Electronic warfare ( EloKa ) includes telecommunications and electronic reconnaissance (Fm / EloAufkl) and electronic combat (EK). It records and evaluates opposing electromagnetic and acoustic emissions. Electronic combat measures such as disrupting, deceiving and neutralizing the opponent's capabilities for electronically assisted guidance, clarification and the effect of his forces and means are restricted, diverted or switched off. At the same time, the electronic warfare ensures the use of the electromagnetic and acoustic spectrum for the guidance of one's own forces and provides the effectiveness of the reconnaissance and weapon systems, etc. a. through electronic protective and countermeasures , safely. It contributes to information operations and to the effect in the information space.
Electronic warfare is divided into the following categories:
Telecommunication and electronic reconnaissance (Fm / EloAufKl; English signal intelligence - SIGINT)
- Telecommunications intelligence (Fm Aufkl; English communication intelligence - COMINT): Recording and analysis of third-party telecommunications
- Electronic reconnaissance (Elo Aufkl; English electronic intelligence - ELINT): Acquisition and evaluation of positioning, guidance, steering and navigation systems in the electromagnetic spectrum for information acquisition
Electronic warfare (EK; English electronic warfare - EW)
- Electronic countermeasures (EloGM; English electronic counter measures - ECM): prevent or limit the effective opposing use of the electromagnetic spectrum by using electromagnetic energy. Includes electronic jamming, deception and neutralizing
- Electronic protective measures (EloSM; English electronic protective measures, electronic counter counter measures - EPM, ECCM): tactical, operational and technical measures to ensure effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum in spite of opposing electronic countermeasures and to clarify own electromagnetic emissions by opposing forces prevent
- Electronic support measures (EloUM; English electronic support measures - ESM): Recording and evaluation of electromagnetic emissions in order to localize their origin, to recognize and defend against immediate threats, to protect own troops and to receive information relevant to the current military situation .
The radar devices for air reconnaissance are a means of electronic protective measures , for example to protect a ship of the navy from surprise attacks from the air. The opponent now uses telecommunications and electronic reconnaissance equipment to measure the frequency range of the radar device used from a great distance. This frequency powerful interference generator is ( English radar jammer ) set, which as an instrument of the electronic countermeasure is classified: This should substantially reduce the range of the radar or (through import of false information by overloading the radar receiver (noise or impulse noise) false targets ) mask your own target characters. The disturbed radar device now uses special assemblies to reduce the effect of the interference radiation or to render the interference ineffective. These interference suppression devices are devices of electronic protective measures .
The EloKa telecommunications unit of the German Armed Forces as an electronic warfare instrument is combined in the cyber and information space organizational area. There, the Strategic Reconnaissance Command leads, among other things, an evaluation center for electronic warfare and four EloKa battalions. In the army there are no longer any EloKa forces that can be deployed autonomously. Which the Marine below reconnaissance ships (fleet service boats) are also used by the Strategic Reconnaissance Command. Its crew is provided by the 2nd / Battalion Electronic Warfare 912 in Nienburg / Weser . In addition, the navy's frigates and corvettes have autonomous EloKa systems (FL1800 II, KORA, UL5000k, MRBR, RIGEL). The combat aircraft ( Eurofighter , Tornado ) of the German Air Force also have self-protection systems that work in the electromagnetic spectrum. In the future, the field of optronics will also be one of the tasks of the EloKa telecommunications team, which will also include the detection of laser signals.
Radio electronic combat ( FEK ) was a term comparable to electronic warfare in the armed forces of the former Warsaw Pact . According to AI Pali, the relevant standard work, the radio electronic combat was divided into the categories:
- Radio Electronic Reconnaissance (FEA)
- Radio electronic hold-down (FEN)
- Radio electronic interference
- Use of decoy targets, bait targets and dummies
- Effect on means / devices with electromagnetic (acoustic) emission
- Reduction of the visibility of one's own objects, military technology and staff
- Radio disinformation of the enemy
- Counteraction against the technical means of reconnaissance of the opponent (GTAG), until approx. 1980 radio electronic protection (FES)
Electronic warfare ( EKF ) is used in the Swiss Army as a term for electronic warfare. The EKF departments of the Swiss Armed Forces are subordinate to the Command Support Brigade 41 (FU Br 41). This in turn is divided into five headquarters battalions (HQ Bat), one command support battalion (FU Bat), four directional beam battalions (Ristl Bat) and three electronic warfare departments (EKF Abt) on the operational / tactical level and the EKF Department 46 for reconnaissance on the strategic level.
The four EKF Abt 51-53 have to create, operate, maintain and secure an operational electronic reconnaissance system (Op EA Syst) and a tactical electronic reconnaissance system (Takt EA Syst). The systems are designed for the greatest possible mobility and efficiency. Their primary area of application is the acquisition of short-term information about movements of the opponent for tactical decisions. During the European Football Championship in 2008 , departments 51 and 52 performed assistance.
Department 46, which mainly operates from permanent locations, deals with the procurement of strategic information at the army level.
Operational and tactical electronic reconnaissance is a means of obtaining information that is important from a security policy and military point of view by recording and evaluating external electromagnetic emissions. This essentially includes telecommunication connections (any type of wireless telecommunication traffic). The acquisition of news by the operational and tactical COMINT has the purpose of providing the commissioning body with contributions to assess the situation. The COMINT organization responsible in each case has the function of a news and information source. Funds for electronic countermeasures are currently lacking, but their acquisition is planned.
- Network Centric Warfare
- Secret radio reporting service
- Radio listening station
- General of Intelligence
- FM (Field Manual) 3-36: Electronic Warfare. (PDF; 1.9 MB). Fort Leavenworth , U.S. Army Combined Arms Center (CAC), Nov. 9, 2012.
- Don E. Gordon: Electronic warfare. Element of strategy and multiplier of combat power. Oxford / Washington DC / New York / u. a. 1982, ISBN 0-08-027189-8 .
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- Lothar Koch: Fight on all frequencies. Berlin 1988, ISBN 3-327-00641-5 .
- Josef Olischer: Electronic warfare. Vienna 2003, ISBN 3-901183-27-2 .
- Aleksandr I. Palij: Radio electronic fight. Means and methods of holding down and protecting radio electronic systems. 2nd edition, Berlin 1985.
- Anthony M. Willcox, Michael G. Slade, Peter A. Ramsdale: Command control and communications. Oxford / Washington DC / New York / u. a. 1983, ISBN 0-08-028332-2 .
- Desired disruptive factor: The Bundeswehr's mobile electronic warfare troops. ( Memento of February 6, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Website of the Armed Forces Base .
- Former Telecommunications Sector Reconnaissance Tower C
- Association Old Crows , German section
- Reconnaissance towers of the army on geschichtsspuren.de
- Telecommunications sector towers of the Air Force on geschichtsspuren.de
- Command support base FUB of the Swiss Armed Forces
- Federal Ministry of Defense (ed.): Conception of the Bundeswehr . August 9, 2004, p. 45 f ., Chapter 188.8.131.52 .
- The Strategic Reconnaissance Command on the Internet. January 17, 2018, accessed October 24, 2019 .
- Original name - Russian Радиоэлектронная Борьба (РЭБ) Radioelektronnaja Borba (REB)
- Pali: Radio Electronic Combat. ISBN 5-203-00176-6 , p. 8, radio electronic counteraction. 1989.
- Assistance service of FU Br 41 in favor of EURO 08. (No longer available online.) June 16, 2008, formerly in the original ; Retrieved August 16, 2008 . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.