name suffix

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Name additions are additions noted before or after the name of a person, a geographical name or a thing. The following forms are shown as examples:


The most important additions to personal names include titles of all kinds, academic degrees and epithets .

Original designations of origin

The most original form of the name addition is the name of origin as a clan or place of residence, i.e. the Germanic educational syllables ‑er / ‑inger , ‑mann , which today corresponds to a literal from (Dutch de, ten, van, van't ; French de , de l ', du, de la ; Italian di, del, dello, della, dei, delle, da, dal etc., Celtic O', Mc ). The title of nobility develops from the names of origin .

In the 18th century, today's twilight was not yet established in some areas of Europe. So were patronyms (. Patronymic, eg Petersen ) in the manner of a "name additive" is used, the changes in each generation: Carl Petersen originally meant "Carl, son of Peter".

The old educational syllables and markings are now generally no longer regarded as a name addition, but as part of the name or family name.

Merging and alphabetical classification

As a rule, today's additions are not included in the alphabetical listing. Ursula von der Leyen then appears as Leyen, Ursula von der . There may be deviations from this in terms of landscape or nationality. In Belgium, for example, the entire surname is viewed as a unit that begins with a capital letter: Ursula Von Der Leyen , with the listing form: Von Der Leyen, Ursula .

Sometimes, often in Romansh, both forms appear: da Vinci , de Gaulle , but ( Von der Ach →) Vonderach , Vanderbilt , ( De la Lande →) Delalande. They are inconsistently noted and sorted: DeBeers - De Beers , DeSoto - De Soto , De'Longhi - DeLonghi etc.

Nordic and Russian father names (and mother names) are considered a full name.

Arabic ibn or Jewish / Semitic ben "son of" is an addition. Arabic al or ad "of" stands by inscription in two forms: Alā' ad-Din → Aladin , Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi , Salah ad-Din → Saladin.

Chinese and Korean names are given by default with the clan name in front and sorted accordingly. For example, Mao Zedong ( Mao family , Generation Ze , personal name Dong ) is sorted under M as a full name. Historical pseudonyms such as Kǒng (Fū-) Zǐ ("Master Kong" or "Kong the teacher"), on the other hand, are classified as a closed form (under K, like Confucius).

Nobility title

Nobility titles are the hierarchical designations of the nobility (emperor, king, prince, etc.). In addition to the status, they are also to be understood as an official title.

The monarchies that still exist today use titles of nobility both hereditary and through awards (for example the English Sir ), function-related or as a pure award. According to German law, since the abolition of the privileges of the nobility with the Weimar Constitution , they have been continued as part of the name, in Austria they were completely banned with the Nobility Repeal Act of 1919 - only the titles permitted abroad, including the German name components, are recognized here. In Switzerland ( Old Confederation ), titles of nobility were banned in 1798. Similar regulations exist in many European and non-European former monarchies.

Professional title

Name additions attached to a personal name ( official title , mandate abbreviation ) are written directly before or after the name and are not part of the name.



In Austria, professional titles are state awards:

Even official titles are listed in Austria traditionally, here are the tracks in the order official title - Job titles - academic degree:

Academic degrees

Academic degrees and job titles are not part of the name.


  • Professor is not an academic degree, but an official title. For reasons of respect, an abbreviation is often omitted. This is how Professor Dr. Model woman - professor .
  • Privatdozent , PD or Priv.-Doz. For short, is also not an academic degree. This designation often precedes a full professorship and is omitted when a call to professor has been accepted.

Doctoral degree , religious name and artist name are the only additions that must be entered in the passport and other documents apart from the name on request in accordance with Section 4 of the German Passport Act . They are not taken into account in the “zone for automatic reading”. There is no entitlement to a salutation with this degree or name, even in the case of an entry.


According to Section 37, Paragraph 2 of the PStG 2013, academic degrees are to be entered “on request if such an entitlement exists under domestic legal provisions”. The content of this provision was taken from Section 10 (2) of the old PStG, according to which academic degrees had to be "added to the name" under the same conditions. The basis for registration under document law is Section 6 Paragraphs 1–3 of the Personal Status Ordinance (PStV) and the 2009 Registration Guidelines of the Federal Ministry of Science and Research (BMWF). According to these provisions, there is no obligation to register, but there is a legal right to add the academic degree to the name and to enter it in (civil status) certificates and other official documents.

According to Section 365a, Paragraph 1, Item 3 of the Trade Regulations , in addition to the academic degree or professional title (see below), academic professional titles are also entered in the trade register.


The term engineer is in Germany as a professional title as in Austria and professional title defined. The legal regulation can be found in the engineering laws of the federal states (Germany) or in a federal law (Austria).

Germany: Engineer as a job title, suffix VDI

Engineers and natural scientists as well as persons who are entitled to use the professional title of engineer according to German engineering laws can become full members of the VDI . Only ordinary members of the VDI are allowed to put the suffix VDI directly after their surname, for example: Max Mustermann VDI .

Austria: Engineer as a professional name

If the requirements according to the (current) Engineering Act 2006 (IngG 2006) are proven, the authorization to use the professional designation engineer is granted in Austria . For a transitional period, the status designations Diplom-HTL-Ingenieur and Diplom-HLFL-Ingenieur were introduced in 1994 , which were awarded until 2007. The female forms are defined according to IngG 2006 and § 6 Abs. 4 PStV with an engineer , a qualified HTL engineer and a qualified HLFL engineer . (Analogous to the academic degree Diplomingenieur - Diplomingenieurin .)

When attaching names, the professional titles are equivalent to the academic degrees. According to Section 10, Paragraph 2 of the PStG, they are to be “added to the name if such a claim exists under domestic legal provisions”. The basis for entry under document law is Section 6 (4) PStV and Section 1 lit. b. sublit. cc. BMWF registration guidelines 2009. According to these provisions there is no obligation to register, but there is a legal right to add the professional title to the name and to be entered in (civil status) documents and in other official documents.

Championship title

Master craftsman

Awarded by the German Chamber of Crafts after successful master craftsman examination .

  • Master electrical engineer / master optician Max Mustermann / Max Mustermann, master in orthopedic shoemaker's trade

From the Chamber Wiesbaden the abbreviation was me. Protected by trademark law as the short title for “master craftsman”. It may only be used by master craftsmen as an indication of their professional qualifications in front of the name.

  • me. Eva Mustermann, master baker, me. Hans Lehmeier, master plumber and heating engineer

Industrial master

Is awarded by the German IHKs after a successful master craftsman examination . E.g. industrial foreman electrical engineering / industrial foreman metal Max Mustermann

Student circles

The student circles are also part of the name additions .

Religious names

  • Franz von Hummelauer SJ - Societas Jesu, i.e. member of the Jesuit order

Official titles of church dignitaries of all denominations appear in Austria before the name and the academic degree:

Post denominations

In the Commonwealth it is customary for people with certain orders of merit or appointed members of learned societies, so-called Fellows , to have an abbreviation as an addition to their name (post-nominal) :

Name mark for the official differentiation of the same name

In the Grand Duchy of Hesse there has been an ordinance since 1832 concerning the designation of local citizens of the same name , which stipulates the use of Roman ordinal numbers (I., II., III., ... IX. Etc.) as "name symbols" to distinguish persons of the same name at the same place of residence especially in tax matters - stipulated. These numbering were subsequently also adopted in the birth, marriage and death registers and in other official documents, whereby they often appear in genealogical literature; they do not (or only in exceptional cases) refer to the sequence of names within a family, as is the case when counting noble names ( Friedrich III . etc.). In accordance with the different legal status of men and women at that time, the names are only found on male persons. - Often the name is also written out as a word in official documents.

  • Georg Jacob Strauss II, farmer and musician
  • Adam Seelinger IX., Member of the 2nd Chamber of the Estates of the Grand Duchy of Hesse
  • Johann Adam Heß, first, Ackersmann (in a death register)

In 1829, in the Electorate of Hesse, numbering was already granted in an ordinance on the keeping of church and parish registers - albeit only as an option.

Genealogical additions

For people of the same name, especially for father and son, write as a name affix after the surname (in German without the comma, which is often used in English):

  • Senior , then as adjective senior , also briefly sen. (also sr. or snr. ) - Latin senior means 'older' ( comparative to senex 'old')
  • Junior , then as adjective junior , also short jun. (also jr. or jnr. ) - Latin iunior means 'younger' (comparative to iuvenis 'young')

The German translation is also used for father and son, but also for unclear genealogy and unrelated contemporaries:

  • the elder , d. Ä.
  • the younger , d. J.

Examples: Hans Holbein the Elder and Hans Holbein the Younger were father and son. James the Elder and James the Younger were two not closely related disciples of Christ; hence the former Latin Iacobus maior , not Iacobus senior .


  • Senior [ ˈsiː.njə (r) ] or (USA) Sr., (UK) Snr., Or Sen., Senr., And also the Elder
  • Junior [ dʒuːniə (r) ] or (USA) Jr., (UK) Jnr., Or Jun., And also the Younger

In English, the additions and the abbreviations are always capitalized, in the USA mostly with a period at the end. For example, sen. lower case Senator. The abbreviations can be written with (USA mostly) or without a comma (UK mostly), i.e. Smith Jr. or Smith, Jr. They are practically never used with women, only with men and only with father and son. If two other people with the same name are to be differentiated, usually no abbreviation is used, but as in German junior and senior (mostly written in full and lower case).

In contrast to this, the II (2nd) or III (3rd) (without a dot at the end) etc. are usually quoted if the namesake is not the son or rarely the daughter of a previous bearer, e.g. B. Uncle, grandfather, etc. in the family of the same name.


  • l'Ancien
  • le Jeune

Order of additions to names

If a person has several additions to his name, the following sequence is proposed in Austria: first selected functions, then acquired titles, whereby function titles are mentioned before official title and then professional title, then professional titles, and finally academic degrees before or after the name. The address is given either with the highest title or with the title most appropriate to the situation.

Example: Member of the National Department Head Councilor Ing. Dr. Max Mustermann M.Sc.



Cities can be given an additional name (surname) or can be given. These are mainly places with medicinal baths that have the addition of bath , but also Hanseatic cities .

In addition, cities also have name suffixes, which indicate the geographical location to distinguish them from cities with the same name, e.g. B. Frankfurt am Main and Frankfurt (Oder) .

Other cities have additions that refer to historical circumstances or people who lived there, such as Lutherstadt Wittenberg .

Geographical names

In many languages ​​the word for mountain, river, city, lake and so on is prefixed or appended to the name of geographical designations, whereby in British English the addition comes before the name, in American English, however, it is usually added:

In some countries it is customary to append the name of the state, province, prefecture, or the like to distinguishing places:

See also

Web links

Wiktionary: name addition  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. "... the academic degrees are listed together with the job title and not with the name. The plaintiff's opinion that the doctorate should be considered part of the name according to customary law does not apply. "BVerwG, judgment of October 24, 1957, Az. IC 50.56, BVerwGE 5, 291-293, = DÖV 1957, 870, = JZ 1958, 207; Full text .
  2. a b Registration Guidelines 2009 in the version November 1, 2009. In: BMWF : Management of academic degrees. Recommendation November 2009. pp. 7–11 (PDF; 581 kB). The exact forms of the Austrian academy to be registered. Degrees and their abbreviations are in main part 1, pp. 21-25, those of the non-Austrian academy. Grade listed on pp. 26–59.
  3. FAQ on VDI membership . FAQ on VDI membership. Archived from the original on April 17, 2011. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
  4. Even though the diploma forms were added as the 2nd section under the heading “Designations of Diplom-HTL-Ingenieur and Diplom-HLFL-Ingenieur ” in the Engineering Act 1990 as amended on July 1, 1994 , these still apply as the status designation engineer according to section 1 as class names. See § 6 Paragraph 4 PStV; see Z. 1 lit. b. sublit. cc. Registration guidelines 2009.
  5. Explanatory note in the online edition of the Deutsche HandwerksZeitung .
  6. Meister-Marke stands for quality. (No longer available online.) Wiesbaden Chamber of Crafts, formerly in the original ; accessed on March 25, 2015 : "The brand" Meisterbetrieb - Handwerkskammer Wiesbaden "is a corporate marketing tool in an overall concept of the chamber next to the personally usable short title" me. "for" Meister im Handwerk "as a visible reference to the craftsmanship."
  7. If several fathers of families with the same gender name live in the same place; so it must be noted whether the father is the older, middle, younger, or the first, second, third, etc. of his name, or otherwise the same if the first names are the same, further after the baptismal names of his father, or if necessary his grandfather from the father's side, or determined by using the name of his mother, etc., as this is already indicated by §. 5 Our ordinance of June 17, 1828 has been prescribed in relation to the judicial currency and mortgage books, tax cadastre and similar public registers. [The numbering is not mentioned there yet]. See Ordinance on the keeping of church and parish registers , § 20, in: Collection of laws, ordinances, notices and other general orders for Kurhessen , 5th vol., Years 1827-1830, year 1829, p. 83ff, here p 88.
  8. RM Ritter: New Hart's Rules: The Handbook of Style for Writers and Editors. Oxford Univ. Press, 2005, ISBN 0-19-861041-6 , p. 103.
  9. Karl Urschitz: Protocol with ceremonial and etiquette . (= Publications of the Styrian State Library 28). Manumedia-Verlag Schnider, Graz 2002, ISBN 978-3-902020-19-2 p. 77f.