Ryckgraben (upper course)
Boat trip on the Ryck near Wieck
|Water code||DE : 9656|
|location||Germany , Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania|
|Drain over||Greifswalder Bodden → Baltic Sea|
|River basin district||Warnow / Peene|
(municipality of Sundhagen )
|muzzle||Greifswald in the district Wieck in the Greifswald ( Danish Wiek ) with 30.66 km
|Catchment area||234 km²|
|Left tributaries||Rienegraben, Kohlgraben|
|Right tributaries||Schwedengraben , Bachgraben, Brandteichgraben, Ketscherinbach|
|Ports||Greifswald city center (museum harbor) and Greifswald-Wieck|
|Navigable||the last 5.5 km from Steinbecker Brücke / Greifswald (museum harbor)|
The Ryck (pronounced [ʀɪk] ) is a 30.7 km long river in the east of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania ( Germany ), which flows into the Danish Wiek near Greifswald as part of the Greifswald Bodden ( Baltic Sea ).
The name is derived from the Slavic word Rjeka or Rĕka for "river". In documents from the 13th century, the names "Reke" and "Hilda" (like the original name of the neighboring monastery Eldena ) are mentioned. "Hilda" is the oldest known name of the river; a document from 1241 refers to the "Hildam fluvium". Although the oldest documented mention of the monastery as "Hilda" is from 1199 and therefore older, it can nevertheless be assumed that the monastery was named after the river and not the other way around.
The Ryck rises in the district of Vorpommern-Rügen as Ryckgraben. This in turn has a hydrological and a name origin. The hydrological origin lies in the northwestern part, Bremerhagen Forst , of the village of Bremerhagen in the municipality of Sundhagen . The nameless body of water that rises there flows westwards and then southwards and meets the Ryckgraben in the south-east of Hohenwarth ( near Grimmen ). This branches off at the Heidebrink residential area in Grimmen from Schwedengraben , which in turn joins Ryckgraben at the bridge of the B 96 .
The Ryckgraben flows from the junction of the hydrological and nominal upper reaches in eastern directions. Its water level is a few kilometers long at 20 cm below sea level , held by a pumping station south of Horst . 9.9 km before it flows into the sea, the body of water reaches the city limits of Greifswald and is called Ryck from here on . From the Greifswald home animal park, the Ryck is included in the Greifswald fortifications . Then the Ryck passes a weir , then passes under a railway bridge and immediately afterwards the Steinbeck bridge with Stralsunder Straße. From here it is navigable for the last five kilometers to the sea. Here it also forms part of the Greifswald harbor, which is only a museum harbor in front of the old town. In the Wieck district it is spanned by the historic Wieck wooden bascule bridge . This is followed by facilities for recreational shipping by yacht clubs and the storm surge barrier newly built in the 2010s . Then it flows into the Danish Wiek , the southern part of the Greifswalder Bodden . The catchment area of the Ryck covers around 23,400 hectares.
Originally there was the Boltenhäger pond, also called Ryckteich, which the Ryck flowed through in the north-west of Greifswald, which was first mentioned in 1288. The pond was a relatively shallow body of water that finally dried up completely in the 19th century.
In the north of Greifswald there was also the Baberow , one of the tributaries of the Ryck at that time.
Old and new lows
Before its mouth ( Neues Tief ) was moved north around 1300, the Ryck flowed into the Danish Wiek (Altes Tief) directly north of the Eldena Monastery in the area of today's Eldena bathing area . The two estuary arms existed side by side for over 250 years; The Old Deep was only closed in the second half of the 16th century to prevent the Ryck from silting up. Most of the lido itself was only expanded to its present size in 1971/1972 by washing up sea sand.
Classification under water law
For the most part, the Ryck is a second-order body of water within the meaning of Section 48 Paragraph 1 No. 2 of the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania State Water Act (LWaG MV), only the last 5.5 km are first-order bodies of water according to Section 48 Paragraph 1 No. 1 and is considered a federal waterway .
The Ryck is assigned to the “Warnow / Peene” river basin district in accordance with Section 1b (1) No. 10 WHG , Section 130 (1) No. 4 LWaG MV.
The river is the responsibility of the Ryck-Ziese Water and Soil Association .
The navigable part of the Ryck (Ry) from eastern edge of the stone Becker bridge in Greifswald (km 25.11) is a federal waterway of class IV. This 5.5 km-long section is in accordance with § 1 para. 1 no. 20 SeeSchStrO a waterway on to which the Maritime Regulations apply; it falls within the area of responsibility of the Stralsund Waterways and Shipping Office .
As an economic factor, the Ryck was already of great importance for the then still young city of Greifswald in the Middle Ages; However, even then the Ryck was only navigable from the area of today's museum harbor and never achieved relevance for domestic trade. The port of Greifswald, which was built at the end of the 13th century and initially the only one, was therefore a seaport . Through him, the city had connections to the large Baltic Sea ports, received Lübsch city charter in 1250 and became a member of the Hanseatic League in 1278 . Then around the year 1300 the Wieck harbor was created; In this context, the Ryck estuary was also straightened (see above). As early as the 14th and then in the 15th century, Ryck and Greifswalder Hafen no longer met the requirements of shipping traffic, because - unlike the ports in Stralsund, Wismar or Rostock - it silted up. Even then, the course of the river had to be regularly cleaned and deepened. When the importance of the Hanseatic League declined at the end of the 17th century, the port was neglected for over 150 years. The water depth was less than two meters, so that the large ships could only dock in Wieck. From 1858 the river was expanded into a modern waterway 56 meters wide and 3.2 meters deep. Today the ports of Greifswald and Wieck only play a subordinate role economically and are mainly used for recreational shipping. The former city harbor was expanded into a museum harbor and is connected to Wieck and Ludwigsburg by a ferry . The former Greifswald saltworks to the north of it, which was decisive for the founding of the city in the Middle Ages and an important economic factor for a long time, was used excessively as a garbage dump, especially in the 1970s and 1980s. In the 1990s, this use was ended and after security work, earth was poured in, so that a striking hilly landscape was created, which is grazed by a flock of sheep.
The Ryck landscape is characterized by meadows, the numerous small watercourses of which feed the river. The Ryck has only a very slight gradient and therefore only a low flow velocity. While only 0.8 to 1.5 meters of water depth is measured on the upper reaches, the navigable part is around four meters deep; The river is only navigable from the western outskirts of Greifswald to the mouth near the Wieck district. From Wackerow and the western Greifswalder Feldmark, the river to the Greifswald district of Wieck is diked on both sides and thus cut off from the former floodplains (salt marshes and saline north of Greifswald's old town). The water level is regulated by a sluice and a pumping station at the height of the Hunnenstrasse. The south side of the Ryck is almost completely built up on its six-kilometer-long course through Greifswald, whereas on its north side between the sparsely developed districts of Steinbeckervorstadt and Wieck there is an extensive meadow landscape with the Ladebower Loch , which was built until the dike in the 1950s The old arm of the Ryck was and has been a protected landscape component since 1994 .
Before it was placed under protection, the Ladebower Loch was used several times as a rinsing area for excavator excavation from the Wieck harbor area. Since the end of 2007, the Ryck has been dredging from the museum harbor to the Wieck harbor, in order to deepen the river, which has been drained to a depth of three meters since it was last dredged over twenty years ago, to four meters. An area east of the Ryck forest now serves as the rinsing area.
Flood protection with barrage
In certain weather conditions, especially with a north-easterly wind, the Bodden water pushes far into the Greifswald city area. Particularly endangered areas were only diked in the 19th or 20th century, at least after 1847.
The first flood protection work in the Greifswald area began in September 2008 , when a dike was built in Eldena . The long-planned storm surge barrier at the mouth of the Ryck was inaugurated on April 27, 2016 after six years of construction. This will protect the lower-lying building plots in the Hanseatic City of Greifswald from flooding by storm floods . The barrage uses a rotating segment with a horizontal axis, which closes the course of the river at water levels above 5.7 m and a forecast of 1.10 m above mean water. The completion of the dyke system in Greifswald-Wieck and Eldena is connected with the construction of the barrage. The construction of the barrage with the corresponding dike connection, one of the largest projects in the general plan for coastal and flood protection in the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, cost 42 million euros.
With the construction of the barrage, the width of the entrance to Wiecker Hafen was narrowed from 60 to 21 meters. This increases the flow speed and increases the difficulty of entering sailboats under sails.
The most important river crossings from west to east are the bridges for the federal highways B 96 and B 105 , the railway line to Stralsund, the Greifswalder Hafenbahn, the bridge on Steinbecker- / Stralsunder Straße in Greifswald, and the bascule bridge in the Wieck district. This bridge dates from 1887 and is still opened by hand. The railway bridge of the port railway to the Ladebow seaport has recently been replaced by a new building, which went into operation on January 15, 2014.
The Ryck is fed by drainage ditches and the following known and / or classified waters.
- The water and soil association Ryck-Ziese uses two types of water body names. Those entered in this table have been in his map series, which is subdivided according to member communities, for several years. The associated tables of the association also contain the numbers subdivided with dots, which have been transferred to the water portal of the State Office for Nature Conservation and Geology (LUNG). -
|Surname||GKZ||WBV-NO.||Estuary to the Ryck estuary||page||Note on the mouth||Length of water||Location of the source||Remarks|
|Ryckgraben ( WBV )||9656 (11)||No. 20||Source 30.7 km||Quellbach||Bremerhagen Forest ( Sundhagen )|
|Ryckgraben ( DTK )||965611…
|No. 20/1/1, No. 21/2||26.7 km||right||straight continuation||1.8 km||near Heidebrink ( Grimmen )||
750 m W → Schwedengraben (eastern part, km 5.5),
1050 m E → Quellbach
|No. 21||23.4 km||right||at B 96||8 kilometers||Grim||Pseudobifurcation : 8.4 km E → Ryck, 0.75 km W → Trebel|
|(Horst pumping station)||19.3 km||Pumping station in the course of the Ryck trench|
|Neuendorfer Graben (name including longer tributary)||96562||No. 22||21.5 km||right||6.79 km||between triangle A 20 / B 96 and Wüsteney|
|965622||No. 22/1||(22.5 km)||right||in 96562 at 1 km||1.0 + 6.7 = 7.7||Klein Bisdorf (to Süderholz )|
|(Land and) stream ditches||96564||No. 24||19.0 km||right||13.5 km||between Dersekow , Hinrichshagen and Subzow|
|Rienegraben||96566||No. 16||16.6 km||Left||west of Groß Petershagen||12.5 km||Hildebrandshagen (to Sundhagen - Behnkendorf ); EZG = 40.3 km²|
|-||965674||No. 18||11.6 km||right||Pumping station||5.6 km||Griebenow (to Süderholz )||at km 5.1 tributaries from the castle park|
|-||965675 ...||No. 19||10.6 km||right||approx. 3.5 km||Old disgrace|
|-||965675 ...||No. 21||9.9 km||right||Dam river||approx. 4 km||between old and new disgrace||Lower course at Greifswald city limits|
|-||965676||No. 23||9.2 km||right||Dam river||5.9 km||east of Zubzow||from smaller rivulets|
|Fire pond ditch||965678||No. 24||8.8 km||right||Pumping station||5.5 km||Helmshagen 2|
(plus upper course)
|96568||No. 25||4.8 km||right||10.4 km||south of Potthagen||southern and eastern part of the city moat|
|Kohlgraben||965692||No. 12||3.2 km||Left||Dam river||8.815 km||north of Dreizehnhausen||from long drainage ditches|
|Ketscherinbach||965693||No. 26||1.3 km||right||4.99 km||in the case of the LUNG without taking into account underground connected upper reaches; at the WBV with upper reaches (26/1, 26/2)|
- GAIA-MV, Topics: Water and Terrain MV , UTM Zone 33N H = 3378012 R = 6002232
- Lengths (in km) of the main shipping lanes (main routes and certain secondary routes) of the federal inland waterways ( Memento of the original from January 21, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Federal Waterways and Shipping Administration
- Doreen Gehrke, Maria-Theresia Schafmeister, Tammo Meyer, AG Applied Geology / Hydrogeology, Institute for Geography and Geology: Hydrogeological planning documents - geographic information system “catchment area Ryck”. ( Page no longer available , search in web archives )
- Thomas Brück: The Greifswalder shipping in the late Middle Ages and in the early modern period (1250 to 1774). In: Horst Wernicke (Ed.): Greifswald. History of the city. Schwerin 2000, p. 235.
- Teodolius Witkowski: The place names of the Greifswald district. Weimar 1978, p. 53 f.
- Günter Martens, Hans-Georg Wenghöfer, Peter Zorn: Expansion of the Greifswald city ditch. In: wwt . 32, 1982, p. 240 f.
- Dietrich Rahn: The place and field names of the city and district of Greifswald. Their origins and their significance for Pomeranian local history. also dissertation, University of Greifswald 1923, p. 34.
- Thomas Brück: The Greifswalder Schiffahrt in the late Middle Ages and in the early modern period (1250 to 1774). In: Horst Wernicke (Ed.): Greifswald. History of the city. Schwerin 2000, p. 236; see also the illustration in Lutz Mohr: A foray and guide through the Greifswald districts of Eldena and Friedrichshagen in the past and present. 2nd Edition. Greifswald 1979, p. 82.
- Thomas Brück: The Greifswalder Schiffahrt in the late Middle Ages and in the early modern period (1250 to 1774). In: Horst Wernicke (Ed.): Greifswald. History of the city. Schwerin 2000, pp. 237, 241, 249.
- Lutz Mohr: A foray and guide through the Greifswald districts of Eldena and Friedrichshagen in the past and present. 2nd Edition. Greifswald 1979, p. 41.
- The river basin units of Germany according to the WHG ( Memento from May 18, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- Directory E, serial no. 50 of the Chronicle ( Memento of the original from September 16, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Federal Waterways and Shipping Administration
- Thomas Brück: The Greifswalder Schiffahrt in the late Middle Ages and in the early modern period (1250 to 1774). In: Horst Wernicke (Ed.): Greifswald. History of the city. Schwerin 2000, p. 236; Lutz Mohr: A foray and guide through the Greifswald districts of Eldena and Friedrichshagen in the past and present. 2nd Edition. Greifswald 1979, p. 21.
- Detlef Kattinger: The urban development from the end of the 13th century to 1500. In: Horst Wernicke (Hrsg.): Greifswald. History of the city. Schwerin 2000, p. 37 f .; Thomas Brück: The Greifswald shipping in the late Middle Ages and in the early modern period (1250 to 1774). In: Horst Wernicke (Ed.): Greifswald. History of the city. Schwerin 2000, pp. 235, 241.
- State Office for Agriculture and Environment Western Pomerania ( Memento of the original from June 9, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- State Office for Agriculture and Environment Western Pomerania ( Memento of the original from June 9, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ; Page no longer available , search in web archives: Greifswald receives barrage to protect against storm floods (August 1, 2008); Greifswald barrage
- Function of the Greifswald barrage ( memento of the original from April 23, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Coastal protection for Greifswald in operation. In: Daily port report . April 28, 2016, p. 4.
- Geodata viewer of the Office for Geoinformation, Surveying and Cadastre of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania ( information )
- For inexplicable reasons, WBV Ryck-Ziese uses No. 24 in parallel for two different bodies of water, see also list of bodies of water 2016.
- Bachgraben (after http://www.gaia-mv.de/gaia/gaia.php GAIA-MV, topics: topographical background and water ):, 13.5 km long, source between Dersekow, Hinrichshagen and Subzow, just under 30 m above sea level NHN, flows south and west around Griebenow, crosses the B 109 6.3 km before the mouth and flows at 4.5 km from the mouth through Kreutzmannshagen.
- M. Eckoldt (ed.): Rivers and canals. The history of the German waterways. DSV-Verlag, Hamburg 1998, ISBN 3-88412-243-6 .
- Thomas Brück: The Greifswald shipping in the late Middle Ages and in the early modern period (1250 to 1774). In: Horst Wernicke (Ed.): Greifswald. History of the city. Helms, Schwerin 2000, ISBN 3-931185-56-7 , pp. 235-251.