Fachschule , Fachakademie or Spezialschule denoted a type of school, especially from the late 18th century to the early 20th century, at which - in contrast to general education schools - vocational specialist knowledge was taught in a narrowly defined area, i.e. a vocational training school . Some technical schools still exist today. They also teach general education subjects.
They emerged at the end of the 18th century, when the previous training in the system with masters and journeymen was no longer sufficient to impart the required theoretical knowledge. They were initially called special schools. The first were founded in France under Napoleon . At around the same time, numerous special schools were founded in Austria under Maria Theresa . In general, at the end of the 18th century there was a change in many terms from special to specialist. For example, the specialist became a specialist and the specialist teacher became a specialist teacher. In this context, the name changed from special to technical school. They include the construction schools that Baugewerkschule that trade schools , the mountain schools and mining academies , the trade schools , School of Applied Arts , Textile College , military academies and training schools , naval schools and academies , and agricultural schools and in the broadest sense, the polytechnics and technical colleges , the latter two and the mountain academies (but not the mountain school) were rarely referred to as technical schools. This was mostly understood to mean a medium to low level of education, which also contributed to the fact that the term has largely disappeared over time. The technical universities, technical colleges and mining academies, on the other hand, were mostly at a level that corresponded to that of a university . Until the early 20th century, the technical schools were contrasted with the so-called educational schools . This meant the general schools, i.e. the elementary school , the grammar school and the university. In the lexicon of pedagogy of 1913 it says: "The technical schools are the counterpart to the general school." In general, a distinction was long made between lower, middle and higher technical schools. Over time, however, the term narrowed more and more towards lower schools, so that higher technical schools, which were officially called technical schools, were often renamed because they felt the name was too low. In the 20th century, for example, technical universities often became technical universities or universities. In 1937, the term was narrowed again in Germany by decree: the technical schools that replaced a master craftsman's apprenticeship in whole or in part were renamed vocational schools . Medium-sized technical schools often renamed themselves engineering schools , as did the textile, construction and ceramic schools . In 1968, after protests by teachers and students who felt that the name was too low, they were renamed the Fachhochschule. In contemporary literature, the opinion was often expressed that the Austrian state technical school in particular contributed to understanding technical school as a rather lower school.
Today's technical schools
Today one understands by technical school or academy:
- Technical school (Germany) , institutions for professional development (technical school studies)
Technical school in particular:
- Vocational middle school (BMS, Austria), especially the technical, commercial and arts and crafts 4-year vocational training
- Higher technical school (Switzerland) (HF), a type of higher vocational education
Technical academy in particular:
- Fachakademie (Bavaria) , study facilities for a technical college course
- Fachakademie (Austria) , a school similar to the foremen's school for the master craftsman's examination in some industries
- Gustav Grüner: Development of technical schools in Laetitio Boehm, Charlotte Schönbeck (ed.): Technology and education , pp. 175–201, (Volume 4 by: Armin Hermann, Wilhelm Dettmering (ed.): Technology and culture , Düsseldorf, VDI -Publisher, 1989.)