Classic Arabic personal names usually consist of several parts:
- The ism (اسم) is the personal name . In addition to Koranic names , the names of Muhammad or his companions (for example Muhammad, Ahmad, Mahmud, Abd Allah, Umar, Uthman, Ibrahim) any words of the Arabic language with a good meaning can be chosen as a name.
- The kunya (كنية) is a personal, honorable epithet with which Muslims in Arab countries are addressed in daily life: "Father" ( Abu ) or "Mother" ( Umm ) of ...
- The nasab (نسب) denotes the descent , often over three generations: "son" ( Ibn ) or "daughter" ( Bint ) of ... The word for son is ibn , but if it is used in the chain of descent, the alif is omitted and ibn (ابن) becomes to am (بن).
- The nisba (نسبة), also Nisbe , is an adjective formed with the suffix -i, which denotes membership of a tribe, origin from a place (e.g. at-Tabari , "the one from Tabaristan"), or the denomination or job title ( al-Māwardī , "the rose water merchant").
- Furthermore, one or more laqab (لقب = "nickname, nickname / pseudonym, honorary title") can be added; this can be a (preceding) honorary name (e.g. Saif ad-Dīn , "sword of religion") or a (subsequent) nickname (e.g. at-Tawīl , "the tall one").
Structure of Arabic names
The name is arranged in (laqab -) kunya - ism - nasab - nisba (- laqab)
Transcription of the Arabic names
The spelling of the names in Latin letters is often based on the former colonial power . For example, the first name Hischam in the Maghreb is mostly written according to the French Hichem model , and in Jordan according to the English model Hisham . Especially with well-known personalities from the Maghreb, the French romanization has generally prevailed in the West, e.g. Habib Bourguiba , based on the phonetic model of the dialect pronunciation, and not the romanization according to the classical Arabic pronunciation, that for Bourguiba Abu Ruqaiba would be.
When spelling Arabic names, it should be noted that in the Arabic language there are only the vowel phonemes a, i and u and in Arabic only these are designated, if at all. The vowels "o" and "e" often found in books and newspapers are based on the actual pronunciation of these phonemes. This depends, among other things, on the adjacent consonantic phonemes. The vowel-phoneme “a” can be pronounced to an open “e” (or “ä”), the phoneme “i” to a closed “e” and the phoneme “u” to “o” (or “ö ") become. In the case of compound names, it should also be noted that the displacement of the vowel of the article by the ending of the preceding name component and the assimilation of the ending of the article with sun letters is partly taken over into the transcription and partly ignored.
The regional debates are also important. This is how the letter Djim (ج, Ǧīm ) pronounced like a German “g” in Egypt, but as “dsch” in other countries. The name of the former Egyptian president is used in German, English, French and other western languages in the form " Gamal Abdel Nasser ", whereas in Turkish, which has adopted these individual names from other Arabic dialects into its own language, in the form " Cemal Abdül Nasır ”reproduced.
Names and their meanings
|Amina||آمنة||Trustworthy / woman of peace and harmony|
|Alya||علياء||high / sublime|
|Basma||بسمة||Smile / the smiling one|
|Fatima , Fatime, Fatma||فاطمة||Weaned / weaned / weaned|
|Tariqa (Tareqa, Tarika, Tareka)||طارقة||Small bed (possibly also: Die Knpfende, as a counterpart to Tarek) (not very common first name)|
|Abd al- (Abdul)||عبد الـ ...||Servant of ...|
|Adil||عادل||Someone who obeys the law, just|
|Ahmad||أحمد||The more praiseworthy / praiseworthy|
|Ala 'ad-Din (Aladin)||علاء الدين||Nobility / sublimity of faith|
|Atif||عاطف||The friendly one|
|Khalid (Khalid)||خالد||infinite, immortal|
|Halil||حليل||A close friend|
|Hisham||هشام||The bread distributor|
|Ibrahim||إبراهيم||Leader (= Abraham)|
|Mustafa (Mustapha, Moustafa)||مصطفى||Chosen|
|Nasir ad-Din (Nasiruddin, Nasreddin)||ناصر الدين||Protector of Faith|
|Nizar||نزار||possibly from نزير (small, little)|
|Only ad-Din (Nureddin)||نور الدين||Light of faith|
|Ridwan||ﺭﺿﻭﺍﻥ||Guardian of Paradise|
|Salah ad-Din (Saladin)||صلاح الدين||Honor of Faith, Righteousness of Religion|
|Salih||صالح||Pious, according to the rules of religion|
|Salman||سلمان||the peaceful one|
|Shuʿaib||شعيب||Prophet, corresponds to the biblical Jitro|
|Tarek (Tareq, Tarık, Tariq, Tarik)||طارق||The knocking; the hammering one|
|Uthman (Osman)||عثمان||Cub / young animal|
- Wolfdietrich Fischer: name research . An international handbook of onomastics / An International Handbook of Onomastics / Manuel international d'onomastique. Ed .: Ernst Eichler , Gerold Hilty , Heinrich Löffler, Hugo Steger, Ladislav Zgusta. Volume 1. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1995, ISBN 978-3-11-011426-3 , 128. Arabic personal names , p. 873-875 (e-book ISBN 978-3-11-020342-4 ).
- Eric Geoffroy and Néfissa Geoffroy: Le grand livre des prénoms arabes. Plus de 5500 prénoms classés par thèmes avec leurs correspondances en français . Albin Michel, Paris 2009, ISBN 978-2-226-18299-9 .
- See H. Wehr: Arabic dictionary for the written language of the present , Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1968, p. 778.