noise protection

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The articles Noise , Noise Protection , Sound Protection , Noise Abatement and Noise Remediation thematically overlap. Help me to better differentiate or merge the articles (→  instructions ) . To do this, take part in the relevant redundancy discussion . Please remove this module only after the redundancy has been completely processed and do not forget to include the relevant entry on the redundancy discussion page{{ Done | 1 = ~~~~}}to mark. Kai Kemmann ( discussion ) - Improving instead of deleting : Encyclopedia is ancient Greek for "comprehensive" - 19:42, 23 Dec. 2019 (CET)

Noise protection includes all noise abatement measures and is part of immission control . It is intended to ensure the well-being of people and animals with regard to noise. The noise abatement measures focus on protection against environmental noise ( aircraft noise , road traffic noise , rail traffic noise , industrial noise ), leisure noise and disturbance of the peace .

The term noise is not synonymous with sound . Sound is a measurable quantity. Only through non-measurable individual or socio-cultural aspects does disturbing sound become noise.

Noise protection is an important part of occupational safety and environmental protection . It should protect against physical, mental and material damage:


In addition to the term noise abatement , which expresses active action, a distinction is made in some countries between noise precaution - i.e. preventive measures - and noise abatement .


Train traffic noise protection wall made of metal elements

Spatial approach

A distinction is made in the spatial approach to noise abatement:

In the case of traffic noise, both types of noise abatement can be found as examples: Whispering surfaces have a noise-reducing effect on road traffic noise , soundproof walls have a noise-protecting effect on road and rail traffic noise .

Technological approach

The technological approach to noise abatement distinguishes between:

  • directly generated airborne sound (primary mechanisms) and
  • indirectly generated airborne sound (secondary mechanisms)

Directly generated airborne sound occurs without the involvement of structure-borne sound ; z. B. in a jet engine. In the case of indirectly generated air-borne sound, structure-borne sound is initially generated in a structure by a force excitation. This propagates in the structure. Airborne sound is then emitted by vibrations on the surface of the structure.

In the case of directly generated airborne sound, the turbulence in the air must be kept low in order to reduce noise. It is particularly important to ensure that components are not subjected to turbulent flow; see aeroacoustics . Measures at the source of noise emissions are the most effective. These include sound absorption , sound blockade (e.g. through noise barriers , noise barriers ) and the use of anti- noise . Technical measures are based on the sound level (especially the sound pressure level ), the duration of the effect, the pitch , the tonality and the impulsiveness .

When indirectly generated airborne sound, z. B. in the case of resonances , can be started at different points. First of all, the force curve can be influenced in such a way that it excites as few natural frequencies of the component as possible . This is always the case when there are no steep force jumps or force peaks. Furthermore, the input impedance of the component can be increased, e.g. B. by increased mass at the force introduction point. Finally, the structure itself can be damped, e.g. B. by anti-drumming with heavy mats or sandwich sheets.

Psychological approach

A change in the behavior of operators of noise-generating devices and systems is part of noise abatement. It is used to clarify, prepare and evaluate noise abatement measures and can B. cause the abandonment of noise-generating devices or replacement with low-noise devices.

The Day Against Noise - International Noise Awareness Day - has been held annually in April since 1998 . The date is based on International Noise Awareness Day in the USA and takes place worldwide on the same day. Meanwhile in Europe u. a. Austria, Switzerland and Spain involved. In Germany, the German Society for Acoustics (DEGA) uses this annual day of action to inform the public about noise and its causes and effects. The day of action is organized by the DEGA Noise Working Group (ALD) and the DEGA specialist committees "Noise: Effects and Protection" and "Hearing Acoustics".

Legal regulations


The statutory regulations on noise protection serve to balance the interests of those who cause noise (such as system operators) and the neighborhood concerned. The Federal Immission Control Act (BImSchG) and the subordinate ordinances are essentially relevant for the various types of noise . These include:

Separate legal regulations apply to aircraft noise. B. are anchored in the law on protection against aircraft noise . The so-called “Leisure Noise Directive” has been introduced in various federal states to assess leisure noise. This applies to the area of ​​leisure noise, which is not already regulated as sports noise by the 18th BImSchV.

Noise in the workplace is covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Act and the Noise and Vibration Occupational Safety and Health Ordinance.

Often these regulations do not contain limit values, but guide values ​​and orientation values ​​from which deviations can be made in individual cases. Each source of noise is considered separately. A comprehensive assessment of traffic noise is described in VDI guideline 3722.

Germany has also recognized noise protection as an environmental problem and anchored it in its environmental policy, and with its concerns about noise protection is following the principle of sustainability . The responsible department is the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety .


In Switzerland, noise protection is known as noise remediation and is carried out centrally by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN). The following principles apply:

  • Assessment principle - classification according to limit values ​​and sensitivity levels
  • Source principle - combating causes instead of symptoms
  • Precautionary principle - enactment of legal bases, e.g. B. Prohibition or non-approval of loud vehicles
  • Renovation principle - differentiation between private and public systems
  • Polluter pays principle - In principle , costs must be borne by the polluter
  • Cooperation principle - cooperation between all organizations and bodies

When it comes to railroad noise, the renovation of the chassis has top priority.

With regard to noise protection in the workplace, the Swiss Accident Insurance Agency has published limit and guide values. These also contain recommendations for measures to reduce noise pollution in the workplace.

European Union

At the European level, the Environmental Noise Directive (2002/49 / EC) was passed in 2002, which has been implemented differently in the member states. This applies in particular to noise mapping and noise action planning.

By June 30, 2007, strategic noise maps had to be drawn up for metropolitan areas (> 250,000 inhabitants), main roads (> 6 million vehicles / year), main railway lines (> 60,000 trains / year) and major airports (> 50,000 aircraft movements / year).

In Germany, at noise levels of more than 65 dB (A) on a daily average, according to mapping from 2007, around 700,000 people were found to be affected along main roads. The maps and the numbers affected as well as other results had to be reported to the EU.

By July 18, 2008, the responsible authorities had to draw up action plans to deal with identified noise problems. Based on the next level of noise mapping, the process had to be repeated up to July 18, 2013. A check must then be carried out every 5 years to determine whether a new list has to be made. The involvement of the public in the process of noise action planning is required by law.

As part of the noise action planning, some problems arose during implementation in the first stage. The period between the noise mapping and the drawing up of the noise action plans was assessed as too short, especially under the aspect of public participation. The values ​​that serve to trigger action plans could be freely chosen, which did not result in a nationwide uniform procedure. In particular, smaller communities were mostly overwhelmed with the installation. This is also due to the fact that smaller municipalities often do not have the heavily trafficked roads under their construction load and are therefore responsible for them, but should ultimately set up measures for them. According to the experience reports available so far, some terms are vague or not defined at all. So z. B. "Quiet areas" are designated without a clear definition. It was criticized that the action plans are not legally binding. For example, there are already limit values ​​to be complied with for the construction of new (or expansion of existing) systems for road construction agencies; these do not exist for measures on other existing roads or railways. However, since noise action plans primarily relate to existing systems, there is no legal basis for implementing measures. The expectations that were often generated in the population could therefore not be met.

Nevertheless, the noise action planning also achieved successes:

  • The topic was often brought into focus for the first time in the municipalities and the administration in the municipalities was made aware of how to deal with the problem.
  • The federal government made more funds available for noise abatement programs for existing federal highways and railways.
  • In the economic stimulus package II , a total of 3.5 billion euros were made available for the investment focus infrastructure in the municipalities and states, which could also be used for noise protection measures on municipal roads.
  • With the National Traffic Noise Protection Package II, a declaration of intent was given to lower the trigger values ​​for noise remediation on federal highways by 3 dB. This lowering of the action values ​​took place in 2010.

In a second stage, noise maps should be drawn up again by June 30, 2012, with the limits for areas to be mapped largely being lowered. This applied to metropolitan areas (> 100,000 inhabitants), main roads (> 3 million vehicles / year) and main railway lines (> 30,000 trains / year). At the major airports, the limit remained at 50,000 aircraft movements per year.

See also


Individual evidence

  1. Action page for the Day Against Noise
  2. Guideline for traffic noise protection on federal highways in the federal construction load: VLärmSchR 97 ( Memento of the original from February 22, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , May 27, 1997. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  3. Noise protection in the tension triangle: Affected between law and politics , by Frank M. Rauch, Zeitschrift für Immissionsschutz , issue 2/2015, page 72 ff.
  4. Noise protection at the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety
  5. Acoustic limits and guidelines from the Swiss Accident Insurance Fund
  6. Lecture on noise action planning by the UBA in Düsseldorf ( Memento of the original from December 13, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  7. Report on the experiences from the implementation of the first phase of noise mapping and action planning compiled by the ad hoc working group “Implementation experiences with noise reduction planning” ( Memento of the original from July 9, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , offline @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  8. Answer of the Federal Government: Traffic noise protection on federal highways , March 16, 2011.