List of Seljuq princes

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The Great Seljuks (1038–1194)

Name and title (simply transcribed and in DMG romanization ) Reign Remarks
Rukn ad-Dunya wa-d-Din Abu Talib Muhammad Toghril-Beg I.

(Rukn ad-Dunyā wa-'d-Dīn Abū Ṭālib Muḥammad Toġrïl-Beg I.)

  • founded after the victory over the Ghaznavids near Dandanqan (1040) together with his brother Tschaghri the Seljuk Empire
  • destroyed the Buyids and after entering Baghdad (1055) he was appointed sultan and "King of the East and West" (Malik al-mašriq wa-'l-maġrib) by the Abbasid Caliph
  • Residences: Nishapur (conquered 1038), Rey (1042/43 conquered) and Isfahan (1050/51 conquered)
  • Chaghri ruled in Eastern Iran - formally subordinate to him - until 1060
Abu Sulayman Chaghri-Beg Dawud

(Abū Sulaimān Čaġrї-Beg Dāwūd)

  • founded after the victory over the Ghaznavids near Dandanqan (1040) together with his brother Toghril the Seljuk Empire
  • ruled - formally subordinate to his brother Toghril - as the "King of Kings" (Malik al-mulūk) East Iran
  • Residence: Merw (conquered 1036/37)
Diya ad-Din Adud ad-Daula Abu Shuja Muhammad Alp-Arslan

(Ḍiyāʾ ad-Dīn ʿAḍud ad-Daula Abū Šuǧāʿ Muḥammad Alp-Arslan )

  • Residence: Isfahan
  • came to Syria, and Transcaucasia ago
  • conquered large parts of Anatolia after a victory over the Byzantines in the Battle of Manzikert (1071)
Muizz ad-Din Jalal ad-Daula Abu l-Fath Malik-Shah I.

(Muʿizz ad-Dīn Ǧalāl ad-Daula Abū 'l-Fatḥ Malik-Shāh I. )

  • Residence: Isfahan
  • subjugated the Qarachanids in Transoxania and conquered Transcaucasia
  • under him and his vizier Nizam al-Mulk , the Seljuq Empire reached its greatest expansion and heyday
  • after his death the unity of the empire falls apart
Nasir ad-Dunya wa-d-Din Mahmud I.

(Nāṣir ad-Dunyā wa-'d-Dīn Maḥmūd I. )

  • In Anatolia the Rum Seljuks make themselves independent, in Kirman the Kirman Seljuks and in Syria Tutusch I.
  • Residence: Isfahan
Rukn ad-Dunya wa-d-Din Abu l-Muzaffar Berk-Yaruq

(Rukn ad-Dunyā wa-'d-Dīn Abū 'l-Muẓaffar Berk-Yaruq )

Rukn ad-Dunya wa-Din Jalal ad-Daula Malik-Shah II.

(Rukn ad-Dunyā wa-'d-Dīn Ǧalāl ad-Daula Malik-Shāh II. )

  • in Khorasan there is sanjar
Ghiyath ad-Dunya wa-d-Din Abu Shuja Muhammad I. Tapar

(Ġiyāṯ ad-Dunyā wa-'d-Dīn Abū Šuǧāʿ Muḥammad I. Tapar)

  • in Khorasan there is sanjar
Muizz ad-Dunya wa-d-Din Adud ad-Daula Abu l-Harith Ahmad Sanjar

(Muʿizz ad-Dunyā wa-'d-Dīn ʿAḍud ad-Daula Abū 'l-Ḥāriṯ Aḥmad Sanǧar )

  • ruled Khorasan since 1097 (residence: Merw)
  • prevailed after the death of Muhammad I against Mahmud II as the new head of the dynasty
  • lost as a result of a defeat against the Qara-Chitai in the Qatvan steppe (1141) Transoxania
  • 1153-56 was by insurgent Oghusen imprisoned
  • is considered the last great Seljuk Sultan; an epoch ended with his extraordinarily long reign
  • after his death the rule over all of East Iran (Khorasan, Khorezm , ...) is lost
Mughith ad-Dunya wa-d-Din Jalal ad-Daula Abu l-Qasim Mahmud II.

(Muġīṯ ad-Dunyā wa-'d-Dīn Ǧalāl ad-Daula Abū 'l-Qāsim Maḥmūd II. )

  • had to recognize his uncle Sandschar as the new head of the dynasty in 1119 and then ruled under his sovereignty in western Persia and Iraq (residence: Hamadan )
Ghiyath ad-Dunya wa-d-Din Abu l-Fath Dawud

(Ġiyāṯ ad-Dunyā wa-'d-Dīn Abū 'l-Fatḥ Dāwūd )

  • was declared his successor in Hamadan after the death of his father Mahmud and was recognized as sultan (under the sovereignty of Sandjar) in Jibal and Āzarbāydschān
  • in (Arab) Iraq or in Fars and Chuzistan his rule was not recognized; from here his uncles Masud and Saljuq Shah claimed the throne
  • When Sandjar came to the west and put his favorite on the throne with Toghril II, Dawud had to retreat to Azerbaijan (residence: Tabriz ), from where he tried several times during Masud's reign to regain the sultanate until he finally got back in 1143 / 44 fell victim to an assassination attempt
Rukn ad-Dunya wa-d-Din Toghril II.

(Rukn ad-Dunyā wa-'d-Dīn Toġrïl II. )

  • was appointed by Sanjar instead Dawuds to the Sultan of the West, but found no support among the population and suffered after the departure of the head of Dynasty two defeats against his brother Masud, so it does via Rey to Bawandiden after Tabaristan had to withdraw
  • was able to set up a new army when Masud fought against Dawud in 1133, with which he defeated his brother and regained power, but fell ill a little later in his residence Hamadan and died
Ghiyath ad-Dunya wa-d-Din Abu l-Fath Masud

(Ġiyāṯ ad-Dunyā wa-'d-Dīn Abū 'l-Fatḥ Masʿūd )

  • ruled under the sovereignty of Sandjar in western Persia and Iraq (residence: Hamadan)
  • in Azerbaijan Dawud ruled until 1143/44
  • under him the supremacy over the Abbasid caliphate, ie the (Arab) Iraq, is finally lost
Muin ad-Dunya wa-d-Din Malik-Shah III.

(Muʿīn ad-Dunyā wa-'d-Dīn Malik-Shāh III. )

  • ruled, initially under the sovereignty of Sandschar, in western Persia
Rukn ad-Dunya wa-d-Din Muhammad II.

(Rukn ad-Dunyā wa-'d-Dīn Muḥammad II. )

  • ruled in western Persia (residence: Hamadan)
Ghiyath ad-Dunya wa-d-Din Sulaiman-Shah

(Ġiyāṯ ad-Dunyā wa-'d-Dīn Sulaimān-Shāh )

  • ruled in western Persia (residence: Hamadan)
Muizz ad-Dunya wa-d-Din Abu l-Muzaffar Arslan (-Shah)

(Muʿizz ad-Dunyā wa-'d-Dīn Abū 'l-Muẓaffar Arslan (-Šāh) )

  • ruled in western Persia (residence: Hamadan)
  • was under the control of the Eldigüziden
Rukn ad-Dunya wa-d-Din Toghril III.

(Rukn ad-Dunyā wa-'d-Dīn Toġrïl III. )

  • ruled in western Persia (residence: Rey)
  • liberated himself from the control of the Eldigüziden in 1191
  • with his assassination by the Khorezm Shah Tekish , the line of the Great Seljuks ended

The Kirman Seljuks (1048 to approx. 1188)

Name and title (simply transcribed and in DMG romanization) Reign Remarks
Imad ad-Din wa-d-Daula Qara-Arslan-Beg Ahmad Qawurd

(ʿImād ad-Dīn wa-'d-Daula Qara-Arslan-Beg Aḥmad Qawurd )

  • wrested Kirman from the local Buyiden line in 1048
  • conquered Makran and parts of Oman
  • rebelled unsuccessfully against the sultans Alp-Arslan and Malik-Shah in 1066/67 and 1072/73
Kirman Shah ( Kirmān-Shāh ) 1073-1074
  • was installed as regent by his father before he went against Sultan Malik-Shah
Husain ( Ḥusain ) 1074
Rukn ad-Din wa-d-Daula Sultan Shah Ishaq

(Rukn ad-Dīn wa-'d-Daula Sultān-Shāh Isḥāq )

  • was first captured by Sultan Malik-Shah with his father Qawurd, but was able to flee back to Kirman
  • was besieged by Malik-Shah in Bardsir and subsequently confirmed as ruler
Muhyi d-Din Imad ad-Daula Turan-Shah I.

(Muḥyī 'd-Dīn ʿImād ad-Daula Tūrān-Shāh I. )

  • drew unsuccessfully against Fars in 1094
Baha ad-Din wa-d-Daula Iran-Shah

(Bahāʾ ad-Dīn wa-'d-Daula Īrān-Šāh )

  • apparently sympathized with the IIsmailites and was therefore executed
Muhyi l-Islam wa-l-Muslim Arslan-Shah I.

(Muḥyī 'l-Islām wa-'l-Muslimīn Arslan- Shāh I. )

  • during his long reign the empire experienced its greatest heyday
  • successfully advanced to Fars
Mughith ad-Dunya wa-d-Din Muhammad I.

(Muġīṯ ad-Dunyā wa-'d-Dīn Muḥammad I. )

  • dethroned his aged father and asserted himself as ruler of Kirman against his brothers Kirman-Shah (the actual heir to the throne) and Seljuq-Shah, the latter, however, took over rule over Oman, which from now on no longer belonged to the Kirman-Seljuks
  • dominated tabas for a time
Muhyi d-Dunya wa-d-Din Toghril Shah

(Muḥyī 'd-Dunyā wa-'d-Dīn Toġrïl-Šāh )

  • during his final years power was in the hands of the Atabeg Muayyid ad-Din Raihan
Abu Mansur Bahram Shah

(Abū Manṣūr Bahrām-Šāh )

1170, ca.1171

and circa 1175

  • under him the decline of the dynasty began ( sack of Jirufts by Turkish troops)
  • fought (supported by Malik Muayyid, the leader of the Chorasan Oghuz) with his brothers Arslan-Shah and Turan-Shah for the throne on which Muayyid ad-Din Raihan had placed him
Arslan Shah II.

( Arslan-Shāh II. )


about 1172-1175 and
about 1175-1177

  • fought (supported by Atabeg Qutb ad-Din Muhammad b. Buzkush, the Seljuk Sultan of Iraq and the Atabeg of Yazd ) with his brothers Bahram-Shah and Turan-Shah for the throne.
Turan Shah II.

( Tūrān-Šāh II. )

  • tried - fighting for the throne with his brothers Bahram-Shah and Arslan-Shah - twice in vain (with the help of the Atabeg of Fars) to take over the rule in Kirman before he finally defeated Arslan-Shah.
  • was murdered by some emirs as the empire sank more and more into chaos and was overrun by the Oghusen
Muhammad Shah

( Muḥammad-Šāh )

circa 1175 and

approx. 1183-1188

  • was released from prison as the son of Bahram Shah after Turan Shah was murdered
  • tried in vain to find help in Iraq and Fars against the Oguzen, who finally took control of Kirman under their leader Malik Dinar

The Seljuk rulers of Syria (1078–1117)

Name and title (simply transcribed and in DMG romanization) Reign Remarks
Taj ad-Daula Abu Said Tutush I.

(Tāǧ ad-Daula Abū Saʿīd Tutuš I. )

  • made himself independent as ruler of Damascus
  • conquered (among other things) Aleppo and penetrated into Iraq, but was ultimately defeated by Sultan Berk-Yaruq
  • after his death, the territory was divided between his two sons Duqaq and Ridwan
Shams al-Muluk Abu Nasr Duqaq

(Shams al-Mulūk Abū Naṣr Duqaq )

  • ruled Damascus after the death of his father Tutusch
Tutusch II. ( Tutuš II. ) 1104
  • was (one year) briefly nominal ruler of Damascus
  • the Atabeg Tugh-Tegin acted as regent
Artasch or Begtasch ( Artaš or Begtaš ) 1104
  • was (12 years old) briefly nominal ruler of Damascus
  • as regent acted the atabeg tugh-Tegin, which eventually even took power and the dynasty of Buriden founded
Fachr al-Mulk Ridwan

(Faḫr al-Mulk Riḍwān )

  • ruled Aleppo after the death of his father Tutusch
Alp-Arslan al-Achras

( Alp-Arslan al-Aḫras)

  • briefly ruled Aleppo
Sultan Shah ( Sulṭān-Šāh ) 1114-1117
  • ruled in Aleppo
  • With his assassination, the Seljuk rule in Syria ended

The Rum Seljuks (1081–1307)

Name and title

(simplified transcribed
and in DMG romanization)

Reign Remarks
Sulayman I.

( Sulaimān I. )

  • conquered - after most of Anatolia had already been lost to the Byzantines in the Battle of Mantzikert (1071) and passed to the Seljuks - in 1075 Nikäa (İznik) , among others , made it his capital and declared his independence from Malik as the "Sultan of Rum" - Shah I.
  • tried to conquer Aleppo in 1086 , but was defeated by Tutush I , whereupon most of Anatolia formally came under the control of the Great Seljuks again (Abu al-Qasim ruled in Nicaea)
Qilich-Arslan I.

( Qїlїč-Arslan I. )

  • took over the rule after the death of Sultan Malik-Shah I, at whose court he had previously lived as a hostage
  • destroyed most of the so-called people's crusade in 1096
  • first ruled from Nicaea, but lost the city (as well as other areas) to the resurgent Byzantines after it was besieged by the Crusaders in the course of the First Crusade in 1097
  • was defeated by the Crusaders at the Battle of Dorylaum in 1097
  • suggested, among other things, the Crusaders of 1101 in the battles of Mersivan and Herakleia Kybistra (Ereğli) , whereupon it the capital of his empire to Iconium (Konya) moved
  • fought among other things against the rival Danischmenden and penetrated as far as Diyar Bekr and the Jazira (conquest of Mosul in 1107), but was defeated by Sultan Muhammad I. Tapar and drowned while trying to escape in Chabur
Malik-Shah or Shahanshah

( Malik-Šāh or Šāhānšāh )

  • was on the defensive against the Byzantines and Danischmenden and was ultimately overthrown and killed by his brother Masud
Rukn ad-Din Masud I.

(Rukn ad-Dīn Masʿūd I. )

Izz ad-Din Qilitsch-Arslan II.

(ʿIzz ad-Dīn Qїlїč-Arslan II. )

Ghiyath ad-Din Kai-Chusrau I.

(Ġiyāṯ ad-Dīn Kai-Ḫusrau I. )



  • was able to restore imperial unity (as a result of the conquest of Constantinople by the Crusaders in 1204)
  • had to give way to his older brother Sulaiman (II.) in 1197, but overthrew his underage son Qilitsch-Arslan (III.) in 1205 and took over the rule for the second time
  • conquered Antalya in 1207
Rukn ad-Din Sulaiman II.

(Rukn ad-Dīn Sulaimān II. )

Izz ad-Din Qilitsch-Arslan III.

(ʿIzz ad-Dīn Qїlїč-Arslan III. )

Izz ad-Din Kai-Kawus I.

(ʿIzz ad-Dīn Kai-Kāvūs I. )

Ala ad-Din Kai-Qubad I.

(ʿAlāʾ ad-Dīn Kai-Qubād I. )

Ghiyath ad-Din Kai-Chusrau II.

(Ġiyāṯ ad-Dīn Kai-Ḫusrau II. )

Izz ad-Din Kai-Kawus II.

(ʿIzz ad-Dīn Kai-Kāvūs II. )

  • Vassal of the Mongols
  • initially ruled alone, from 1248 then together with Qilitsch-Arslan IV and from 1249 finally together with Kilitsch-Arslan IV and Kai-Qubad II.
Rukn ad-Din Qilitsch-Arslan IV.

(Rukn ad-Dīn Qїlїč-Arslan IV. )

  • Vassal of the Mongolian Il-Khanate
  • Ruled until 1249, initially together with Kai-Kawus II., 1249–57 then with Kai-Kawus II. and Kai-Qubad II., from 1257 together with Kai-Chusrau II. and from 1259 finally alone.
Ala ad-Din Kai-Qubad II.

(ʿAlāʾ ad-Dīn Kai-Qubād II. )

  • Vassal of the Il-Khanate
  • ruled together with Kai-Kawus II. and Qilitsch-Arslan IV.
Ghiyath ad-Din Kai-Chusrau III.

(Ġiyāṯ ad-Dīn Kai-Ḫusrau III. )

  • Vassal of the Il-Khanate, whose governors actually rule the sultanate directly from 1277
Ghiyath ad-Din Masud II.

(Ġiyāṯ ad-Dīn Masʿūd II. )



  • practically powerless vassal of the Il-Khanate
Ala ad-Din Kai-Qubad III.

(ʿAlāʾ ad-Dīn Kai-Qubād III. )

  • practically powerless vassal of the Il-Khanate
Ghiyath ad-Din Masud III.

(Ġiyāṯ ad-Dīn Masʿūd III. )

  • practically powerless vassal of the Il-Khanate
  • after him the Sultanate of the Rum Seljuks finally dissolved

family tree

  1. Seljuq ibn Duqaq
    1. Yunus (died young)
    2. Musa Yabghu or Bighu / Inanch Yabghu (nominal head of the family at the time of Toghril-Beg and Tschaghri-Beg, got Sistan)
      1. Yusuf
      2. Abu Ali Hasan
      3. Qara-Arslan Böri
      4. Umar
      5. Abu Bakr
      6. Daulat Shah
    3. Mikail
      1. Ibrahim Inal († 1059 after revolt)
      2. Er-Tasch († 1048/9 murdered in Tabas)
        1. Ahmad
        2. Muhammad
      3. Toghril-Beg (I.) (* approx. 990, † September 4, 1063) Altun-Dschan († 1060), Aka (bt.Qadir-Chan Yusuf)
      4. Tschaghri-Beg Dawud († end of 1060)
        1. Uthman (in Tucharistan, about 1073 in captivity of the Ghurids)
        2. Bahram Shah
        3. Sulaiman (originally heir to the throne of Toghril-Begs, got Balch in 1066)
          1. Muhammad (blinded in 1097)
        4. Ilyas (ruled Chaghaniyan and Tucharistan in 1066)
        5. Yaquti (ruled after Musa Yabghu in Sistan)
          1. Ismail
          2. Zubaida-Chatun Malik-Shah I.
        6. Arslan-Chatun Khadijah al-Qaim , then Ali b. Abi Mansur Faramurz
          1. Ata-Chatun (bt. Ali) Mahmud (II.) B. Muhammad
        7. Gouhar-Chatun Erisghi
        8. Safiya Ibrahim b. Quraish
        9. Qawurd († 1073 after revolt)
          1. Sultan Shah
          2. Turan Shah († 1096)
            1. Iran Shah
          3. Mustazhiriyya Masud b. Muhammad
          4. Kirman Shah († 1074)
            1. Husain
            2. Arslan-Shah I († 1142) Zaitun-Chatun (bt.Muhammad b. Malik-Schah)
              1. Toghril
              2. Kirman Shah
                1. Mahd Rafi-Chatun Muhammad (II.) B. Mahmud, then Arslan b. Toghril (III.) B. Arslan (Shah)
              3. Seljuq Shah
              4. Muhammad I.
                1. Toghril Shah
                  1. Arslan Shah II († 1177)
                  2. Bahram Shah
                    1. Muhammad Shah
                  3. Turan Shah II († 1183/84)
                    1. Iran Shah
                  4. Terken Shah
                  5. Chatun-i Kirmani Malik Dinar
        10. Alp-Arslan (* approx. 1030, † 1072) Aka (bt.Qadir-Chan Yusuf, Toghril-Begs widow)
          1. Malik-Shah I. (* 1055, † November 1092) Terken-Chatun (bt.Tamghatsch-Chan Ibrahim, † 1094), Zubaida-Chatun (bt.Yaquti)
            1. Dawud († 1082)
            2. Ahmad († 1088/89 in Merw)
            3. Mahmud I (* 1087/88, † 1094)
            4. Berk-Yaruq (* 1081, † 1104)
              1. Malik Shah II
              2. Zubaida-Chatun Masud b. Muhammad
            5. Ahmad Sandschar (1084 / 6–1157) Terken-Chatun (bt. Muhammad Arslan-Chan)
              1. Mah-i Mulk († 1130) Mahmud (II.) B. Muhammad
              2. Amir Siti-Chatun Mahmud (II.) B. Muhammad
              3. Gouhar-Chatun Masud b. Muhammad
            6. Sitara Garschasp II.
            7. Mah-i Mulk al-Muqtadi
              1. Jafar (should become caliph in childhood 1092)
            8. Gouhar-Chatun "Mahd-i Iraq" Masud III. from Ghazna
            9. Muhammad I. Tapar (* January 1082, † April 1118) Gouhar-Chatun
              1. Seljuk Shah
                1. Malik Shah
              2. Chaghri
              3. Fatima al-Muqtafi
              4. Mahmud II. (* 1104/5, † 1131) Mah-i Mulk (bt.Sandschar), Amir Siti-Chatun (bt.Sandschars), Ata-Chatun (bt.Ali b.Abi Mansur Faramurz)
                1. Dawud Gouhar-Chatun (bt.Masud)
                2. Terken-Chatun Sulayman-Shah (grandson of Qawurd)
                3. Zinat-Chatun
                4. Ata-chan
                5. Alp-Arslan al-Chafaji
                6. Farruch Shah
                7. Malik Shah III. († 1160)
                8. Muhammad II. (* 1128, † December 1159) Mahd Rafi-Chatun (bt. Kirman-Schah b. Arslan-Schah), Gouhar-Chatun (bt.Masud)
                9. Gouhar-i Nasab
              5. Masud (* 1108/9, † September 13, 1152) Gouhar-Chatun (bt.Sanjar), Zubaida-Chatun (bt.Berk-Yaruq), Mustazhiriyya (bt.Qawurd), Sufra (bt. Dubais), Arab- Chatun
                1. Malik Shah
                2. Gouhar-Chatun Dawud b. Mahmud, then Muhammad (II.) B. Mahmud
              6. Sulayman Shah († 1161)
                1. Sandschar
              7. Toghril II. (* 1109, † October / November 1134) Mumina-Chatun
                1. Alp-Arslan
                2. Arslan (Shah) Chatun-i Kirmani
                  1. Toghril III. (* 1168/69, executed on March 25, 1194)
                    1. Arslan Mahd Rafi-Chatun (bt. Kirman-Shah b. Arslan-Shah)
          2. Toghan Shah
          3. Tekisch (1084 blinded)
          4. Ayaz († 1074)
          5. Arslan-Arghun († 1097 murdered)
          6. Böri-Bars († 1095 in battle with Arslan-Arghun)
          7. Toghril
          8. Arslan Shah
          9. Aisha Shams al-Mulk Nasr b. Tamghch-khan Ibrahim
          10. Zulaicha-Chatun Muslim b. Quraish
          11. Tutusch I. († 1095)
            1. Ridwan († 1113)
              1. Alp-Arslan (1097–1114)
              2. Sultan Shah († 1117)
            2. Duqaq († 1104)
              1. Tutusch II.
            3. Artasch / Begtasch
    4. Israil / Arslan ( deported to India by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1025 )
      1. Arslan
      2. Qutalmisch († 1064 after revolt)
        1. Mansur
        2. Sulayman I. († 1086 in battle with Tutusch I.)
          1. Qilitsch-Arslan I (1079–1107 in the Chabur River)
            1. Malik Shah (or Shahan Shah)
            2. Mas'ud I.
              1. Kılıç Arslan II.
                1. Sulayman II
                  1. Kılıç Arslan III.
                2. Kai Chosrau I.
                  1. Kai Kaus I.
                  2. Kai Kobad I.
                    1. Kai Chosrau II.
                      1. Kılıç Arslan IV.
                      2. Kai Kobad II.
                        1. Kai Chosrau III.
                      3. Kai Kaus II.
                        1. Mas'ud II.
                        2. Faramurz
                          1. Kai Kobad III. (Murdered 1303)
                            1. Masud III.

                              = marriage


  1. MS Asimov, CE Bosworth: History of civilizations of Central Asia, Volume IV, Part One, pp. 150, 153
  2. Yusuf ibn Musa, according to Mirchond (15th century), fell in a battle with Alp-Kara, a general of the Karakhanids . Cf. Johann A. Vulles: Mirchonds Geschichte der Seldschuken, p. 17 This is dated to the time of Alp-Arslan's birth around 1030.
  3. In Mirchond (15th century) he is referred to as a maternal uncle , in Ibn al-Athir , Ibn Amid (Elmacin) and Abu l-Fida (13th or 14th century) as a brother through the mother or simply as Brothers. See The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 5, pp. 19/31; Donald Sidney Richards: The annals of the Saljuq Turks, pp. 19f., P. 27; Johann A. Vulles: Mirchonds History of the Seljuks, p. 52
  4. He is described as the brother of Ibrahim Inal. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 5, pp. 50/724
  5. According to other sources, she was not the daughter, but the sister of Malik-Shah I.