Ilyushin Il-76

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Ilyushin Il-76
Ilyushin Il-76TD ("Candid")
Ilyushin Il-76TD
Type: Transport plane
Design country:

Soviet Union 1955Soviet Union Soviet Union



First flight:

March 25, 1971


June 1974

Production time:

In series production since 1973

Number of pieces:

circa 960

The Ilyushin Il-76 ( Russian Ильюшин Ил-76 , NATO code name : "Candid" ) is a heavy transport aircraft that was developed in the Soviet Union and is still manufactured in Russia today. It has four jet engines of the type Soloviev D-30 . The aircraft is capable of transporting heavy military equipment such as tanks and guns . The military variant of the Il-76 is equipped with a rear cannon dome with 23 mm cannons. The crew consists of six to seven men. In terms of performance, the Il-76 is located between the Lockheed C-141 Starlifter and the Boeing C-17 . From December 2011 the manufacturer Ilyushin developed a modernized version called Il-76MD-90A, the first aircraft of this version was delivered in early 2015.


Development work on a successor to the An-12 began in the late 1960s under the direction of Ilyushin's chief designer , Genrich Novoschilow . The machine should be able to carry 40 t payload over a distance of 5000 km. The demand was handed over to Ilyushin by the Council of Ministers on November 27, 1967 . After a design review by the state authorities in May 1969, construction of the first prototype began in the early 1970s in Plant No. 240 at Chodinka Airport . The first flight of the prototype (registration number SSSR-86712 ) took place on March 25, 1971 by Eduard Kuznetsov from Chodinka airport. The state flight tests took place from Sheremetyevo . In May 1971 the prototype was presented to the public at the 29th  Paris Aerosalon . Series production began in 1973 in Tashkent , Uzbek SSR (the first series aircraft took off on May 8, 1973) and from 1974 the aircraft was delivered to the transport aviation forces (WTA, about 405 pieces) and from December 1976 to Aeroflot (over 120). The machine was officially put into service in the spring of 1976.

In July 1975, a series machine set 25 world records. A payload of 70 t was transported to a height of 11,875 m. Over a distance of 5000 km a speed of 816 km / h was flown with a payload of 40 t.

In addition to the Soviet Union and its successor states , the Il-76 was or is in use in Cuba , Iraq , Iran , Algeria , India , Libya , Hungary (registration number HA-TCB, Budapest location), South Korea and Syria . Negotiations with China for a total of US $ 1.5 billion for 38 Il-76 and Il-78 have been successfully concluded.

Production for the Soviet Union officially ended in 1992, and the last new machines left the factory in 1997. However, after 2000, orders from India for 6 machines Il-78MKI and additional A-50EI were won. Production took place from 1976 to 1997 in the Tschkalow works (TAPOiTsch, Russian ТАПОиЧ ) in Tashkent / Uzbekistan and was relocated to Ulyanovsk again in 2010 . Around 960 Il-76s have been built in the last 30 years, around 100 of which were exported to countries outside the former Soviet Union .

As the successor model for the Russian military is Tupolev Tu-330 provided.


2019 Landing of the Il-76MD on a dirt airfield

The Il-76 is a shoulder wing aircraft with a T-tail. The engines are located on pylons under the wings. In the lower part of the aircraft nose there are windows for the workstation of the navigator. The cantilever three-spar wing is swept by 25 ° and has a negative V-position of 4 °. It contains three fuel tanks with a total volume of 81,830 l. The entire leading edge of the wing is provided with slats . To keep landing speeds as low as possible, there are triple slotted flaps on the rear of the wing and eight-part spoilers are attached to the wings to shorten the taxiing distance after landing . The rudders of the Il-76 are driven by power amplifiers, but can also be switched to manual operation.

The aircraft is designed for use in a temperature range of −70 to +45 ° C, so it can be operated in the polar regions as well as in the warmer climates of the southern regions of Russia. To do this, the windshields and nose edges are electrically de-iced and the engine intakes are de-iced with hot bleed air . The pressure-ventilated cargo hold is 20 m long (basic version), has a volume of 235.28 m³ and a cross-section of 3.4 m × 3.4 m. Two 3-tonne winches and four ceiling trolleys with a load-bearing capacity of 10 tons are provided as a loading aid . The rear loading ramp consists of a hydraulically lowerable loading ramp and two hydraulically driven door shells. To stabilize the aircraft during loading, extendable supports are arranged in front of the loading ramp at the rear. The cabin floor is equipped with titanium fields, lashing fittings and roller ball mats.

The landing gear is designed for use on unpaved runways and can be adapted to the ground by changing the tire pressure from 2.5 to 5 kg / cm² during the flight. The main landing gear has 16 wheels (eight on each side, four on two axles one behind the other) and is swiveled by 90 ° when retracting. Tires measuring 1300 × 480 mm are used on the main landing gear. The forward retracting nose landing gear consists of 4 wheels on one axle and 1100 × 300 mm tires. All 20 wheels have hydraulic brakes and anti-lock braking systems.

Use / variants

Ilyushin Il-76T at Nyala Airport

Trial variants

  • Isdelije-176

Prototype of the Il-76PP

  • Isdelije-576

Prototype of the Il-76 with an unknown task.

  • Isdelije-676

Prototype used as a telemetry and communications transmission aircraft. It was used at the beginning of the trials.

  • Isdelije-776

Another prototype which was used as a telemetry and communication transmission aircraft at the beginning of the tests.

  • Isdelije-976 "SKIP"

The abbreviation Skip stands for airborne measurement test and monitoring center. To support the testing of the Ch-55 cruise missile and new aircraft types, five Il-76Ms were equipped with radomes analogous to the A-50.

  • Isdelije-1076

Prototype of the Il-76 for special operations of unknown kind.

  • Isdelije-1176

Prototype of an EKF variant, similar to the Il-76-11.

Il-76LL as a test vehicle for a D-236T propfan engine (1994)
  • Il-76LL

The Il-76LL (LL = Letajuschtschi Labor; flying laboratory) is a flying engine test bench with three ZTL engines, type Solowjow D-30KP (117.7 kN each) plus a test engine . Individual LLs act as flying test stands for a laser laboratory, electronic warfare or a synthetic aperture radar .

  • Il-76PS sea rescue aircraft

This variant is based on the Il-76MD, which is why it is sometimes also called Il-76MDPS. She has a small drop ship equipped with ten parachutes. Only a prototype was built. Its first flight took place on December 12, 1984.

Military versions

Three-sided tear
  • Il-76D ("Candid")

Basic variant for transporting paratroopers.

  • Il-76M ("Candid-B")

The improved variant with reinforced wings and additional tanks in the wings had its maiden flight on March 24, 1978.

  • Il-76MD ("Candid-B")

It has a further increased tank capacity and a larger take-off weight and is equipped with somewhat more powerful engines. It had its maiden flight on March 6, 1981. The Chinese KJ-2000 is also based on it .

  • Il-76MT ("Candid")

Two machines were converted into flying hospitals from 1983 onwards.

  • Il-76MF ("Candid")

The most modern further development of the aircraft flew for the first time on August 1, 1995. This model has a loading space that has been extended by 6.6 m and more powerful, but more economical PS-90A76 engines . This enables an increased loading weight of up to 52 t and a range increased by up to 15% (up to 5800 km). So far, however, only prototypes exist . There are contracts according to which the first ten aircraft of this type are to be delivered to the air force in 2010 . In the long term, the stock should include 100 machines.

  • Il-76T ("Candid-A")

First civil and military variant of the Il-76. Although it is equipped with a stern gun turret, it had civilian license plates and the Aeroflot markings .

  • Il-76WKP

Another name for the Il-82.

  • Il-78 ("Midas")

As a tanker aircraft , the aircraft is equipped with two 18,000 liter tanks (28 t of fuel), three air refueling containers (two Zvezda UPAS-1A Sakhalin or UPAS-1M for Il-78M and one PAS-1) and a control station in the rear and is in able to refuel three Sukhoi Su-24 fighter-bombers simultaneously in flight. On larger aircraft such as the Tupolev Tu-22M or Tupolev Tu-95 , the third refueling container, which is normally carried under the wing, is attached to the left stern of the fuselage. The wing stations can transfer around 2340 l / min, the rear station 4000 l / min. This tank version can be upgraded to the normal freight version at any time. The first flight took place on June 26, 1983. Series production began in 1984 at the state aircraft factory No. 84 in Tashkent. By the end of production in 1992, over 40 units had been built, of which currently only about ten are likely to be operational. One of the reasons is that 23 of them remained in Ukraine in 1991 and were converted back to cargo planes. A single export copy for Libya was named Il-76E. The Il-78M is a pure tanker version without a loading ramp and with reinforced wing roots . Their first flight took place on March 7, 1987. A version of the tanker for India was named Il-76MKI .

  • Il-78M-90A

The Il-78M-90A is a tanker aircraft derived from the civilian Il-76MD-90A. It should be able to refuel four aircraft with fuel at the same time and alternatively be used for transport tasks. The rollout of the first aircraft built at the Aviastar plant in Ulyanovsk was on November 29, 2017. The first flight took place on January 25, 2018.

The DRLO early warning version was developed in the late 1970s under the designation A-50 at Beriev in Taganrog under the direction of Alexei Konstantinow. The OKB Beriev made structural reinforcements of the cell. The radome of the WEGA-M Schmel ("Hummel") radar device is located on the back of the fuselage . This means that up to 50 targets the size of a MiG-21 can be detected and tracked at a distance of 200 km. The prototype first flew on December 19, 1978, production began in 1981. The antennas for communication via satellite are located under a panel on the fuselage in front of the wings. About 30 aircraft were converted in this way.

Testbed for a flying laser - energy weapon system against enemy missiles . However, the project was stopped due to the collapse of the USSR. The US had similar projects with the NKC-135A Laser Lab and the Boeing YAL-1 . In February 2018 it was announced that Russia was considering a new version of the A-60.

Successor to the Beriev A-50, which is based on the Ilyushin Il-76MD-90A.

  • Baghdad-1/2 or Adnan

Iraq created the early warning aircraft at the end of the 1980s by installing a French Tigre-G radar instead of the tailgate , a second got a radome on the back of the fuselage and the designation Adnan-2 (or Baghdad-2). Both planes were handed over to Iran. The Baghdad-2, known there as "Simorgh", crashed on September 22, 2009 during an air parade near Tehran. It was probably converted to a radar system manufactured by Iran. Baghdad-1 is stationed in Mehrabad and is not yet deployed (December 2009).

  • Il-82 (Il-76WKP)

To manage the nuclear submarine fleet, two Il-76s were equipped with an extendable 5 km antenna to flying command posts. The special feature of this variant is the striking paneling of the satellite antenna on the front fuselage area.

  • Il-76MD-90

A series-ready variant, which is optimized for use with airborne troops and is equipped with Perm PS-90A76 engines. It can accommodate either three airborne tanks or 128  paratroopers , in the two-story variant 225 soldiers with personal equipment and weapons. Two prototypes were built. The first flight took place on August 5, 2005.

Civil versions

  • Il-76MDK : The variant, also known as Il-76K, is used as a parabolic aircraft to simulate weightlessness when training cosmonauts. It has a reinforced hull structure and a clad cargo hold. The first flight took place on August 2, 1981. Three copies of this specially reinforced version were built. They are deployed from Svyosdny Gorodok (Star City) near Moscow. They are mainly used for cosmonaut training. Candidates must prove they can handle weightlessness.
  • Il-76P fire fighting aircraft : The fire extinguishing variant has a WAP-2 kit that can hold 44,000 kg of extinguishing agent that is released through the open tailgate.
  • Il-76T ("Candid-A"): First civil and military variant of the Il-76.
  • Il-76TD : Civilian variant of the Il-76MD. her maiden flight took place on May 5, 1982.
  • Il-76TF : Civilian variant of the Il-76MF.
  • Il-76MD-90A : This variant is based on the Il-76MD. The roll-out of the first prototype took place in December 2011 at Aviastar, the first flight on September 22, 2012 in Ulyanovsk . Four Perm PS90A-76s engines serve as the drive, the wings have also been reinforced, a modern digital cockpit has been scaffolded and the fuselage redesigned. The payload increased to 60 tons, the kerosene consumption is about 10% lower. This version is also known as the IL 476.


Stern automatic cannons of an Il-76
  • 2 × 23-mm automatic cannon Grjasew-Schipunow GSch-23 in twin mounts with 150 rounds of ammunition in the rear stand, which is operated manually by the rear gunner via an optical target sight. The installation took place only in military versions and comprised a separate pressure cabin of the type "UKU-9K-502-1" and has the same structure as in the Tu-22M . The fire control radar PRS-4 "Krypton" installed above the pulpit is used for control.
  • 2 × FAB-500 (500 kg free-fall bomb) on additional suspension points.

Self-defense systems

Incidents (selection)

  • On November 27, 1997, an Il-76MD of the Russian Air Force (RA-78804) had an accident shortly after taking off from Abakan Airport . All 23 occupants were killed in the accident.
  • On February 19, 2003, an Iranian Il-76MD with 257 soldiers of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard and 18 crew members on board hit a mountain; all people were killed. The machine was on the flight from Zahedan to Kerman .
  • On May 8, 2003, a Ukrainian Il-76 of Ukrainian Cargo Airways (UR-UCB) transported numerous soldiers and civilians in addition to vehicles. After the take-off in Kinshasa, the loading hatch opened, so that several people - officially 7, unofficially up to about 120 - fell from the plane. The machine then turned back to Kinshasa, where it could land.
  • On November 1, 2009, an unloaded Il-76 crashed shortly after take-off from a height of about 20 meters near the Russian city of Yakutsk . At the time of the accident the temperature was around −24 ° C. A total of eleven people died after the machine hit a mound of rubble shortly after takeoff and then crashed in an uninhabited area. The machine should bring emergency services from the North Caucasus. The cause of the accident is still unclear.
  • On November 27, 2010 ( UTC ), the Il-76TD with the registration number 4L-GNI of the Georgian Sun Way crashed into an adjacent residential area shortly after taking off from Karachi Airport , Pakistan . The trigger was engine damage to the right outer engine (engine 4), which disassembled and probably damaged part of the landing flaps . All eight people on board died, another three on the ground. The machine was overloaded by five tons. On several previous flights, several attempts and the activation of the engine de-icing were required in order to get engine 4 going. The engine explosion was then triggered by a corrosion-related fatigue fracture in the second compressor stage. The accident report also points out that the technical logbooks for the aircraft and engines were not available, that the prescribed overhaul time for all four engines was overdue and that the entire aircraft - without further maintenance - had already exceeded its maximum operating time by six years.
  • On November 30, 2012, an Il-76T (EK-76300) of Aéro-Service crashed into a residential area while approaching Brazzaville Airport in bad weather. All six crew members and 26 people died on the ground.
  • On June 14, 2014, pro-Russian separatists presumably shot down an Il-76 of the Ukrainian Air Force in the east of Ukraine while approaching Luhansk airport with 9K38 Igla surface-to-air missiles and heavy machine-gun fire. The 40 Ukrainian soldiers and 9 crew members on board were killed.
  • On April 11, 2018, an Ilyushin Il-76TD of the Algerian Air Force (7T-WIV) crashed into a field in the Blida province in northern Algeria shortly after taking off from the Boufarik air base near the capital Algiers , broke up and burned down. The aircraft was unable to gain altitude after takeoff. All 257 occupants, 247 soldiers and relatives and 10 crew members died (see also plane crash near Boufarik ) .
  • Two Ukrainian Il-76TDs (UR-CMC and UR-CRP) were destroyed on July 25, 2019 at the Libyan military airfield al-Jufra ( al-Jufra province ).

Technical specifications

Parameter Ilyushin Il-76M Ilyushin Il-76TD Ilyushin Il-76MD-90A
First flight March 24, 1978 May 5th 1982 22nd September 2012
number of pieces 242, of which 164 are still in service,
46 shut down and four without owners
k. A. under 10 (as of June 2013)
length 46.59 m 46.60 m
Wingspan 50.50 m
height 14.76 m 14.45 m
Wing area approx. 300 m²
Wing extension 8.5
Max. Hull diameter 4.80 m
Cargo hold width 3.46 m
Cargo space height 3.40 m
Hold length 20 m 25.75 m
Cargo hold volume 235.28 m³ 302.92 m³
Empty mass 92,000 kg 104,000 kg
Maximum payload 40,000 kg 48,000 kg 60,000 kg
Maximum take-off mass 170,000 kg 190,000 kg 210,000 kg
Wing loading 307-567 kg / m² 307-633 kg / m² 347-700 kg / m²
Engine (s) 4 × Solowjow D-30KP
with 118 kN thrust each
4 × Solowjow D-30KP Series 2
with 122 kN thrust each
4 × PS-90A-76
with 142.2 kN thrust each
Top speed 850 km / h
Cruising speed: 750 km / h 780 km / h
Landing speed 220 km / h 240 km / h
Service ceiling 15,500 m
Cruising altitude 9,000 m 12,000 m
Range 5,000 km (with 40 t payload)
4,200 km (with maximum payload)
5,400 km (with 40 t payload)
4,400 km (with maximum payload)
6,500 km (with 40 t payload)
4,000 km (with maximum payload)
Take-off run 850 m 1,700 m 1,600 m
Landing runway 450 m 1,000 m 930 m

See also

Web links

Commons : Ilyushin Il-76  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b IL-476 Prototype Revealed In: Air International. (English print edition), February 2012, p. 5; Modernized IL-476 Transport Assembled ' (English), technical information (English) at Il-476 CANDID - (both accessed January 2, 2012)
  2. Первый серийный самолет Ил-76МД-90А передан Минобороны России. Retrieved June 8, 2015 (Russian, in German: The first production aircraft Il-76MD-90A handed over to the Russian Ministry of Defense).
  3. Ilyushin Il-76 . In: FlugRevue . July 2008, p. 51-54 .
  4. The Il-76 Comes Home. In: May 27, 2007, accessed January 19, 2015 (English, Russia brings Il-76 home).
  5. ↑ Take- off and landing of an Il-76 at the Nord station
  6. Гонка шасси Ил-76 на земле. In: January 19, 2015, accessed on January 19, 2015 (Russian, retracting and extending the landing gear).
  7. Russia's tanker fleet in crisis . In: Fliegerrevue . No. 1 . Buch und Zeitschriften Verlag GmbH, Berlin 2009, p. 21-23 .
  8. Aviastar builds the Il-78M-90A tanker. In: Fliegerrevue No. 05/2015, p. 8.
  9. Dylan Malyasov: Russia rolls out first IL-78M-90A aircraft tanker. In: Defense Blog. November 29, 2017, accessed November 29, 2017 .
  10. Il-78M-90A advanced aerial refueling tanker performs debut flight. In: January 25, 2018, accessed January 28, 2018 .
  11. Dieter Stammer: Russia's flying radar screens . In: Fliegerrevue extra . No. 35 . Möller, 2011, p. 50 .
  12. La Russie relance son projet de laser embarqué!
  13. FulcrumPilot: IRIAF IL-76MD "Simorgh" (Phoenix) AWACS Crash. In: September 22, 2009, accessed January 19, 2015 (English, crash video).
  14. Tom Cooper , Liam F. Devlin: The Guardians of Iranian Airspace . In: Fliegerrevue extra . No. 27 , p. 23-24 .
  15. Jefim Gordon , Dmitri Kommissarow: Ilyushin Il-76 Variants . In: World Air Power Journal, No. 35, Winter 1998, p. 122
  16. Total weightlessness. Parabolic flight near Moscow. In: January 19, 2015, accessed on January 19, 2015 (zero gravity flights in the Il-76K in Svyosdny Gorodok).
  17. ^ A b Alexander Mladenov: The Rise of the New Candid . In: Air International . Key Publishing, Stamford June 2013, p. 38-43 (English).
  18. II-476 CANDID / II-76MD-90A. In: Retrieved January 19, 2015 .
  19. The Ilyushin Il-76 ( Memento from April 26, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  20. ^ Protection facilities for aircraft and helicopters. In: Retrieved January 19, 2015 .
  21. Aircraft accident data and report IL-76M CCCP-86036 in the Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on March 9, 2019.
  22. Aircraft accident data and report IL-76MD RA-78804 in the Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on April 1, 2017.
  23. Aircraft accident data and report Ilyushin 76MD UR-UCB Kinshasa in the Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on December 1, 2016.
  24. Air crash in the Congo: women and children among the more than 120 victims. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, May 8, 2003, accessed December 1, 2016 .
  25. Accident report IL-76TD 4K-AZ27 , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on January 23, 2019.
  26. Police plane crashed in Siberia - eleven dead. In: Sputnik Germany, November 1, 2009, accessed on January 19, 2015 .
  27. Crash: Sun Way IL76 at Karachi on Nov 28th 2010, engine fire. In: The Aviation Herald ., November 28, 2010, accessed January 19, 2015 .
  28. Aircraft accident data and report IL-76 4L-GNI in the Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on April 1, 2017.
  29. Flight International , March 21, 2017: Ilyushin was years beyond service life and 5t overweight (English), p. 14.
  30. The Aviation Herald - Crash: Silk Way IL76 4K-AZ55 near Bagram on Jul 6th 2011, impacted mountain (English) accessed on January 23, 2019.
  31. Aircraft accident data and report Ilyushin 76T EK76300 Brazzaville-Maya Maya Airport (BZV) in the Aviation Safety Network , accessed on April 1, 2017.
  32. Dozens of dead when an airplane was shot down. In: June 14, 2014, accessed January 19, 2015 .
  33. Aircraft accident data and report IL-76TD 7T-WIV in the Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on November 25, 2018.
  34. ^ Verband Deutscher Vermessungsingenieure eV (Ed.): Satellite images briefly explained (=  VDVmagazin . No. 5 ). 2019, p. 396 .