Röbel / Müritz
|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania|
|County :||Mecklenburg Lake District|
|Height :||67 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||30.17 km 2|
|Residents:||4998 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||166 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||17207|
|Area code :||039931|
|License plate :||MSE, AT, DM, MC, MST, MÜR, NZ, RM, WRN|
|Community key :||13 0 71 124|
|LOCODE :||DE RXB|
City administration address :
17207 Röbel / Müritz
|Mayor :||Andreas Sprick ( CDU )|
|Location of the town of Röbel / Müritz in the Mecklenburg Lake District|
Röbel / Müritz is a small town in the southwest of the Mecklenburg Lake District in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania on the west bank of the Müritz . It is the administrative seat of the Office Röbel-Müritz , to which another 18 communities belong. Röbel forms a basic center for its surroundings and is a state-approved resort .
The town of Röbel is located in the Mecklenburg Lake District on a southwestern branch of the Müritz at an altitude of .
Robole was first mentioned in a document in 1227. The name appears before that in the founding document of the diocese of Havelberg 946/48 for today's village of Räbel . Another Röbel is located near Süsel in Schleswig-Holstein . The Old Polish personal name Robola could be derived from work or servant . On March 10, 1995 the spelling was changed from formerly Röbel (Müritz) to Röbel / Müritz.
Altröbel was built in the 10th century as a suburban settlement in front of one of the main castles of the West Slavic tribe of the Morizans and next to a temple mountain, which has been crowned by the Marienkirche since the early 13th century . In 1226 the city received from Heinrich Borwin II. , A great-grandson of Niklot , the progenitor of the Mecklenburg princes and dukes, the Schwerin town charter , which was confirmed and expanded for the Nova Civitas Robele after the merger of the Neustadt with the suburbium of the castle in 1261. In the same year the Cernowe desert was mentioned.
A castellan of the lordly Röbel Castle is a witness in a document from 1227. The castle, built into a palace by Nikolaus I von Werle (son of Heinrich Borwin II) and his successors, was next to Güstrow the main residence of the Lords of Werle, later princes , until 1349 to turn. Now a phenomenon developed that is seldom encountered: While the German and Slavic settlements merged in other places, the New Town was separated again from the former Slavic old town in the late Middle Ages by walls, moats and gates. In Neuröbel mainly merchants and craftsmen had settled that by the sovereign on household fields invested from which the name "were Ackerbürger " resulted. The Slavic population remained in Altröbel - tenant farmers and fishermen. A legal dispute between the two districts that lasted for about 400 years, which was favored by the biocidal separation of 1252 (the southern part and thus the Neustadt received the diocese of Havelberg , the northern part received the diocese of Schwerin ), barely let the citizens and the administration rest. Trial files ("Röbel ./. Röbel") from 1585 to 1886 (available in the city archive) document the dispute caused by social and economic discrimination against the old towners, which began before 1500 with the exclusion of the old town. The Neustadt was a country town in Mecklenburg and as such one of the towns in the Wendish district that were represented in the Mecklenburg regional parliaments of the Union of the Estates until 1918 .
In the 13th century the Marienkirche in the old town, the Nikolaikirche (1275) in the new town and a penitentiary monastery (around 1250) were built. The latter was moved to Malchow Monastery in 1298 . The monastery buildings were taken over by the Dominicans who had been established at the castle since around 1285 . The monastery existed until 1558. Next to the monastery was the courtyard of the "Sandpropstes" of the Dobbertin monastery , the administrator of the lands and villages that had been awarded to this Benedictine monastery in 1237. The city fortifications were built in the 13th century and expanded in the middle of the 14th century as the city expanded. After the castle was demolished in 1470, the castle hill was built with a windmill, the successor of which, built in the Dutch style after 1805, now houses art exhibitions.
The structure of the medieval urban settlement of this “twin city” remained almost unchanged despite the many city fires. Mainly eaves , mostly two-story half - timbered houses from the 18th and 19th centuries dominate the cityscape.
From 1811 onwards only one mayor held office for both parties. The majority in the city council, however, were always the people of Neustadt. General elections were held for the first time with the municipal reform in 1919. The town hall was built in 1804 in the classical style. The water tower was built in 1912 .
From 1920 to 1934 Röbel belonged to the Waren department in the state of Mecklenburg-Schwerin , then from 1934 to 1952 to the district of Waren in the state of Mecklenburg . After the districts were formed in the GDR , Röbel was the district town of the Röbel (Müritz) district from 1952 to 1994 (until 1990 in the GDR district of Neubrandenburg , then in the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania ). In 1994 the city was incorporated into the Müritz district. Since the district reform in 2011 , it has been in the Mecklenburg Lake District .
In 1957, after a year of construction, the rural outpatient clinic, built in 1951, was rebuilt and expanded to become a district hospital, in which 18 doctors and ten dentists have been working for the medical care of the population since 1970. With a capacity of 165 beds, patients could be treated in several specialist departments.
On July 1, 1950, the previously independent community of Marienfelde was incorporated.
Status: December 31 of the respective year
After the Reformation , Röbel was Lutheran . The two Catholic dioceses of Havelberg and Schwerin were left with the separate Lutheran parishes of Alt- and Neu-Röbel, which were only merged in 1999 after the pastor of the old town was transferred. The current regional bishop Andreas von Maltzahn was the head of the Röbel provost until then .
There were Jews in Röbel since the 13th century. After the Sternberg Jewish pogrom in 1492, they left the country. Only around 1700 did the Jewish population live again in Röbel. The number of Jews rose to 110 parishioners by the middle of the 19th century and then decreased again continuously. In 1831 the Röbel synagogue was built in a side street. The Jewish cemetery had been in the Scheunenviertel south of Neustadt since the middle of the 18th century. The last burial took place there in 1938. He was desecrated during the National Socialist era . In the 1950s, parts of the cemetery were excavated and built over. Today a group of steles and sculptures commemorates this, which was erected in 2007 by young people from all over the world on the occasion of an international youth camp.
The Catholic population, which was extremely small for centuries after the Reformation , only increased as a result of the Second World War with the admission of refugees and displaced persons from the formerly German eastern regions . Around 1946 there were around 1500 Catholics in Röbel and the surrounding area. The Catholic community had its own pastoral care center in Röbel since April 1, 1946 . The mother parish remained the Catholic parish in Waren (Müritz) . Initially, a house was rented for church services and as an apartment for the pastor, but it was too small in the long run. On June 29, 1947, the Catholic community moved into the former mayor's house. The large reception room there was converted into a chapel . The pastor's apartment was in the adjacent rooms. On June 17, 1994 the foundation stone for the new parish hall was laid. The church with around 85 seats and the parish room were built on a small area. The two stained glass windows ( scene of the Annunciation , Mary as Queen of Peace ) and the tabernacle were taken from the old chapel . The solemn inauguration of the church took place on June 17, 1995 by Auxiliary Bishop Norbert Werbs . The new church was placed under the patronage of "Mary, Queen of Peace". Since 2004, pastoral care has been provided by the Franciscan Order , which also looks after the mother parish “Heilig Kreuz” in Waren.
The city council of Röbel consists of 17 members and the mayor. Since the local elections on May 26, 2019, it has been composed as follows:
|Party / group of voters||Seats|
|Citizens for Röbel||3|
|Alliance 90 / The Greens||3|
- 1999-2006: Eveline Schön (independent)
- 2006–2016: Heinz-Fritz Müller (SPD)
- since 2016: Andreas Sprick (CDU)
Sprick was elected in the mayoral election on April 10, 2016 with 56 percent of the valid votes for a term of seven years.
coat of arms
Blazon : “Split; in front, in gold, a half-looking, golden crowned black bull's head at the crack with closed mouth, knocked out red tongue and silver horns, accompanied in the upper corner by a blue star; behind in blue a golden key with a left-turned beard. "
The coat of arms was established on April 10, 1858 by Grand Duke Friedrich Franz II of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, redrawn in 1995 and registered under number 71 of the coat of arms of the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.
|Justification of the coat of arms: The coat of arms is based on the seal image of the SIGILLVM CIVITATIS IN ROBELLE - first handed down as an imprint in 1298 and is therefore one of the oldest seals in Mecklenburg - and was established in its current form in April 1858. The restored coat of arms combines a secular symbol of power and a clerical symbol. While the bull's head, which is typical of the Werler line of the Mecklenburg dynasty, clearly refers to Herr zu Werle as lord of the city, the Petri key probably refers to the strong ecclesiastical presence and the work of the Benedictines in the city (two dioceses, monastery). The meaning of the star taken from the seal image is unknown. The oldest representation of this coat of arms is in the choir of the Marienkirche and is dated to the time around 1280.|
- Historical coat of arms
Blazon : “Split; in front in gold a half-looking, gold-crowned black bull's head at the crack with a wide open mouth, silver teeth, a knocked out red tongue, torn neck fur and black horns; in the back a golden double hook in blue. "
The coat of arms was designed by Hans Herbert Schweitzer . It was awarded on January 30, 1941 by the Reich Governor in Mecklenburg.
|Justification of the coat of arms: The coat of arms lost its validity soon after the end of the Second World War.|
|Blazon : “Split of gold and blue, in front of the split a red-tongued black bull's head with silver horns and a golden crown, in the right upper corner a five-pointed blue star; behind an upright golden key with an outwardly turned beard. "|
|Justification for the coat of arms: The Werlesche bull's head is reminiscent of secular sovereignty, the key symbolizes spiritual power, as the border between the two dioceses of Havelberg and Schwerin ran through Röbel centuries ago. The provosts from Havelberg and Schwerin as well as the princely bailiff had their seat in Röbel. The star is a filling plant.|
The flag was approved by the Ministry of the Interior on December 4, 1998.
The flag is striped evenly and across the longitudinal axis of the flag cloth of blue and yellow. In the middle of the flag is the coat of arms of the city, spanning a third of the length of the blue and yellow stripes. The length of the flag is related to the height as 5: 3.
The official seal shows the city arms with the inscription STADT RÖBEL / MÜRITZ .
Sights and culture
- Old town, well-preserved, elongated half-timbered town with two large churches, church square, market, horse market, community garden, city park and direct location on the Müritz and the small Mönchteich
- Evangelical Marienkirche , three-aisled brick building from the middle of the 13th century. It is one of the earliest Gothic hall churches in Mecklenburg and stands on the Temple Mount of the Slavic Müritzers. After a comprehensive renovation of the building, which was then in danger of collapsing, in the 19th century, however, little of the medieval structure has been preserved. The interior has a deeply drawn ribbed vault in the choir and in the sacristy . In the central nave, the pulpit and the chairs are decorated with filigree carvings. The altar painting (1852) is by Gaston Lenthe , who as a court painter in Schwerin decorated numerous churches. The tower, which was only completed and accessible in the middle of the 19th century, is 58 m high and offers a view over the Müritz.
- Evangelical Nikolaikirche , consecrated around 1280. It is also an early Gothic brick church . The sacristy stands south of the choir behind the east gable of the nave. The choir has a rib- less dome, the three-aisled hall has a ribbed vault . The remarkable choir stalls from 1519 come from the former Röbel Dominican monastery.
- Windmill on the former castle hill, where the castle of the Princes of Werle still stood until around 1466 (mentioned as a castle in 1227), was built as a gallery Dutch mill between 1802 and 1825 and extensively restored in 2006. It had several post mills as a predecessor since 1479 and was last used as a youth hostel between 1929 and 1991 .
- Remains of the city wall at the Mönchteich
- Town hall on the market square, built in 1805 in the classical style and renovated in 1999. In 1814, Lieutenant Christian Engel, who was injured in the war and whose father had previously founded Engelschen Garten in Malchow , moved in as mayor . Christian Engel also had a city garden built in the Linnaeus style in the south of Röbel, which still exists today.
- Half-timbered houses at Kirchplatz 3, 17, 20, 21, Große Stavenstraße 21 and 22, Mühlenstraße 5, 30/32 and 34, Straße des Friedens 4 and 5 (both around 1750) as well as 41 and 67, Fritz-Reuter-Straße 13 (a major fire Fallen victim in 2011), Im Ort 1, Hohe Strasse 28, Unkel-Bräsigstrasse 8 and 9 (around 1800).
- Synagogue , one of the few surviving half-timbered synagogues in Mecklenburg and the last surviving synagogue in the former Müritz district. The rectangular half-timbered building was built in 1831. The building was preserved during the Nazi era. The building, which was in danger of collapsing, was restored in 2002. Today it is the historical center of a youth education center. The associated buildings form an inner courtyard on the south side of the synagogue.
- Water tower, built in 1912, first reinforced concrete structure in Northern Germany, its architect was Albert Gottheiner . The tower was completely renovated in 1999. Its small inner diameter makes it difficult to remove.
- Transmitter mast for VHF and television (167 meters high) at Woldzegarten
- Old brick factory , built in 1724, the remains of which have been preserved
- Memorial to the fallen soldiers of the First World War , designed by the sculptor Wilhelm Wandschneider , erected in 1928 on the square in front of the Marienkirche
- Cenotaph for the victims of the Second World War in front of the Marienkirche
- VVN memorial from 1950 for the victims of fascism in the Neustädter Friedhof
- Grove of honor with a memorial to the victims of fascism in the park at Mönchsteich, built in 1979
- Memorial stone for the Soviet partisan Soja Kosmodemjanskaja , who was tortured by the Wehrmacht gendarmerie in 1941 and hanged in public, from 1979 in the park at Mönchsteich
- City museum Heimatstuben in the Haus des Gastes, presents the local and city history from the Middle Ages to around 1920 in five rooms
- Former synagogue, exhibition area of the ENGELscherHOF youth education center, where a permanent exhibition on the history of the Jews in Mecklenburg can be seen in a further wing of the building. Volunteers of different ages are involved in looking after the permanent exhibition, the school history workshop or in contemporary witness projects on the history of the village in the Röbel area. In addition, the place is a youth meeting place. Workcamps and the student company KulturCafé meet there regularly.
- Stadtpark Bürgergarten at the guest house
- City garden in front of the hospital
- Park at the Mönchteich
Nature and natural monuments
- Müritz National Park with around 100 lakes in extensive forests with still primeval forest-like conditions
- Nossentiner / Schwinzer Heide nature park with 60 lakes
- Crown oak (almost 1000 years old) in Glienholz, with a trunk circumference of 9.5 m, the strongest tree in the region, with a hiking trail to the nearby Gliensee
- Peace oak in memory of those who died in the Wars of Liberation , planted in front of the Nikolaikirche in 1816
- Bacon riding on the Whitsun weekend at Glienholzwald - horse show and traditional riding around a slice of bacon
- Sea festival on the third weekend of July
- Fisherman's festival in early summer
- Röbel live at the end of August / beginning of September
- Fraternization celebration with Brandenburg, smugglers' meeting every two years between Wittstock and Röbel
Economy and Infrastructure
Originally a trading and craft town, fishing, agriculture and cattle breeding were the sources of income for the majority of the Röbel population until the 20th century. Almost every citizen kept feathered and skinned cattle until 1925, from which the cows and pigs were fattened in the woods near Groß Kelle for a fee . Chickens, geese and ducks roamed freely through the place. In 1860 there were several hundred pigs, 450 cows, 1,300 sheep, 237 goats and 1,100 geese, according to a census. During the GDR era, the city was expanded into a tourist center with holiday homes and campsites.
Today tourism , agriculture and the food industry dominate. Other important companies are:
- optimal media GmbH, a service company in the media industry, with almost 700 employees, is the city's largest employer. It produces u. a. Data carriers including packaging , modern records and special offprints.
- Müritz-Elde Water (MEWA), water supply and wastewater disposal (owned by the city)
- Clinic for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Röbel is on the L 24 state road to Sietow (on the B 192 federal road between Malchow and Waren (Müritz) ) and on the L 241, which reaches the B 198 federal road between Plau am See and Neustrelitz immediately south of the urban area .
The Röbel (Meckl) station was the end point of the Ganzlin – Röbel railway line , on which passenger traffic was discontinued in 1966. The nearest train stations are in Mirow (about 21 kilometers away on the railway line to Neustrelitz ) and in Waren (about 22 kilometers away on the Berlin – Rostock line ).
A privately operated railway museum was located on the station grounds for a long time . After a storage fire in 2009, all the old locomotives and wagons were scrapped and the storage facility was demolished. A food market was then built here.
Local public transport is operated by the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Transport Company. There is a regular bus connection via Waren (Müritz) and Penzlin to Neubrandenburg ( datBus ) and to Rechlin . In the summer season, the buses on these routes mainly have trailers for bicycle transport . There are also several lines that serve the communities in the surrounding area in the morning and early afternoon. The central hub is the ZOB in the southern city center.
The Röbel city port on the Müritz is served by various passenger shipping companies.
- Regional school and grammar school, Röbel school campus, Am Gotthunskamp 13
- Elementary school Röbel
- Special school, Warener Chaussee 4
- District music school in Waren with a branch in Röbel
The Müritz-Therme is a modern sports and fun pool with a sauna area and fitness studio on Gotthunskamp 14. It is open all year round. In addition to the heated swimming area, there is also a lido directly on the Müritz, the MüritzBad.
- Rifle guild from 1548, Röbel's oldest club, re-established in 1994
- Agricultural Citizens' Association Röbel, founded in 1845. A successor club, the Röbel / Müritz pony sports club , organizes the traditional “Speckreit”, a race for a side of bacon.
- Male choir from 1855
- Sports club TSV 90, is one of the largest clubs in the district in terms of numbers
- Röbeler Seglerverein Müritz, internationally known for the regular organization of well-known sailing regattas
- PSV Röbel / Müritz
- Fritz Nitzsche (1927–2017), choirmaster
- Werner Schinko (1929–2016), book illustrator
sons and daughters of the town
- Samuel Simon Witte (1738–1802), philosopher, rector of the University of Bützow
- Heinrich Bade (1823–1908), mayor of Schwerin and collector of Mecklenburg folk tales
- Franz Engel (1834–1920), explorer
- Ludwig von Lehsten (1840–1910), administrative officer
- Julius Runge (1843–1922), marine painter
- Albert Salomon (1883–1976), surgeon
- Alfred Schumann (1902–1985), Flotilla Admiral in the German Navy
- Heinz Kochs (* 1929), politician (SED), Lord Mayor of Rostock
- Claus-Henning Redicker (* 1935), English studies
- Dietrich Kremp (1937–2017), physicist
- Horst Köhler (* 1938), dressage rider
- Brigitte Degler-Spengler (1941–2015), historian
- Madeleine Niesche (* 1971), actress
- Grit Breuer (* 1972), track and field athlete
- Kathrin Freitag (* 1974), track cyclist
- Pierre Nippkow (* 1983), cook
- Alexander Hessel (* 1988), football player
- Stefanie Darnesa (* 1991), actress
Personalities associated with Röbel
- Christian Engel (1788–1871), Mayor of Röbel 1815–1861
- Henriette von Bissing (1798–1879), narrator, grew up in Röbel
- Theodor Krüger (1818–1885), architect, directed the restoration of the Marienkirche in Röbel
- Gustav Melkert (1890–1943), trade unionist, murdered by the National Socialists, lived in Röbel
- Wilhelm Kappel (* 1929), plant breeder, lives in Röbel
- Berndt Seite (* 1940), politician (CDU), Prime Minister of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, lived in Röbel
- Gottfried Timm (* 1956), politician (SPD), pastor in Röbel
- Friedrich Drese (* 1960), church musician in Röbel
- The old Röbel. A memorial book for the 700th anniversary. Edited by the parish councils Röbel (St. Marien), Ludorf and Nätebow. Rostock, Carl Hinstorff, 1926 [reprint Öko-Tours / Beyer, 1992].
- Ingo Ulpts: The mendicant orders in Mecklenburg. Studies on the history of the Franciscans, Poor Clares, Dominicans and Augustinian Hermits in the Middle Ages . Werl 1995 ( Saxonia Franciscana 6).
- Röbeler Zeitung: Historical reports from the Röbel city archive, compiled by Ralf Jackewitz, fortnightly in the Müritzanzeiger official gazette (since 1999).
- Wolf-Heino Struck : History of the medieval self-administration in the Mecklenburg country towns. Mecklenburg yearbooks. Volume 101 (1837), booklet.
- Ralf Jackewitz: If you take a closer look ... Röbel / Müritz around 1466. In: Archaeological reports from Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Volume 7, 2000.
- Hans-Joachim Deppe; Ulrich Schoknecht : On the founding history of the cities of the Müritz district. In: Chronicle. Series of publications by the Waren Museum and History Association. Issue 24, 2002.
- Hans-Joachim Deppe; Ulrich Schoknecht: Structures in the Werle-Wenden rule in the 12th / 13th centuries Century. In: Archaeological reports from Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Volume 15, 2008.
- Statistisches Amt MV - population status of the districts, offices and municipalities 2019 (XLS file) (official population figures in the update of the 2011 census) ( help ).
- Regional Spatial Development Program Mecklenburg Lake District (2011) , Regional Planning Association, accessed on July 12, 2015
- Ernst Eichler and Werner Mühlmer: The names of cities in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Ingo Koch Verlag, Rostock 2002, ISBN 3-935319-23-1
- Homeland GDR. Adventures. Considerations. Findings. Documents, including Walter Krüger: "Our common work", ed. Horst Jäkel, GNN-Verlag Schkeuditz 2015, p. 310ff., ISBN 978-3-89819-416-7
- Population development of the districts and municipalities in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Statistical Report AI of the Statistical Office Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania)
- Result of the election for the city council on May 26, 2019
- SPD candidate wins mayoral election. In: Nordwest-Zeitung , October 26, 2005.
- Röbel has a new head of the city. In: Nordkurier , April 10, 2016.
- Hans-Heinz Schütt: On shield and flag production office TINUS, Schwerin 2011, ISBN 978-3-9814380-0-0 , p. 322/323.
- "Lexicon of cities and coats of arms of the GDR" VEB Enzyklopädie Leipzig, 1979
- main statute § 1 (PDF).
- City history exhibition in the Heimatstube in the guest house
- NDR ( Memento from January 10, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Nordmagazin from January 9, 2015
- MVVG bus connections