fuel supply of 7908 l is carried in three hull and two flat tanks.


designation features
Il-28U Version for pilot training. The glazed cockpit of the navigator was replaced by a fully clad bow; behind the cabin for the flight instructor was the normal cabin for the student. First flight of the prototype on March 18, 1950.
Il-28R Reconnaissance version with three to five AFA 32/20 series image devices and 12 to 18 light or flash bombs FOTAB-50-35 as well as additional tanks in the bomb bay. Some machines also received a radome under the fuselage. The chassis had bigger wheels. In contrast to the normal version, the Il-28R received only one instead of two 23 mm cannons in the nose of the fuselage. First flight on April 19, 1950.
Il-28T Torpedo variant built from 1950 with a bomb bay extended by 2.20 m and two wing end tanks, each with 333 l. It was used by the Soviet naval forces .
Il-28S Modification with Klimow WK-5 engines and wings swept by 35 °. Tried in 1949/50, but not built in series.
Il-28SA Special version for studying the earth's atmosphere. SA stands for Sondirowschtschik Atmosfery, Atmospheric Observer.
An unarmed version that was originally used by Aeroflot to train civilian pilots on jet aircraft. Later used as a mail and freight machine on the Moscow - Sverdlovsk - Novosibirsk route.
Harbin H-5
Chinese license production of the Il-28 with the tail stand of the Chinese bomber H-6 ( Tu-16 ). H is for Hongshai, Bomber.
Harbin HJ-5 Chinese license version of the Il-28U. HJ stands for Hongshai Jiaoliani, training bomber.
Harbin HZ-5 Chinese license version of the Il-28R. HZ stands for Hongshai Zenchai, bomber / reconnaissance aircraft.
Harbin HD-5 Chinese version of electronic warfare. HD stands for Hongshai Dian, Bomber / Electronics.

Technical specifications

Sketch of the Il-28
Egyptian Il-28U
Parameter Il-28 Il-28U
Conception Front bomb plane Trainer aircraft
crew 3
length 17.65 m
span 21.45 m
height 6.70 m
Wing area 60.80 m²
Empty mass 12,890 kg 12,500 kg
Takeoff mass normal 21,200 kg
maximum 23,200 kg
normal 17,000 kg
maximum 21,000 kg
Top speed near the ground 800 km / h
at an altitude of 4,500 m 902 km / h
910 km / h at an altitude of 4,500 m
Cruising speed 770 km / h 700 km / h
Landing speed 185 km / h
Rate of climb 15 m / s
Summit height 12,500 m 12,200 m
Rise time 6.5 min at 5,000 m altitude,
21 min at 10,000 m altitude
18 min at an altitude of 10,000 m
Range 2180 km 2260 km
Engines two Klimow WK-1 radial turbine air jet engines
with 26.46 kN take-off thrust each
Takeoff route 875-965 m 500 m
Landing route 960-1,170 m 400 m


Twin mount in rotating dome tower with 2 × 23 mm NR-23 machine guns

Pipe armament for self-defense

  • 2 × 23 mm automatic cannons NR-23 installed rigidly in the bow behind the glazing. Each MK had 80 shells of ammunition. The MK were fired on sight via sight.
  • 1 × twin mount in rotating dome tower with 2 × 23 mm NR-23 automatic cannons in the rear stand IL-K-10. Each MK had 225 shells of ammunition. The MK were fired at sight by the rear gunner via sights.

Drop weapons

Weapons can be loaded up to a maximum of 3000 kg in an internal bomb bay

Unguided bombs
  • 1 × FAB-3000M-46 (3000 kg free fall bomb )
  • 1 × FAB-1500M-46 (1500 kg free-fall bomb)
  • 1 × nuclear free fall bomb
Torpedoes (Il-28T only)
  • 2 × 45-56NT torpedo (450 mm, acoustically controlled with electric propeller drive)
  • 2 × RAT-52 torpedo (450 mm, acoustically controlled with rocket drive)
Guided bombs
  • 1 × UB-2F "Chaika" (radio-controlled 2240 kg bomb)


  • Rudolf Höfling: Ilyushin. Aircraft since 1933 . Motorbuch, Stuttgart 2013, ISBN 978-3-613-03604-8 .
  • Wilfried Copenhagen : Soviet bomb planes . Transpress, Berlin 1989, ISBN 3-344-00391-7 .
  • Wolfgang Zähle: Jet bomber Ilyushin II-28. (Cover story) In: FliegerRevue X No. 80 from 2019, pp. 84–99

Web links

Commons : Ilyushin Il-28  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Wilfried Copenhagen: The Il-28 bomber. In: Flieger Revue No. 1/1997, p. 42
  2. ^ Karl-Heinz Eyermann , Wolfgang Sellenthin: The air parades of the USSR. Central Board of the Society for German-Soviet Friendship, 1967. p. 37.