The title Fellow (English for equals , companion , comrade or member ) denotes a member (not in the legal sense) belonging to the corporation in university operations and in other scientific associations.
German language area
In the German language indicates a Fellow belonging to a scientific institution or guest of honor member whose research activity at least partially from this alimented is, however, which has no employment or contractual relationship with it. One example is the Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin , which has been inviting around 40 fellows annually since 1981. Fellows also differ from professors in that they are generally exempt from teaching and are hardly subject to institutional goals and constraints with regard to the scope, content and results of their research work.
English speaking area
The term has its origins in the English-speaking world, from which it was adopted in the course of the politically desired internationalization of European science (see also Bologna Process ).
In British academic parlance, a fellow means a scholar who is funded by a college or university for the purpose of research and / or teaching . However, not all of these people actually hold the title of "Fellow" and it is difficult to be precise about the use of this title. In the newer universities, research grants, which are almost always interim positions, are awarded to those who have completed a doctorate . (Younger graduates are usually appointed research assistants ; academics with permanent salaries are often appointed lecturers .)
In the older UK universities, many Fellows have pastoral responsibilities for the students in their universities. For example, at Cambridge University, Fellows are among the oldest academic staff in college. They are not only responsible for teaching, research and the pastoral care of the students; they also form a council to assist the Masters (or equivalent, e.g. the director of Homerton College, Cambridge ).
The term fellow is also used for elected members of British learned societies. These also lead it as an addition to the name , e.g. E.g .: Sir Alec Jeffreys FRS ( Fellow of the Royal Society ). Other fellows in this area are Fellow of the British Academy (FBA), Fellow of Imperial College (FIC), Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences (FMedSci) and Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering (FREng).
Scientific communities and companies
The term fellow can also mean scholarship holder . Here, too, the term is usually used for “advanced” or experienced professionals - in contrast to schoolchildren or bachelor students. Most of the time the term Fellow - or derived from it Fellowship - is used in an academic context (e.g. Fulbright Fellow ). However, it can also be independent of this (e.g. Guggenheim Fellowship , which is also awarded to artists). This designation can be found primarily in scientific societies such as the American Physical Society (APS Fellow), the Optical Society of America (OSA Fellow) or the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ( IEEE Fellow ).
Analogous to these companies, larger companies also use the title Fellow, for example Bell Labs (Bell Labs Fellow), Boston Scientific (Boston Scientific Fellow), IBM ( IBM Fellow ) or Intel (Intel Fellow). This title generally corresponds to the highest achievable position in a technical career, i.e. an activity in research and development, and can only be achieved after many years of service in the company. Sometimes these academic staff can "temporarily determine their research tasks independently and regardless of commercial company interests".
Another example is the International Atomic Energy Agency , in which visiting scientists from the member states are called “Fellows” and receive payments from the IAEA for the duration of their stay.