North Caucasus (Federal District)

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North Caucasus Federal District
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Area : 170,439 km²
Residents : 9,775,770 (2017)
Population density : 57.36 inhabitants per km²
Administrative headquarters : Pyatigorsk
Governor General: Yuri Chaika

The North Caucasus Federal District ( Russian Северо-Кавказский федеральный округ ) was formed on January 19, 2010 as the eighth federal district of Russia by Dmitry Medvedev's presidential decree . Seven administrative units (including six republics and one region), which are geographically assigned to the northern Caucasus region , were spun off from the Southern Federal District .

The administrative seat of the North Caucasus Federal District is the city of Pyatigorsk in the Stavropol region. The first governor general and at the same time vice-prime minister of the Russian Federation was Alexander Khloponin .

From May 13 to June 21, 2000, the Federal District of Southern Russia was also called the Federal District of North Caucasus .


The district is located in the south of European Russia and includes the central and eastern part of the North Caucasus . At its internal border in the north, the district borders on the Federal District of Southern Russia , in the east on the Caspian Sea . The district has an external border with Georgia and the Russian-recognized republics of South Ossetia and Azerbaijan in the south .

The area of ​​the district accounts for about one percent of the area of ​​the Russian Federation and is the smallest Federal District in Russia.

Population and languages

The ethnic diversity is very pronounced in the North Caucasus. Numerous ethnic groups temporarily settled in the area, u. a. Scythians , Huns , Arab and Turkish peoples, Crimean Tatars and Russian Cossacks . The immigrants contributed to an increasing differentiation of the complex ethnic structure of the autochthonous population. A possible ethnic division can be made according to language groups: In the North Caucasus one encounters Indo-European (e.g. Russian, Ossetian) and Caucasian languages (the latter with numerous subgroups) as well as Turkish- speaking peoples. The linguistic diversity is greatest in Dagestan , where there are 12 “state languages” alone. In addition, there are cultural and religious differences between the various peoples who live here together in a very small space.


In 2000, President Putin created seven federation districts by decree, each of which combines several federation subjects into a larger unit. The aim of this reform was to strengthen the vertical distribution of power and tighten control over the regional rulers. The area initially belonged to the Southern Federal District .

Due to the ongoing violence in Chechnya, Dagestan and Ingushetia, the Russian government changed the pacification strategy in this region. New administrative structures should help to get the problems of the region under control from Moscow. For this purpose, the new North Caucasus Federal District was created in 2009.

In September 2010 the Russian government adopted a new development strategy for the crisis-ridden federal district. It envisages projects worth 600 billion rubles for the next 15 years, some of which will be co-financed from the state investment fund. The causes of violence in this region are to be overcome through development, modernization and improved governance.

Partial republics and the Stavropol region in the North Caucasus


On the other hand, the autonomous Circassian republic of Adygeja and the surrounding Krasnodar region do not belong to the federation, although they are also commonly included in the North Caucasus , in which Muslims, precisely as in North Ossetia-Alania, are a minority.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1.,0,Nordkaucasus.html bpp, Dossier: North Caucasus, accessed on June 23, 2012
  2. accessed on May 27, 2012