Yield (agriculture)

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In agriculture, yield is the amount of agricultural products obtained through agricultural production.


Today's concept of income in business administration and economics originally comes from agriculture. The yield is created here through the harvest of agricultural products growing on agricultural land . In agricultural statistics, the harvest yield is the harvested harvest for crops and grassland , converted to 14% moisture for grain , the marketable product for vegetables and fruit and the harvested harvest for wine . The soil yield was and is measured in units of measure such as pieces , kilograms , hundredweight or tons . The productivity results from the ratio of the yield to the agricultural area ( area yield ), which is usually given in hectares ( hectare yield ). This is highest with intensive land use or industrial agriculture .

economic aspects

Alexander von Lengerke defined the agricultural yield in 1837 as follows: “In the agricultural sense, one calls the value or the quantity of the products of the fields and meadows, the benefit from cattle breeding, but also any profit from any agricultural branch.” A broad definition followed 1878 in an encyclopedia: "Yield in the agricultural sense is the amount or the monetary value of the products of the land, livestock and ancillary trades of all kinds ..." , Cattle, sheep or pig breeding, mills, distilleries, brickworks, quarries, gravel pits and peat bogs.

For example, the harvest yield of potatoes shows how productivity is changing and how the weather influences . Were per hectare in 2008, a total of 437.6 quintals harvested in Germany, there were 2,017 dt around 467.9. The following year, 2018, the yield per hectare with 353.8 dt fell 24% lower than the yield per hectare from 2017, what with the drought in Summer 2018 related. A change in the agricultural area has no effect because the hectare yield is measured.


To measure productivity, the yields per hectare are calculated. In northern Germany, the desirable yields for winter wheat are around 90 dt / ha, so that 90 dt = 9 t of wheat were harvested from one hectare . Since the summer forms of the cereal species have less time for their development, their yields are below those of the winter crops . The higher yield level is also the reason for the predominant cultivation of winter cereals. If you add up the summer and winter harvests, you get the total yield. This grain yield averaged worldwide in 2017 at 3586 kilograms per hectare, which was just achieved by Myanmar or Guiana . Countries above this average have a correspondingly higher productivity:

country Grain yield /
hectare 2017
Saint Vincent GrenadinesSt. Vincent and the Grenadines St. Vincent and the Grenadines 26110
United Arab EmiratesUnited Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 23576
OmanOman Oman 12964
BelgiumBelgium Belgium 9051
BahamasBahamas Bahamas 8818
NetherlandsNetherlands Netherlands 8794
IrelandIreland Ireland 8785
New ZealandNew Zealand New Zealand 8464
United StatesUnited States United States 8281
New Caledonia 7849
EgyptEgypt Egypt 7311
GermanyGermany Germany 7270
United KingdomUnited Kingdom United Kingdom 7229
DenmarkDenmark Denmark 6917
FranceFrance France 6875
SwitzerlandSwitzerland Switzerland 6800

Small states like St. Vincent and the Grenadines or Oman are therefore the most productive .

In the 2017/2018 season, the grain yield per hectare by type of grain was around 5.6 tons / hectare for maize , 4.6 tons / hectare for rice , 3.5 tons / hectare for wheat and 3.0 tons / hectare for barley . Due to the high yield, maize is the most harvestable type of grain in the world.

Individual evidence

  1. Alexander von Lengerke, Landwirthschaftliches Conversations-Lexikon for practitioners and laypeople , Volume 1, 1837, p. 842
  2. Karl Josef Eugen Birnbaum / Eugen Werner (eds.), Thiel's landwirthschaftliches Konversations-Lexikon , Volume III, 1878, p. 689 f.
  3. Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Potato Harvest 2018: small amount - scarce market supply , 2019
  4. The Global Economy.com, Grain Yield Per Acre 2017 , 2019.Retrieved May 17, 2019
  5. Statista The Statistics Portal, grain yield per hectare of cultivated area of ​​the most important grain types worldwide in 2017/2018 , 2019