As the North Caucasus (also Ciskaukasien ) refers to the regions on the northern slopes of the Caucasus , so this part of the Caucasus, unlike the lying beyond the Caucasus regions of Transcaucasia on the southern slope.
The catchphrase North Caucasus is commonly understood to mean most of the autonomous republics of southern Russia inhabited by Muslims. Since January 19, 2010, together with the Stavropol Region, they have formed the North Caucasus Federal District . On the other hand, the autonomous Circassian republic of Adygeja and the surrounding Krasnodar region do not belong to the federation , which are generally also part of the North Caucasus, but in which Muslims are a minority.
In the developed by Hans Zikmund Dictionary of Geographical Names of the Baltic States and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is the name of the North Caucasus called the North Caucasus preferred.
The area of the North Caucasus stands out because of the conflicts in Chechnya and its large number of different ethnic groups living in a confined space. The North Caucasus can be historically in three areas share: the Northeast Caucasus includes Dagestan and Chechnya , in the Central Caucasus are Ingushetia and North Ossetia , the Northwest Caucasus are Kabardino-Balkaria , Karachaevo-Cherkessia . Dagestan is the most ethnically diverse republic with over 30 nationalities. The Chechens are the largest autochthonous North Caucasian ethnic group .
After the end of the Caucasus War , which lasted in the Northeast Caucasus until 1859 and in the West until 1864, the area finally fell to Russia. In the period that followed, the North Caucasus went through phases of accelerated social modernization. Russia required the peoples to observe its laws and administrative ideas, some of which were fundamentally contrary to local customs. In the period that followed, a counter-movement developed in the Northeast Caucasus under the banner of Islam, calling out jihad against the infidels. The 1920s and 1930s were marked by Sovietization . In 1944, Stalin had some hill tribes ( Balkars , Chechens, Ingush and others) deported to Central Asia . Some leaders and their troops collaborated closely with the Germans from 1941–1945 and committed serious war crimes across Russia; After the defeat, the remnants of this troop, unless they were deported to the Soviet Union under international law, gathered in Munich and formed the first, later defeated faction in the Munich-Freimann mosque building commission . From the 1950s to the 1980s, control over many areas of everyday life gradually waned as a result of the " thaw ", which re-established many traditional institutions of the Caucasus peoples.
In the Soviet era and in the 1990s, nationalism replaced Islam. The leaders of the national movements of the Kabardines and Balkars wanted to found two states in the first half of the 1990s and change their respective territories with reference to different historical epochs. In the eastern North Caucasus, Chechen nationalism led to organized resistance against the Russian armed forces. In Dagestan, the various ethnic groups showed the limits of nationalism, so that neither Dagestan segregation nor secession movements occurred here. In the Central North Caucasus, whose ethnic groups hardly took part in the wars against Russia in the 19th century, the position of the Russian center has not been seriously questioned. The Ingush achieved the secession of Ingushetia from Chechnya and emerged with territorial claims against North Ossetia, which in 1992 led to armed conflicts. Both Ingush and Ossetians traditionally seek protection from Russia from the claims of other Caucasus peoples.
The development of Islam in the North Caucasus is threatened with radicalization. (see Islam in Russia ).
- Jeronim Perović : The North Caucasus under Russian rule. History of a multi-ethnic region between rebellion and adaptation . Böhlau Verlag, Vienna, Cologne, Weimer 2015, ISBN 978-3-412-22482-0 .
- ↑ RIA Novosti of January 21, 2010: Russia's new North Caucasus Federal District (map)
- ^ Hans Zikmund: Duden, dictionary of geographical names of the Baltic States and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). With information on the spelling, pronunciation and use of the names in German. = Dictionary of geographical names of the Baltic States and of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Dudenverlag, Mannheim et al. 2000, ISBN 3-411-70591-4 .